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QUADRILLE (German Contretanz), a dance 
execated by an equal number of couples 
drawn up in a square. The name (which is 
derired from the Italian aquadra) was originally 
not aolely applied to dances, but was used to 
denote a small company or squadron of horse- 
meu, from three to fifteen in number, magnifi- 
ceDtly mounted and caparisoned to take part 
iii a tournament or carousal. The name was 
next given to four, six, eight, or twelve dancers, 
dressed alike, who danced in one or more com- 
panies in the elaborate French ballets ^ of the 
18th century. The introduction of ' contre- 
dauses ' into the ballet, which first took place 
in the fifth act of Rousseau's ' F^tes de Polymnie ' 
(1745), and the consequent popularity of these 
dances, are the origin of the dance which, at 
first known as the ' Quadrille de Contredanses,' 
was soon abbreviated into ' quadrille.' [The use 
of the Spanish equivalent, cuadrUlay for the 
party of four banderilleros associated with each 
torero in a bull-fight, and the familiar name of 
a card -game onoe very popular, may be men- 
tioned.] The quadrille was settled in its pre- 
sent shape at the beginning of the 19th century, 
and it has undergone but little change, save 
in the simplification of its steps. It was very 
popular in Paris during the Consulate and the 
first Empire, and after the fall of Napoleon was 
brought to England by Lady Jersey, who in 
1815 danced it for the first time at Almack's' 
%nth Lady Harriet Butler, Lady Susan Ryde, 
Miss Montgomery, Count St. Aldegonde, Mr. 
Montgomery, Mr. Montague, and Mr. Standish. 
The English took it up with the same eagerness 
which they displayed with regard to the polka 
in 1845, and the caricatures of the period 
abound witb amusing illustrations of the quad- 
rille mania. It became popular in Berlin in 

The quadrille consists of five distinct parts, 
which bear the name of the * contredanses ' to 
which they owe their origin. No. 1 is *Le 
Pantalon, ' the name of which is derived from a 
song which began as follows : 

* Tlw BkOeU «crediTld«d into Ave «et«. each act Into three, irix, 
oijw. or tvelv* ' entrta.' amd each * mtrfo ' waa perftnmed by one or 
Ban ' qnadrfllea ' of daacera. 

> iM Ckptaln Gronow'a JlnfrfniseenoM (1881). 

VOL. IV ] 

Le pantalon 
De MadelOD 
N'a pas de fond, 

and was adapted to the dance. The music 
consists of. 32 bars in 6-8 time. No. 2 is 

* L'Ete,' the name of a very difi&cult and grace- 
ful ' contredanse ' popular in the year 1800 ; it 
consists of 32 bars in 2-4 time. No. 3 is ' La 
Poule ' (32 bars in 6-8 time) which dates from 
the year 1802. For No. 4 (32 bars in 2-4 time) 
two figures are danced, *La Tr^nise,' named 
after the celebrated dancer Trenitz, and 'La 
Pastourelle,' perhaps a survival of the old 

* Pastorale. ' No. 5 — ' Finale ' — consists of three 
parts repeated four times. In all these figures 
(except the Finale, which sometimes ends with 
a coda) the dance begins at the ninth bar of the 
music, the first eight bars being repeated at the 
end by way of conclusion. The music of quadrilles 
is scarcely ever original ; operatic and popular 
tunes are strung together, and even the works 
of the great composers are sometimes made use 
of.3 The quadrilles of Musard are almost the 
only exception ; they may lay claim to some 
recognition as graceful original musical com- 
positions. "VV. B. 8. 

QUAGLIATI, Paolo, Iwrn about 1560, was 
a musician living in Rome, who in 1608 is indi- 
cated as holding the position of organist at the 
Liberian Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore. In 
1585 he edited acoUection of Spiritual Canzonets 
for three voices, containing, besides sixteen 
numbers by himself, some contributions by 
Marenzio, Nanino, and Giovanelli. His other 
publications before 1600 consist of two books 
of Secular Canzonets a 3. Two Canzonets a 4 
with cembalo and lute accompaniment appear 
in Verovio's collection of 1691, which has been 
recently republi.shed complete by Alfred Wot- 
quenne. After 1600 he appears to have followed 
with interest the twofold direction in music 
emanating from Florence and Venice respectively, 
the Florentine Stile rappresenialivo for solo 
voices, and the Venetian concerted style with 

1 Soma readen mmy recollect the clerer 'Bologna Qnadrillea' 
on themen from Rocatnl's ' Stabat Mater.' which wero published 
shortly- aiter the appearanoe of that work. The plates of these 
quRdiilles were destroyed on the publishers learning the source 
from which the author (popularly supposed to be J. W. Davison) 
had obtained the melodies. [Hans von Billow wrote a set of quad* 
rilles on airs from Berliox's ' Benvenuto CelHnl.1 




basso continuo. In 1606 he composed an o])era 
with libretto by his pupil Pietro della Valle, 
entitled * Garro di fedeltii d' amore,' which was 
performed on a Carnival car in the streets of 
Rome. It has five solo voices, and was published 
in 1611, with the addition of several Arie a 1-3. 
His other works are a book of Concerted Madri- 
gals a 4 for voices and instruments, with a 
separate book for Basso Continuo, some other 
books of Spiritual Madrigals a 1-3, and two 
books of Sacred Motets and Dialogues for two 
and three choirs in the concerted style with 
Basso Continue (Rome, 1612-27). In Diruta's 
' II Transilvano ' there appears a toccata by 
Quagliati for organ or clavier, which has been 
republished by L. Torchi in L*ArU Mitsicalc in 
Italia^ vol. iii. j. r. m. 

QUALITY. See Tone. 

QUANTITY. See Metre, vol. iii. p. 186. 

QUANTZ, JoHANN Joachim, celebrated flute- 
player and composer, bom, according to his 
autobiography in Marpuig's BeUrdgt sur Auf- 
Tiahrne der Musikf J aji. 30, 1697, at Oberscheden, 
a village between Gottingen and Miinden. His 
father, a blacksmith, urged him on his death-bed 
(1707) to follow the same calling, but, in his 
own words, * Providence, who disposes all for 
the best, soon pointed out a different path for 
my future.' From the age of eight he had been 
in the habit of playing the double-bass with his 
elder brother at village fStcs, and judging from 
this that he had a talent for music, his uncle 
Justus Quantz, Stadtmusikus of Merseburg, 
offered to bring him up as a musician. He 
went to Merseburg in August 1708,^ but his 
uncle did not long survive his father, and 
Quantz passed under the care of the new 
Stadtmusikus, Fleischhack, who had married 
his predecessor's daughter. For the next Ave 
and a half years he studied various instruments, 
Kiesewetter being his master for the pianoforte. 
In Dec. 1713 he was released from his ap- 
prenticeshii), and soon after became assistant, 
first to Knoll, Stadtmusikus of Radeberg, and 
then to Schalle of Pirna near Dresden. Here 
he studied Vivaldi's violin-concertos, and made 
the acquaintance of Heine, a musician in Dresden, 
with whom he went to live in March 1716. He 
now had opportunities of hearing great artists, 
such as Pisendel, Veracini, Sylvius Weiss, 
Richter and Buffardin, the flute- player. In 
1717 he went, during his three months' leave, 
to Vienna, and studied counterpoint with 
Zelenka, a pupil of Fux. In 1718 he entered 
the chapel of the King of Poland, which 
consisted of twelve players, and was stationed 
alternately in Warsaw and Dresden. His 
salary was 150 thalers, with free quarters 
in Warsaw, but finding no opportunity of 
distinguishing himself either on the oboe, the 
instrument for which he was engaged, or the 
violin, he took up the flute, studying it with 

1 Not 1707. M Mendel tUtea. 

Buffardin. In 1723 he went with Weiss to 
Prague, and the two played in Fux's opera 
'Costanzae Fortezza,* performed in honour of 
the coronation of Charles VI. Here also he 
heard Tartini. In 1724 Quantz accompanied 
Count Lagnasco to Italy, arriving in Rome on 
July 11, and going at once for lessons in 
counterpoint to Gaspai'ini, whom he describes 
as a ' good-natured and honourable man.' In 
1725 he went on to Naples, and there made 
the acquaintance of Scarlatti, Hasse, Mauciiii, 
Leo, Feo, and other musicians of a similar 
stamp. In May 1726 we find him in Reggio 
and Parma, whence he travelled by Milan, 
Turin, Geneva, and Lyons to Paris, arriving on 
August 15. In Paris — where his name was 
remembered* as 'Quouance' — he remained 
seven months, and occupied himself with con- 
triving improvements in the flute, the most 
important being the addition of a second key, 
as described by himself in his Versxwh eiiwr 
Amoeisufig die F/iite , , . zitspielaiy vol. iii. chap. 
58 (Berlin, 1752). He was at length recalled 
to Dresden, but first visited London for three 
months. He arrived there on March 20, 
1727, when Handel was at the very summit of 
his ojieratic career, with Faustina, Cuzzoni, 
Castrucci, Senesino, Attilio, and Tosi in his 
train. He returned to Dresden on July 23, 
1727, and in the following March re-en tered 
the chapel, and again devoted himself to the 
flute. During a visit to Berlin in 1728 the 
Crown Prince, afterwards Frederick the Great, 
was so charmed with his playing, that he 
determined to learn the flute, and in future 
Quantz went twice a year to give him instruc- 
tion. In 1741 his pupil, having succeeded to 
the throne, made him liberal oflers if he would 
settle in Berlin, which he did, remaining till 
his death on July 12, 1773. He was Kammer- 
mnsicus and court-composer, with a salary of 
2000 thalers, an additional payment for each 
composition, and 100 ducats for each flute 
which he supplied. His chief duties were to 
conduct the private concerto at the Palace, in 
which the king played the flute, and to compose 
pieces for his royal pupil. He left in MS. 300 
concertos [but see the Qti^llm-Lexikon^ p. 99, 
on this number] for one and two flutes — of 
which 277 are preserved in the Neue Palais at 
Potsdam — and 200 other pieces ; flute solos, 
and dozens of trios and quatuors, of which 61 
are to be found at Dresden. His printed works 
are three — * Sei Sonate ' dedicated to Augustus 
III. of Poland, op. 1, Dresden, 1734; *Sei 
duetti,' oj). 2, Berlin, 1769 ; Faix sonatas for two 
flutes, op. 8, of doubtful authenticity, London, 
Walsh ; five sonatas for flutes, also op. 8, 
Paris, Boi\in], a method for the flute — Versttck 
einer Anvocifning die FloU traversiire zu spiclen 
— dedicated to Frederick * Konige in Preussen,* 
Berlin, 1762, 4to, with twenty -four copper- 

> In Boivln's Oatalogw. 




plates. This passed through three (or four) 
German editions, and was also published in 
French and Dutcli. He left also a sei-enata, a 
few songs, music to twenty -two of Gellert's 
hymns, 'Nene Kirchenmelodien/ etc. (Berlin, 
1760), and an autobiography (in Maqiurg's 
Bcitrdge). Tliree of the Melodien ai-e given 
by von Winterfeld, Evang, Kircheng, iii. 272. 
Asides the key which he added to the flute, he 
invented the sliding top for tuning the instru- 
ment. His playing, which was unusually 
correct for the imperfect instruments of the 
day, delighted not only Frederick, but Mar- 
piirg, a more fastidious critic He married, not 
happily, in 1737 ; and died in easy circum- 
stances and generally respected at Potsdam, 
July 12, 1773. 

All details regarding him may be found in 
Lfben und Werken, etc, by his gi-andson Albert 
<^uantz (Berlin, 1877). f. q. 

QUARENGHI, Oucjlielmo, violoncellist and 
composer, bom at Casalmaggiore, Oct 22, 
182«, died at MiUn, Feb. 4, 1882. He studied 
at the Milan Conservatoire, 1839-42, occupied 
the post of first violoncello at the Scala Theatre 
in 1850 ; became professor of his instrument at 
the Milan Conservatoire in 1851, and in 1879 
Maestro di Cappella at the Milan Cathediul. 
As a composer he contributed an oyyevb. entitled 
'H didi Michel' ; published in 1863 some church 
music and transcriptions, as well as an inter- 
esting method for the violoncello ; a valuable 
treatise upon the origin of bow instruments 
precedes this Melodo di Violoncello (Milan, 
1876), in which he compares the earliest forms 
with the various barbaric and semi -barbaric 
instruments previously in use amongst primi- 
tive nations. In addition the author gives 
the 'Personaggi' of Monteverde's *Orfeo,' and 
the tuning of the earliest viola. — Riemann, 
Lejrihm ; Baker, Biog. Did, of Mu^. E. h-a. 

QUARLES, Charles, Mus.B., graduated at 
Cambridge in 1 6 98. He was organist of Trinity 
CoU^e, Cambridge, from 1688 to 1709. He 
was appointed oi^nist of York Minster, June 30, 
1722 ; and died at York early in 1727. * A 
Lesson * for the harpsichord by him was printed 
by Goodison about 1788. w. ii. H. 

QUART-GEIGK See Violin. 

QUART- POSAUNE. See Trombone. 

AND REVIEW, conducted by R M. Bacon 
of Norwich. [See vol. i. p. 181 ; vol. iii. p. 
680.J G. 

QUARTET (Fr. quaiuoT\ Ital. Quarmto). A 
composition for four solo instruments or voices. 

L With regard to instrumental quartets the 
favourite combination has naturally been always 
that of two violins, viola, and violoncello, the 
chief representatives since the days of Monte- 
vcrde of soprano, alto, tenor, and bass, in the 
orchestra: in fact, when 'quartet' only is sjwken 
of, the 'stringquartet * is generally understood ; 

any other combination being more fully particu- 
larised ; and it is to the string quartet we will 
turn our principal attention. The origin of the 
quartet was the invention of four-i>art harmony, 
but it was long before a comjwsition for four 
instruments came to be regarded as a distinct 
and worthy means for the expression of musical 
ideas. Even the prolific J. S. Bach does not 
api)ear to have favoured this combination, 
though he wrote trios in plenty. With the 
symphony was bom the string quartet as we 
now understand it — the symphony in miniature ; 
and both were born of the same father, Haydn. 
[See Form.] 

The early quartets of Haydn seem to us 
sadly feeble in the jn-esent day ; there is not 
enough flesh to cover the skeleton, and the 
joints are tenibly awkward ; but there is the 
unmistakable infant quartet, and certainly not 
more clumsy and unpromising than the human 
infant. In the course of his long life and in- 
cessant pi-actice in symphonic composition, 
Haydn made vast progress, so that the later 
quartets (op. 71, etc.) begin to show, in the 
lower parts, some of the boldness which had 
before been only allowed to the 1st violin. 
Eighty-three quai-tets of Haydn are catalogued 
and printed, while of the ninety- three of his 
contemporary Boccherini, scarcely one survives. 

Mozart, with his splendid genius for poly- 
phony as well as melody, at once ojiened up a 
new world. In the set of six dedicated to 
Haydn we notice, besides the development in 
form, the development of the idea, which it 
has only been given to Beethoven fully to 
carry out — the making each i)art of equal 
interest and im])ortance. Theoietically, in a 
perfect quartet, whether vocal or instrumental, 
there should be no *princii>al part.' The six 
quartets just 8i)oken of were so far in advance 
of their time as to be considered on all sides as 
Miideous stuff.* In our time we find little 
that is startling in them, exce])t, perha})s, the 
famous opening of No. 6, which will always 
sound harsh from the false relations in the 
second and fourth bai-s. 



Mozart's twenty-six quartets all live, the six 
dedicated to Haydn and the last three com- 
]x)sed for the King of Prussia being immortal. 

Those writers whose quartets were simply the 
echo of Mozart's — such as Romberg, Onslow, 
Ries, and Fesca — made no advance in the treat- 
ment of the four instruments. 

It is not our province here to speak of the 



gi-owth of tlie symphonic form as exhibited in 
the string quartet, this subject having been 
already discussed under Form, but rather to 
notice the extraordinary development of the 
art of part-writing, and the manner in which 
the most elaborate compositions have been 
constructed with such apparently inadequate 
materials. In these points the quartets of 
lieethoven so far ecli^)se all otliere that we 
might confine our attention exclusively to them. 
In the very first (op. 18, No. 1) the phrase 

of the first movement is delivered so impartially 
to each of the four players, as though to see 
what each can make of it, that we feel them to 
bo on an equality never before attained to. If 
the 1st violin has fine running passages, those 
of the 2nd violin and viola are not a whit 
inferior. Does the Ist violin sing a celestial 
adagio, the violoncello is not put off with mere 
bass notes to mark the time. All four partici- 
pate equally in the merriment of the scherzo 
and the dash of the finale. This much strikes 
one in the earlier quartets, but later we find 
that we are no longer listening to four voices 
disposed so as to sound together harmoniously, 
but that we are being shown the outline, the 
faint pencil sketch, of works for whose actual 
presentation the most perfect earthly orchestra 
would be too intolerably coarse. The post- 
humous quartets are hardly to be regarded as 
pieces written for violins, but we are rather 
forced to imagine that in despair of finding 
colours delicate and true enough the artist has 
prefeiTcd to leave his conceptions as charcoal 
sketches. This fancy is borne out when we 
note how large a compass the four parts are 
constantly made to cover, a space of nearly five 
octaves sometimes being dashed over, with 
little care for the inevitable poverty of tone 

Tliere is a wide contrast between these stu- 
pendous works of genius and the polished and 
thoroughly legitimate workmanship of Schubert's 
quartets. Here we find everything done which 
ought to be done and nothing which ought not. 
They are indeed in*eproachable models. One 
little point deserves notice here as illustrating 
the comparative strength of two great men : 
Beethoven gives frequent rests to one or two 
of the players, allowing the mind to fill in the 
lacking harmony, and thus producing a clear- 
ness, boldness, and contrast which no other 
composer has attained ; Schubert, on the other 
hand, makes all four parts work their hardest 
to hide that thinness of sound which is the 
drawback of the quartet. 

Mention of Spohr's quartets might almost be 
omitted in spite of their large number and their 
great beauty. Technically they are no more 
advanced than those of Haydn, the interest 

lying too often in the top part. Tliey also 
lose much through the peculiar mannerism of 
the composer's harmony, which so constantly 
occupies three of the parts in the jierformance 
of pedal notes, and portions of the chromatic 

Still more than Schubert does Mendelssohn 
seem to chafe at the insufficiency of four stringed 
instnunents to express his ideas. Not only 
this, but he fails, through no fault of his own, 
in one point needful for successful quartet- 
writing. Beethoven and Schubert have shown 
us that the theoretically perfect string-quartet 
should have an almost equal amount of interest 
in each of the four parts ; care should therefore 
be taken to make the merest accompaniment- 
figures in the middle parts of value and 
character. Tremolos and reiterated choi-ds 
should be shunned, and indeed the very idea 
of accompaniment is barely admissible. The 
quartet, though differing from the symphony 
only in the absence of instrumental colouring 
and limitation of polyphony, is best fitted for 
the expression of ideas of a certain delicacy, 
refinement and complexity, anything like 
boldness being out of place, from the weakness 
of the body of tone produced. Now the chief 
characteristic of Mendelssohn's music is its 
broad and singing character, passage-writing is 
his weak.jioint. Consequently, however good 
his quartets, one cannot but feel that they 
would sound better if scored for full orchestra. 
Take the opening of op. 44, No. 1, for in- 
stance : this is not quartet-writing at all ; there 
is a melody, a bass, and the rest is mere filling- 
up ; in the second, we have here as thorough 
an orchestral theme as could be devised— the 
ear longs for trumpets and drums in the fourtli 
bar. The name symphony in disguise has 
often, and not unjustly, been applied to these 
works. This is curious, because Mendelssohn 
has shown himself capable of expressing his 
ideas with small means in other departments. 
The four- part songs for male voices, for instance, 
are a1>solutely perfect models forwhat such things- 
ought to be. Schumann (op. 41) is the only 
writer who can be said to have followed in the 
wake of Beethoven with regard to using the 
quartet as a species of shorthand. All his 
three quartets have an intensity, a depth of 
soul, which, as with Beethoven, shrinks from 
plainer methods of expression. 

Of the earnest band of followers in this 
school — Bargiel, Rheinberger, and others — all 
that can be said is that they are followers. 
[Brahms's three quartets, opp. 51, 67, are 
perfect examples of the art of spreading the 
interest over all the parts, and the way the 
return is made to the opening subject of op. 67 
at the close of the variations is a touch of 
unmistakable genius.] 

II. Quartets for strings and wind instruments 
are uncommon, but Mozart has one for oboe,, 



violin, viola, and violoncello. Next to the 
string quartet ranks the pianoforte quartet, 
which, however, is built on quite a different 
principle : here the composition becomes either 
equivalent to an accompanied trio, or to a 
symphony in which the piano takes the place 
of the 'string quartet,' and the other instru- 
ments — ^usually violin, viola, and violoncello 
— the place of wind instruments. In any case 
the piano does quite half the w^ork. Mozart 
has written two such quartets, Beethoven only 
one, besides three early compositions, Mendels- 
sohn three, Schumann and Goetz one each, 
while Brahms (opp. 23, 26, 60) and the modem 
com})Oser8 have favoured this form of quartet 
still more. 

III. Vocal quartets are so called whether 
accompanied by instruments or not. The four- 
part son^ of Mendelssohn have been mentioned. 
For many years no oratorio was considered 
ofimplete without its unaccompanied quartet, 
Spohr having set the fashion with * Blest are 
tlic departed ' in the * Last Judgment. ' Modem 
oiJera is learning to disjiense "with concerted 
mnsic, Richard Wagner having set the fashion. 
To enumerate the fine operatic quartets from 
•Don Giovanni* to * Faust,' would be useless. 
[Brahms's first set of * Liebeslieder ' for piano 
duet and four voices ad libitum^ was one of the 
comijositions which began Ids popularity in 
England ; in the second set, and in opp. 92, 
103, and 112, he has left notable examples. 
Henachel's * Serbisches Liederspiel,' op. 32 ; 
Stanford's quartets from Tennyson's 'Princess ' ; 
Walford Davies's 'Pastorals'; and Ernest 
"Walker's songs from England's Helicon^ may 
also 1)0 mentioned.] 

IV. The whole body of stringed instruments 
in the orchestra is often incon-ectly spoken of 
as 'the Quartet,' from the fact that until the 
time of Beethoven the strings seldom played in 
other than four-part hanuony. It is now the 
usual custom to write the parts for violoncello 
and double bass on separate staves ; in Gennany 
(and in the present day in England) these 
instruments are grouped apart, a practice which 
is decidedly unwise, seeing that the double bass 
requires the support of the violoncello to give 
the tone firmness, more especially the German 
four-stringed instmment, the tone of which is 
80 much lacking in body. 

\, The term is also applied to the performers 
of a quartet, as well as to the composition 
itself. F. c. 

VI. The word is used of a set of sti*inged 
instruments, corresponding to the old phrase 
• a chest of viols.' Although, accurately speak- 
ing, quartets of musical instruments were not 
employed in chamber music, as we understand 
the term, until the era of Monteverde (1568- 
1643), yet the literature and art recoi*ds of past 
Ci^nturies seem to point to the existence of 'sets' 
of imstrnments, analogous in pitch to the soprano, 

alto, tenor, and bass voices, from very early 
times. Some ground for this assumption may 
be found in the following examples: — The 
concert of eight flutes (in four sizes) discovered 
on one of the tombs in the Necropolis of Gizeh, 
dating — according to Lepsius — from the fifth 
Dynasty (b.g. 2000) which are reproduced 
in Carl Engel's Catalogue of the Exhibition 
of Musical Instruments, South Kensington 
Museum, 1874. Certain Hebrew coins in the 
British Museum ascribed to Simon Maccabaeus 
(of the second century of the Christian ei-a) 
depicting lyres differing in size, shape, and 
number of strings, and a ])ertinent ])assage, 
quoted from Aristides Quintilianus (about B.C. 
1 10, in Bumey's History of MtisiCy vol. i. p. 513). 
Mention may also be made of the string trio por- 
trayed on the splendid Greek Vase in the Mmiich 
Museum. The three figures, gi'ouped in the 
manner of our modem trio performere, apj)car 
to be playing ensemble music. Two of the 
performers have lyres of different sizes and 
stringing, whilst the third, Polyhymnia, plucks 
a small harp. 

Passing hence to the 11th century, it would 
appear from Dr. Ruhlmann's GesehicMe der 
BogaiiiisLrumefntCy that a * set ' of crouths is to 
be seen in an old MS. prayer-book of that jieriod 
(vide Gebetbuch dcs Erzh. Leopold d*Heit von 
Osterrdch, Bibl. zu Kloster Neuburg bei Wien, 
Codex, No. 98, Fol. 110, XI Jahrh.). Four 
centuries later (April 14, 1401) Charles VI. 
granted *Lettres-Patentes,' to the Society of 
Minstrels who styled themselves * joueurs d'ln- 
struments taut haut que bas,' and in the follow- 
ing century the * sets ' of viols began to make 
their ap[)earance. In Martin Agricola's liusica 
Instrumentalis deiUsch (1528), woodcuts of a 
complete quartet of viols may be seen, as also 
* Rebecs,' in four different sizes, which he desig- 
nates, * Discantus, ' * Altus, * * Tenor, ' 'Bassus. ' [In 
the same year, in the Coi-tigiano of Bald. 
Castiglione, there is a reference to music played 
on 'quattro viole da aroo.'] In 1566, Andreas 
Amati (see that name) made the famous set of 
bowinstraments for the French King Charles IX. 
It consisted of twelve large and twelve small 
pattern violins, six tenoi-s and eight basses, and 
in all probability these instraments were the 
finest examples of this maker's work. On the 
backs were painted the arms of France and other 
devices, and the motto 'Pietate et Justitia.* 
During the French revolution the mob took 
these instruments out of the chapel at Versailles 
(on Oct. 6 and 7, 1789), and destroyed all but 
two violins which were afterwards recovered by 
Viotti's pupil, J. B. Cartier. One of the small 
violins is now, or was recently, the projjerty of 
Mr. George Somes. In the following century 
numbers of * Chests of Viols ' (two trebles, two 
tenors, two basses), for the performance of the 
elaborate compositions in parts, called * Fan- 
tasies,' were made, and the growing adoption 




of instrumental music at the Royal Courts of 
Europe induced Antonio Stradivari (see that 
name) to turn his attention to the making of 
* sets' of instruments, comprising violins, tenors, 
and basses. The first *set' of instruments, 
recorded as by this maker, is that mentioned in 
the Arisi MSS., a document written by Desideno 
Arisi, a Cremonese priest of the order of St 
Jerome and belonging to the Church of St. 
Sigismondo (see Antonio St7'adirari, his Life 
aiid Work, W. E. Hill k Sons). He states 
that Stradivari received an order, in 1682, from 
the Venetian banker Michele Morigi, for a com- 
plete * sett ' of instruments, destined to be pre- 
sented to James II. of England. As no trace of 
these instruments has as yet been found, their 
existence rests entirely upon the statement 
made in the MSS. referred to. In 1690 the 
same maker produced the so-called 'Tuscan 
Concerto,' or *set' of instruments, for Cosmo 
di Medici. This probably consisted of two or 
three violins, a contralto (small tenor), a 
tenore (lai^ge tenor), and a violoncello. The 
tenore of this set^ has been preserved in its 
original state, and may bo seen, together with 
the violoncello, in the Musical Institute at 
Florence. In 1696 Stradivari made the inlaid 
quintet which for some years was owned by 
Philip IV. of Spain, and at the end of the 
I7th century and the beginning of the 18th, 
the *set* (dated 1696-1709) destined to have 
been presented to Philip V. of Spain, but not 
sold until after Stradivari's death, when his son 
Paolo disposed of it (in 1775) to a priest named 
Padre Brambrilla for £148, and later it 
became the property of Don Carlos, afterwards 
Charles IV. of Spain. This * set ' consisted of 
two violins, two violas, one tenore, and a 
violoncello. The large tenore vanished at the 
dispersal of the royal collection, and the rest of 
the 'set' were submitted to such barbarous 
reparations at the hands of Dom Vincenzo 
Acenzo and his successor Ortega, that, especially 
in the case of the violoncello now in the Cha])el 
Royal, Madrid, little of their original character 

In modem times 'sets' of instruments by 
one maker have been largely collected by ardent 
connoisseurs. We are told that the Dumas 
family, friends of Beethoven, assembled a quartet 
of 6io. Paolo Maggini's instnmients, violin, 
viola, violoncello, and small hass, and that with 
the exception of the last, they are some of the 
finest specimens of this master's work. The 
Prince J. de Caraman Chimay owned a very 
interesting quartet of instruments by Stradi- 
vari's pupil (?) Ambrose de Comhle of Toumay 
(about 1750) and also an ornamented quartet 
(copies of Stradivari) made by J. B. Vuillaume 
in 1865. [These instruments were exhibited 
in the Albert Hall in 1886.] Quartets of 
Stradivari's instruments have been collected by 

1 For the historj of the >-ioUa of thli Mt we article Mmku 

the following : Count Archinto of Milan, whcr 
died in 1860. Tliis quartet passed into the 
hands of J. B. Vuillaume, and the violoncello 
(1689) was the instrument used by Mons. Jules 
Delsart Nicolo Paganini also owned a quartet 
by this maker. The Due de Camposelice, who 
died in Paiis in 1887, possessed about twenty of 
the great master's instruments, and ^I. Wilmotte 
of Antwerp, who died in 1898, left eight violins, 
two violas, and two violoncellos. M. de St. 
Senoch's quartet — violin, 1737 ; second violin, 
1704 ; viola, 1728 ; violoncello, 1696— was sold 
after his death in 1886, at the Hotel Drouot. 
At the present time Stradivari quartets are 
owned by Baron Knoop, Dr. R E. Brandt, and 
the Herreu Mendelssohn. The late Dr. Charlen 
Oldham's quartet was bequeathed to the British 
Museum. The quartet of Stradivaris employed 
by Lady Hall^ and her collaborators at the St. 
James's Hall Popular Concerts were dated as 
follows : — Lady Halle's violin, 1709 ; Mr. Ries* 
violin, 1710 ; Mr. Gibson's viola, 1728 ; and 
Signer Piatti's violoncello, 1 720. It would ap- 
pear that the only present-day instrumentalists 
who play upon a complete set of Stradivari's 
instruments ai-e the Joachim quartet. Dr. 
Joachim's violin is dated 1715, Prof. Haus- 
mann's violoncello, 1724,. Prof. Carl Halir'a 
violin is a long-pattern Stradivarius, and the fine 
viola played upon by Prof. Wirth is lent to the 
quartet by the Herren Mendelssohn. — Agricola, 
Musica huttruineiUalis ; Bumey, History of 
Music \ Hawkins, History of Music-, de Laborde, 
Essai sur la Musiqne ; Hart, The Violin ; Hill, 
Antonio Stradivari ; Engel, Cataloffue, Soifth 
Kensington Erhihition of Instrumefnts, 1874 ; 
Catalogue of Inventions Exhibition, 1 885 ; von 
Moser, Joseph Joachim. E. h-a. 

Society for the performance of chamber music, 
started in 1852 by Messrs. Sainton, Cooper, 
Hill, and Piatti, with such eminent artists as 
Sterndale Bennett, Mile. Clauss, Mme. Pleyel, 
Arabella Goddard, Pauer, Halle, etc., at the 
pianoforte. They gave six concerts each season at 
Willis's Rooms, but ended with the third season, 
the time not having yet arrived for a sufficient 
support of chamber music by the London public. 
The programmes were selected with much 
freedom, embracing English composers — Ben- 
nett, Ellerton, Loder, Macfarren, Mellon, etc. ; 
foreign musicians then but seldom heard — 
Schumann, Cherubini, Hummel, etc., and 
Beethoven's Posthumous Quartets. The pieces 
were analysed by Q. A. Macfan-en. o. 

QU ASI ,a8 if — t. e. an approach to, ' Andante 
quasi allegretto' or 'Allegretto quasi vivace' 
means a little quicker than the one and not so 
quick as the other — answering to poco allegretto, 
or piJi tosto allegro. o. 

comique ; words by MM. Leuven and Bruns- 
wick, music by Balfe. Produced at the Op^ra- 



Comit£iie, Paris, July 15, 1844, and at the 
Princeaa'd Theatre, London, as *The Castle of 
Aymou, or The Four Brothers,' in three acts, 
Nov. 20, 1844. (J. 

QUA V£B (Ger. AefUdnole, whence American 
• eighth note ' ; Ft, Cloche ; Ital. Croma). A 
note which is half the length of a crotchet, 
and therefore the eighth part of a semibreve ; 
hence the German and American names. It 
is written thus J, its Best being represented 
by-v "^ 

The idea of expressing the values of notes by 
diversity of form has been ascribed by certain 
writers to De Muris (about 1340), but this is 
undoubtedly an error, the origin of which is 
traced by both Hawkins {Hist, of Music) and 
Fi-tis (art. * Muris ') to a work entitled Vanlka 
Musica ridoUa alia nwdenia Prattica, by Vicen- 
tino (1555), in which it is explicitly stated that 
De Muris invented all the notes, from the Large 
to the Semiquaver. It is, however, certain thkt 
the longer notes were in nse nearly 300 years 
earlier, in the time of Franco of Cologne [Nota- 
tion, vol. iii. p. 399], and it seems equally 
clear that the introduction of the shorter kinds 
is of later date than the time of De Muris. 
The fact appears to be that the invention of 
the shorter notes followed the demand created 
by the general progress of music, a demand 
which may fairly be supposed to have reached p 
its limit in the quarter-demisemiquaver, or ^V ^ 
of a quaver, occasionally met with in modern ^ 

The Quaver, originally called Chroma or Fusat 
sometimes Unca (a hook), was probably invented 
some time during the 15th century, for Morley 
(1597) says that * there were within these 200 
years ' (and therefore in 1400) 'but four * (notes) 
known or used of the musicians, those were the 
Long, Breve, Semibreve, and Minim ' ; and 
Thomas de Walsingham, in a MS. ti-eatise 
written somewhat later (probably about 1440), 
and quoted by Hawkins, gives the same notes, 
and adds that ^of late a New character has 
been introduced, called a Crotchet, which would 
be of no use, would musicians remember that 
beyond the minim no subdivision ought to be 
made. ' Franchinus Gafurius also, in his Practica 
Afusicae (1496), quoting from Prosdocimus de 
Beldemandis, who flourished in the early part 
of the 15th century, describes the division of 
the minim into halves and quarters, called 
respectively the greater and lesser semiminim, 
and written in two ways, white and black 
(Ex. 1). The white forms of these notes soon 
fell into disuse, and the black ones have become 
the crotchet and quaver of modem music. ^ 

1 Tbere ««» mllr flrp. Including the lArgv, which Morley calls 
the Doahla Lot»g. 

The subdivision of the quaver into semiquaver 
and demisemiquaver followed somewhat later. 
Gafurius, in the work quoted above, mentions 
a note 1 of a minim in length, called by various 

names, and written either * or 4» but the true 

semiquaver or scmichroifnay the earliest form of 

which was ^^ does not appear until later, while 
the demisemiquaver must have been a novelty 
as late as 1697, at least in this country, 
judging from the 13th edition of Play ford's 
IntrodvxAion to the Skill of Musick; in which, 
after describing it, the author goes on to say 
* but the Printer having none of that character 
by him, I was obliged to omit it.' 

"When two or more quavers (or shorter notes) 
occur consecutively, they are usually gi-ouped 
together by omitting the hooks and drawing a 
thick stroke across Sieir stems, thus J^TC' 

[This grouping, which had been in use for 
centuries in SlS. music, was oue of the gi-eat 
difficulties in the way of printing from music- 
types ; it was not overcome until about 1690, 
when John Heptinstall brought it into use. 
See Heptinstall, and Music-Pkintino.] 

In vocal music, quavers which have to be 
sung to 8e{)arate syllables are written detached, 
while those which are sung to a single syllable 
are grouped ; for example : — 

The peo-pletbatwtdk-edin dark 

F. T. 

' It is worthy- of notice that In the ancient manntcript hy Ens- 
"'ton known u the Walthain Hair Croee MS., « note U 
d. aHUA » 'tiniple,' which has the value of a crotchet. 
Iwt U written trith a hoeked tUm like a modern qnaTer. That a 
nete half the T»lae of a minim ahoold at anjr neriod have been 
written with a htjok m«y help to aoroniit for the modem name 
er*iekt», which, bring clearly derived from the French rroc. or 

One quaver of historical importance deserves 
mention, that which Handel added in pencil to 
the quintet in 'Jephtha' in 1758, six years 
after he is supposed to have lost his sight, and 
which in Schoelcher's words shows that by 
* looking very closely at a thing he was still 
able to see it a little.' g. 

QUEEN OF SHEBA. (i.) La Reine pe 
Sada, in four acts ; words by Barbier and 
Carre, music by Gounod. Produced at the 
Op^ra, Feb. 28, 1862. Adapted as * Irene' by 
H. B. Famie, and produced as a concert at the 
Crystal Palace, August 12, 1865. The beautiful 
Airs de ballet contain some of Gounod's best 
music. G. 

(ii.) See Konigin von Saba. 

QUEISSER, Carl Traugott, a great trom- 
bone player, was bom of poor parents at Diiben, 
near Leipzig, Jan. 11, 1800. His turn for 
music showed itself early, and he soon mastered 
all the ordinary orchestral instruments. He 
ultimately confined himself to the viola, and 
to the trombone, which he may really be said 

eroektt. a hook. i« mine what inappropriate to the note in it* present 
form, which hsu no hook. 




to have created, since, for instance, the solo 
in the Tuba mirum of Mozart's Requiem was 
before his time usually played on a bassoon. 
In 1817 he was appointed to play the violin 
and trombone in the town orchestra, and by 
1830 had worked his way into the other 
orchestras of Leipzig, including that of the 
Gewandhaus. He played the viola in Matthai's 
well-known quartet for many years ; was one 
of the founders of the Leipzig * Euterpe,* and 
led its orchestra for a long time ; and in short 
was one of the most prominent musical figures 
in Leipzig during its very best period. 

As a solo trombone-player he ap{>eared fre- 
quently in the Gewandhaus Concerts, with con- 
certos, concertinos, fantasias, and variations, 
many of them composed expressly for him by 
C. G. Mliller, F. David, Meyer, Kummer, and 
others ; and the reports of these appearances 
rarely mention him without some term of pride 
or endearment. * For fulness, purity and power 
of tone, lightness of lip, and extraordinary 
facility in passages,' says his biogi'apher, *he 
surpassed all the trombone-players of Germany. * * 
There was a Leipzig story to the effect that at 
the first rehearsal of the Lobgesang, Queisser 
led off the Introduction as follows : — 

to Mendelssohn's infinite amusement. Se nmi h 
vcro^ e ben trovato, 

Queisser was well known throughout Germany, 
but appears never to have left his native country. 
He died at Leipzig, June 12, 1846. g. 

QUICK- STEP (Fr. Pas redouble ; Ger. Ge- 
schwind Marsch) is the English name for the 
music of the Quick march in the army, a march 
in which 116 steps of 30 inches go to the 
minute. (See Boost's Journal of Marches^ 
Quicksteps^ Dances J etc.) It may be well to 
mention that in the Slow march there are 75 
steps of 30 inches, and in the * Double' 165 of 
33 inches. [See March, vol. iii. p. 50.1 o. 

QUILISMA. An ancient form of r^euma, 
representing a kind of shake. [See Notation, 
vol. iii. p. 396.] w. s. R. 

QUINIBLE. See Quintoyer. 

(jUINT. An organ stop which causes the 
fifth above a given note to sound as well as the 
note belonging to the key which is pressed 
down. From the note and its fifth there arises 
a differential tone an octave beU>w the note. 
By this mixture an organ with 16- ft. pipes 
can be made to sound as if with 32-ft. pipes ; 
that is the pitch of the lowest note, but of 
coui-se it sounds with far less energy than if 
properly produced with a 32.ft. pipe. t. e. 

(iUINTA FALSA (False Fifth). The for- 
bidden interval between Mi in the Hexachordon 
dunim, and Fa in the Hexachordon uaturale — 

t AUg. mnf{JbaU«*« JMtumf, JUI7 8^ 18M. 

the Diminished Fifth of modem music. [See 
Ml contra Fa.] w. s. r. 

QUINTE The name given in France, during 
the latter half of the 17th and part of the 
1 8th centuries, to the now obsolete five-stringed 
tenor viol. Five-stringed viols were amongst 
the earliest in use. Piietorius {Organographia.^ 
1619) says they were employed in ancient times, 
and Agricola {Musica JnstrumeiUalis, 1532) 
gives the tuning of the five-stringed viols then 
in vogue. Although com^tosers of vocal music 
during the 16th century not infrequently called 
their tenor part * Quinte * or * Quintus,' viols of 
that denomination remained under the title of 
tenor until a later period ; and probably the first 
instance where * Quintus ' designates a musical 
instrument occurs in the overture to Claudio 
Monteverde's opera, *Orfeo* (Venice, 1609- 
1618). rj^at de France, in 1683, gives the 
name of * Fossart,' who played the ' Quinte de 
Violon' in the Queen's band, and in 1712-13 
the Paris opera orchestra included two * Quintes ' 
amongst the instnmients. In 1773 there were 
four ' Quintes ' amongst the musicians of the 

* Grande Chapelle, ' and * Quintes ' were employed 
in all the orchestras. Jean Jacques Rousseau 
{Dictionnaire de Musique, Paris, 1708) gives a 
good deal of information concerning the * Quinte. ' 
Under *Viole' he says that in France the 

* Quinte * and the * Taille * (a large six-stringed 
tenor viol), contrary to the Italian custom, 
played the same part, and nnder * Partie ' 
mentions that the ' Quinte ' and * Taille ' were 
united under the name * Yiole.' The highest 
and lowest notes of these instruments, according 
to the same writer, were — 


Quinte or Viola. 

from which it is to be inferred that the tuning 
was the same as that given by Agricola in 
1632, i.e. 

In England the two tenor viols which formed 
a imrt of the * Chests of six Viols,* so much in 
vogue during the 17th and beginning of the 
1 8th centuries, were probably identical with the 
' Quinte ' and *Taille* ; but the French title was 
never adopted in this country. The bulky size 
of the * Quinte ' rendered it such an awkward 
instrument to play upon that its dimensions 
gradually diminished from century to century, 
and when the violin came into more general nse, 
it melted into the * Haute Contre * (alto viol). 
In the second half of the 18th century it 
developed into a tenor violin with four strings, 
and adopted the C clef on the third line which 




was formerly the clef of the * Haute Contre * 
or alto viol. (See Tenor Viol.) — Agricola 
(Martinns), Musiea Instrwnentalis ; Praetorius, 
Organo^aphia ; Rousseau (J. J.), Dictionnaire 
di 3litsiqne ; La Borde, E^i sur la Munqice ; 
Grillet (Laurent), AncSlres du Violofi; Hart, 
The Violin, E. H-A. 

QUINTET (Ft. Quintuor; Ital. QuhUetto). A 
conijKHition for five instrumeuts or voices with 
or without aocompaniment. 

I. Quintets for strings have been far less 
often written than quartets, owing to the 
greater complexity demanded in the polyphony. 
Boccherini, however, published 125, of which 
twelve only were written for two violms, two 
violas, and one violoncello, the others having 
two violoncellos and one viola. The former is 
the more usual choice of instruments, probably 
because the lower jiarts are ai)t to be too heavy 
sounding with two violoncellos, owing to the 
greater body of tone in this instrument. Schu- 
Ijcrt's noble Quintet in C (op. 163) is for two 
violoncellos, but the first is used constantly 
in its upper octave, soaring above the viola. 
Onslow's — thirty-four in number^ are for a 
double bass and violoncello. 

Beethoven's two Quintets, in E]? and 0, be- 
long to his earlier j^eriods, and have there- 
fore none of the extraordinary features of the 
later quartets. Mendelssohn's Quintet in Bb 
(op. 87) is so orchestral as to seem almost a 
symphony in disguise, but that in A (op. 18) is 
an exc|uisite specimen of what a string quintet 
should be. 

3Iany other combinations of iive insti'uments 
have found favour with musicians, mostly in- 
cluding a pianoforte. Thus there is Mozart's 
Qnintet in £b for oboe, clarinet, horn, bassoon, 
and piano — which the com[)Oser esteei^ed the 
best thing lie ever wrote, — the beautiful one for 
clarinet and strings, and another for tlie piquant 
combination of flute, oboe, viola, violoncello, 
and harmonica. Perhaps the most effective 
attsfociation is that of piano, violin, viola, violon- 
cello, and double bass, as in Schubert's well- 
known * Trout' Quintet (op. 114). [The splendid 
quintets of Schumann and Brahms for piano and 
strings are for the ordinary combination above 
referred to, as are also those of Dvof-ak, Dohnanyi, 
and others. The quintet by Brahms for clarinet 
and strings is one of his most beautiful works.] 
Beethoven's qnintet for i>iano and wind instru- 
ments (op. 1 6), in £b is a noble representative 
of a very small class. Hmnmel has also written 
a well-known one. 

II. In vocal music none who have ever heard 
it can forget the admirable quintet (for two 
soprani, contralto, tenor, and l^iss) which forms 
the finale to Act 1 of SiH>lir's ^ Azor and Zemira. ' 
in modem opera the most striking specimen 
occurs in Wagner's * Meistersinger.' Five-part 
harmony has a {leculiarly rich effect, and deserves 
to be more practised than it is, especially in 

oratorio chorus. It is, however, by no means 
easy to write naturally. F. c. 

QUINTON [See Viol, treble]. 

QUINTOYER (Old Eng. Quinible). To sing 
in Fifths — a French verb, in frequent use among 
extempora Organisers during the Middle Ages. 
[See Okoanum, Part-Wkiting.J \v. s. ii. 

QUINTUPLE TIME. The rhythm of five 
beats in a bar. As a rule quintuple time has 
two accents, one on the "first beat of the bar, and 
the other on either the third or fourth, the bar 
being thus divided into two unequal i)arts. On 
this account it can scarcely be considered a dis- 
tinct species of rhythm, but rather a comjwuud 
of two ordinary kinds, duple and triple, emi»loyed 
alternately. Although of little practical value, 
quintuple time produces an effect sufficiently 
characteristic and interesting to have induced 
various composers to make experiments therein, 
the earliest attempt of any importance beiug a 
symphony in the second act of Handel's * Orlando' 
(1732), in which the hero's perturbation is re- 
presented by this peculiar time (see Buniey, 
History y iv. 364). The same rhythm occurs in 
an air to the woixis ' Se la sorto mi coudanna ' 
in the opera of * Ariadne ' by Adolfati, written 
in 1 750, and it is also met in some of the national 
airs of Sjmin, Greece, Germany, etc. Thus Reicha, 
in a note to No. 20 of his set of 36 fugues (each 
of which embodies some curious experiment in 
either tonality or rhythm), states that in a 
certain district of the Lower Rhine, named 
Kochersberg, the aira of most of the dances have 
a well-mai'ked rhythm of five beats, and he 
gives as an exam})le the following waltz : — 

In the above example the second accent falls 
on the third beat, the rhythm being that of 2-8 
followed by 3-8, and the same order is ob- 
served in a chai-ming movement by Hiller, 
from the Trio, op. 64. 

In Reicha's fugue above refeired to, the 
reverse is the case, the fourth beat receiving 
the accent, as is shown by the composer's own 
time - signature, as well as by his explicit 
directions as to performance. The following is 
the subject : — 

Allegretto. ^ . 

Other instances of quintuple rhythm are to 
be found in a Trio for strings by K. J. Bischoff, 
for which a prize was awarded by the Deutsche 
Touhallein 1 853 ; in Chopin's Sonata in C minor, 
op. 4 ; in Hiller's *Rhythmische Studien,' oj). 
52 ; in * Viens, gentille Dame ' ; in lioieldieu's 
* La Dame blanche ' ; Lowe's Ballad * Prinz 
Eugen * ; a number in Rubinstein's ' Tower of 
Babel,' etc. Another characteristic example 




occurs in the * Gypsies* Glee, * by W. Reeve (1 796). 
This may fairly be considei-ed an example of 
genuine quintuple rhythm, for instead of the 
usual division of the bar into two parts, such 
as might be expressed by alternate bars of 3-4 
and 2-4, or 2-4 and 3-4, there are five distinct 
beats in every bar, each consisting of an accent 
and a nou- accent. This freedom from the 
oixlinary alternation of two and three is well 
expressed by the grouping of the accompaniment. 
[The same true quintuple time, as distinguished 
from a combination of triple and dujile time, 
distinguishes the best-known example of all, the 
second movement of Tchaikovsky's * Pathetic ' 
symphony. The passage in the third act of 
* Tristan und Isolde,' occurring at a most excit- 
ing moment in the drama, is apt to escape 
the attention of many liearers who are only 
conscious of the impatient effect it produces. 
See Rhvthm.] f. t. 

QUINTU8 (the Fifth). The Fifth Part in 
a composition for five voices ; called also Pars 
quinta and Quincuplum. In music of the 15th 
and 16th centuries, the Fifth Part always cor- 
responded exactly in compass with one of the 
other four ; it would, therefore, have been im- 
possible to describe it as Firat or Second Cantus, 
Altus, Tenor, or Bassus. w. s. r. 

QUIRE. Another way of spelling Choir. 


QUODLIBET (Lat. ' What you i)lea8e '), also 
called QuoTUBET (* As many as you please'), 
and in Italian Messanza or Miktichanza 
('A mixture'). This was a kind of musical 
joke in the 16th and early part of the 17th 
centuries, the fun of which consisted in the 
extempore juxtaposition of different melodies, 
whether sacred or secular, which were incon- 
gruous either in their musical character, or in 
the words with which they were associated ; 
sometimes, however, the words were the same 
in all parts, but were sung in snatches and 
scraps, as in the quodlibets of Melchior Franck. 
(See Praetorius, Syntagma Mitsicuitij tom. iii. 
cap. V.) There were two ways of performing 
this : one was to string the melodies together 
simply and without any attempt at connecting 
them by passages such as those found in modem 
' fantasias ' ; the other, the more elaborate 
method, consisted in singing or playing the 
melodies simultaneously, the only modifications 
allowed being those of time. The effect of this, 
unless only very skilful musicians engaged in 
it, must have been very like what we now call 
a ' Dutch chorus. ' This pastime was a favourite 

one with the Bachs, at whose annual family 
gatherings the singing of quodlibets was a great 
feature (see Spitta, J, S. Bach (Engl, transl.) 
i. 154, iii. 172-6). Sebastian Bach himself has 
left us one delightful example of a written-doun 
quodlibet, at the end of the * 30 variations ' in 
(r major, for a detailed analysis of which see 
Spitta. The two tunes used in it are * Ich bin 
so lang bei dir nicht gewest,' and 'Kraut und 
Rilben, Haben mich vertiieben.' One of the 
best modern examples, although only two 
themes are used, is in Reinecke's variations for 
two pianos on a gavotte of Gluck's, wjiere, in the 
last variation, he brings in simultaneously with 
the gavotte the well-known musette of Bach 
which occurs in the third * English * suite. A 
good instance, and one in which the extempore 
character is retained, is the singing of the 
three tunes * Polly Hopkins,' 'Buy a Broom,* 
and 'The Merry Swiss Boy* together, which 
was formerly sometimes done for a joke. A 
very interesting specimen of a 16th-century 
quodlibet by Johann Giildel, consisting of five 
chorale -times — viz. (1) ' Erhalt uus, Herr bei 
deinem Wort,' (2) * Ach Gott, von Himmel,' 
(3) * Vater unser im Himmelreich,' (4) *Wir 
glauben all,' (5) ' Durch Adam's Fall ' — is given 
as an appendix to Hilgenfeldt's Life of Bach. 
We quote a few bars as an example of the 
ingenuity vriih which the five melodies are 
brought together : — 




"D AAFF, A^TOX, one of the most distinguished 
tenors of his day ; born 1714 in the 
village of Holzem, near Bonn, and educated 
for the priesthood at the Jesuit College at 
Cologne. His tine voice so struck the Elector, 
Clement Augustus, that he took him to Munich, 
where Ferrandini brought him forward in an 
ojiera. After studying for a short time with 
Bemacchi at Bologna, Raalf became one of the 
first tenors of his time. In 1 738 he sang at 
Florence on the betrothal of Maria Theresa, and 
followed up this successful d^but at many of 
the Italian theatres. In 1742 he returned to 
Bonn, and sang at Vienna in Jommelli's 
*Didone' (1749), to Metastasio's great satis- 
faction. In 1752 he passed througli Italy to 
Lisbon ; in 1755 he accepted a simimons to 
Madrid, where he remained under Farinelli's 
direction, enjopng every favour from the court 
and public. In 1759 he accompanied Farinelli 
to Naples. In 1770 he entered the service of 
the Elector, Karl Theodor, at Mannheim. In 
1778 he was in Paris with Mozart, and in 1779 
he followed the court to Munich, where Mozart 
eomix)sed the part of Idomeneo for him. Ho 
died in Munich, May 27, 1797. Mozart in 
his letters speaks of him as his * best and dearest 
friend, * especially in one from Paris, dated June 
12, 1778. He composed for him in Mannheim 
the air, * Se al labbro mio non credi ' (Kiichel, 
295). c. F. P. 

RABAX, Edward, was an Englishman, and I 
after having fought in the ware of the Nether- , 
lands, from the year 1 600, settled at Edinburgh, ' 
at the Cowgate Port, as a printer, in 1620. | 
One work with the Edinburgh imprint alone ' 
remains, and in the same year he removed to { 
St. Andrews, and finally to Aberdeen in 1622. ' 
In this place he was under the patronage of the | 
town dignitaries, and had the friendship of , 
Bishop Forlies. It was, no doubt, these circum- 
stances that enabled him to carry on his craft 
unmolested, unlike John Forbes of the same 
city who, at a later date, sufiered fine and i 
imprisonment for infringing the monoi)oly held 
by the King's printer in Scotland. Raban I 
at once commenced the printing of liturgical 
works, including a prayer-book, dated 1625, 
which is stated to liave tlie music to the Psalms. 
In 1629 he printed t\vo editions of CZ. PscUmcs 
of the prinrciie prophet David , a qiuirto for 
binding with Bibles and a 16mo edition. Also, 
in 163.3, two editions of The Pmvies of David 
in prose and metre according to the Church 
of SoAlawL ... In AberdenCj iviprinted by 
j&ficard Habanfor Darid Melrill, 1688, 8o. 
These have the music to the Psalms printed 
from movable type. Though probably not so 
veil executed as the music of Andro Hart of 
Eilinbnrgh, these are of great interest in the . 

history of Scottish music -printing. Raban 
gave up business in 1649, dying in 1658. f. k. 

CLARsicHE MUsicALi. A collection of pieces of 
which the full title is as follows : * Collection 
generale des ouvrages classiqnes de musique, ou 
Choix de chefs d'oeuvres, en tout genre, des 
plus gi-ands compositeurs de toutes les Ecoles, 
recueillis, mis en ordre et enrichis de Notices 
lustoriques, par Alex. E. Choron, pour servir 
de suite aux Princii)es de Composition des ecoles 
d' Italic.' A notice on the wrapper further 
says that the price of the work to subscribers 
is calculated at the rate of 5 sous per page, 
The numbers were not to be issued jjeriodically, 
but the annual cost to subscribers W€ks fixed at 
from 86 to 40 francs. The work was in folio, 
engraved by Gille fils, and published by 
Leduc& Co., Paris, Rue de Richelieu, 78, with 
agents at Bordeaux, Marseilles, Leipzig, Munich, 
Vienna, Lyon, Turin, Milan, Rome, and Naples. 
It was got up with gi*eat care and taste, but 
seems to have ceased after about six numbers. 

For Alfieri's *Raccolta di musica sacra* 
see vol. i, p. 66. o. 

RACHMANINOV, Sergei Vassilibvich, a 
pianist of repute, and one of the most talented 
of the younger Moscow school of coniposera ; 
born in the Government of Novgorod, April 1 
(March 20, O.S.), 1873. At nine years of ago 
he entered the St. Petersburg Conservatoire, 
where he remained three years, making the 
pianoforte his chief study. Three yeara later, 
in 1886, he was transferred to the Conservatoire 
at Moscow. Here he studied the i>ianoforte, 
firat with Tchaikovsky's friend, Zvierev, and 
afterwards with Siloti. His masters for theory 
and composition were Taneiev and Arensky. 
The musical influences of Moscow are clearly 
evident in the works of Rachmaninov. In 
1892 he won the gold medal for comjwsition, 
and on quitting the Conservatoire, in the same 
year, he started on a long concert-tour through 
the chief towns of Russia. In 1899 Rach- 
maninov ap()cared in London at one of the 
concerts of tlie Philharmonic Society, and made 
a good impression in the threefold capacity of 
com^ioser, conductor, and pianist. In 1893 
he was appointed professor of pianoforte to the 
Maryinsky Institute for girls, in Moscow, a i)ost 
which he still holds. Several of Rachmaninov's 
songs and pianoforte pieces, esjjecially the 
famous prelude in C% minor, have attained 
immense popularity. His coni|x)sition8 are as 
follows : — 


'The Rock." (antiitlA, op. 7; Olp«y Caprlcdo, op. 12 : Symphony, 

ut». 13 11895). 

B. PiAVoniRTC 
Twfi Concprto*. opp. 1 ni»d 18 : two Sult«s. opp. 5 and 17 : •\x 

plecci for four hnitdB. op. 11 ; ftv« pieces fur iwohanda, op. 3 




(including the Cj minor prelude) ; seven plecee, op. 10 ; six 
31uiuvnta Slusiokux, up. 16 ; VHriatioiuon the theme uf Gbupiu's 
Prelude in C minor, op. 22. 

C. CuAMBBa Hi'src 
Elegiju: trio (in nicuiory of Tchalkoveky) for pianoforte, rlolin, 
and violoncello, op. » (1883) : wnata for violunooUo and piano- 
forte, op. 19 : two pieces for \1olin and pianoforte, op. 6 ; two 
pieces for violoncello and i>iauo(orte, op. 'J. 

D. VocAi, 
Bix choruses for female voices, op. 15: humorous chorus for mixed 

voices ; Cantata, ' Bpnng,' for chorus, baritone solo, and 

uruhestra. op. 20 ; six songs, op. 4 : six ditto, op. 8 ; 12 ditto. 

op. 14 ; ' Fate ' (t«i Beethoven's Fifth Symphonyj. op. 17. 
* Aleko,' opera in one act. iitwt jMrformed at the Imperial Opera- 

House, Moscow. ItfiO. -^ jj, 

l<no\vn as Cervelat). An obsolete instniiiient 
of small cylindrical bore, played with a double 
reed of the bassoon type. It is described both 
by Praetorius and by Mersenne, and was made 
both of wood and ivory. The apparent length 
of the instrument was very small, as the bore 
doubled many times upon itself, the true length 
being thus disguised. In addition to the holes 
or ventages closed by the tips of the lingers in 
the usual way, the doubling of the tube allowed 
of the piercing of several holes which were 
closed by other joints of the fingers, or soft 
parts of the hand. According to Praetorius 
the rackets were made in families, the compass 
of a set of four extending fi-om C to d'. i). J. B. 

RADICATI, Felice da Maurizio di, violinist 
and coniiK)ser, born at Turin in 1778 ; died, 
according to the Qiiellen-Lcxikon^ at Vienna, 
April 14, 1823. His parents belonging to 
the poor nobility of Italy, the child's singular 
interest in music was encouraged the more, 
and he began his studies at a very early age. 
Pugnani taught him the violin. Profiting 
by the precepts of this great master, Radicati 
acquired many of Pugnani's finer qualities, 
and, on reaching manhood,- toured with un- 
qualified success in Italy, France, and England. 
The love of his native land, however, and the 
additional inducement of a jKist at the Court 
of King Victor Emanuel V., drew him back 
to Italy, whither he returned, accompanied by 
his accomplished wife Teresa BEUTixorri. 
In the year 1815 the town of Bologna announced 
a competition for the jwst of leader of tlie town 
orchestra— at that time celebrated ; but when 
it came to be known tliat Radicati had entered 
the lists, no one would contend against him ; 
with the result that he was elected to the post 
on March 31, 1815, \Aithout contest. After 
this his talents obtained for him the apix)int- 
ments of director of the great orchestra of the 
Basilica di S. Pietro, and professor of the 
violin at the famous Liceo Filarmonico of 
Bologna. His career was calamitously cut 
short, in the prime of life, by a fatal carriage 

The authorities on the subject of Radicati's 
career give but few dates. According to the 
Qiiellen-Lej'ikon he was in London 1806-7, 
and toured in Lombardy (Fetis, Bioff. des Mus.) 
in 1816. His principal biographer, Carlo 

Pancaldi — a Bolognese lawyer — wrote an eulogy 
in his memory, but unfortunately mentions but 
one date, that of his election at Padua on 
March 31, 1815. As a violinist his qualities 
api)ear to have been those of a musician rather 
than those of a virtuoso. Pancaldi tells us 
that his style was dignified and his tone 
sonorous, that he counted Haydn, Beethoven, 
and Romberg among his friends, and that he 
was well educated in other respects than music. 
As a composer he devoted himself esi^ecially 
to perfecting the Quartet, which at that time — 
in spite of Boccherini's influence — was less 
thought of in Italy than in other comitries. 
It would seem that his interest in the cause of 
chamber music was aroused by a Geniian critic, 
who, reviewing some of Radicati's quai-tets 
performed in Vienna, remarked that *The 
Italian mind is not apt to comi>ose works of 
the highest character ; in this matter the 
Germans seem to take precedence. Radicati's 
quartets are nothing more than melodies accom- 
panied by harmonies in secondary parts.' This 
so incensed Radicati that he gave a number of 
concerts of Italian music in Vienna, in oi-der 
that the German critic might be convinced of 
his error ; and, on his i-eturn to Italy, not only 
devoted himself to the writing of many quartets 
and quintets, but also endeavoured to induce 
other Italian composers to do likewise, and 
thus efface the stigma cast xqwu Italian music 
by the Germans. Besides his numerous con- 
tributions to chamber music, Radicati wrote 
six or seven operas, among which are included 
his *Ricardo Cuor di Leone,' produced at 
Bologna ; a couple of farces, * I due Prigionieri,' 
* II Medico per forza ' ; a concerto for violin, 
and a number of small * Arias,' * Cavatinas,* etc. 
All these were in the possession of his son in 
1828. The most complete list of his conij^o- 
sitions — published and MS. — is probably that 
given in the Qmlkn- Lexikon. Radicati's wife 
and his son Karolus, who became a lawyer, 
erected a monument to his memory in the 
Campo Santo at Bologna. — Pancaldi (Carlo), 
Cenni iiUomo Felice Jiadicatif Bologna, 1828 ; 
Eitner, Quelleii-Lexikon ; F^tis, Biog. dcs Mus. ; 
Baker, Biog, Did. Mus, K. h-a. 

RADZIWILL, Anton Heinrich, Prince of, 
Royal Prussian * Statthalter ' of the Grand Duchy 
of Posen, born at Wilna, June 13, 1775, married 
in 1796 the Princess Luise, sister of that dis- 
tinguished amateur Prince Louis Ferdinand of 
Prussia. [See vol. ii. p. 772.] Radziwill was 
known in Berlin not only as an aixlent admirer 
of good music, but as a fine violoncello player, 
and 'a singer of such taste and ability as is 
very rarely met with amongst amateui-s.'* 
Beethoven was the gi*eat object of his admira- 
tion. He played his quartets with devotion, 
made a long journey to Prince Galitzin's on 
purpose to hear the Mass in D, was invited by 

1 M. 1831, July 87. Bee also 1809, June 9B ; 1814, Sept. 38. 




Beethoven to subscribe to the publication of 
that work, and indeed was one of the seven 
who sent in their names in answer to that 
ap|>eal. To him Beethoven dedicated the 
Overture in C, op. 115 (known as 'Namens- 
feier '), which was published as * Grosses Ouver- 
tare in C dur gedidUet,' etc., by Steiner of 
Vienna in 1825. 

Radziwill was not only a player, a singer, 
and a passionate lover of music, he was also a 
composer of no mean order. Whistling's Hdnd- 
Inch (1828) names three Romances for voice 
and PF. (Peters), and songs with guitar and 
Tioloncello (B. k H.), and Mendel mentions 
duets with PF. accompaniment, a Ck)mplaint of 
Maria Stuart, with PF. and violoncello, and 
many part-songs (still in MS.) eomposed for 
Zelter*8 Liedertafel, of which he was an en- 
thusiastic supporter.* But these were only 
preparations for his great work, entitled ' Com- 
positions to Goethe*s dramatic poem of Faust.' 
This, which was published in score and arrange- 
ment by Trautwein of Berlin in Nov. 1836, 
contains twenty -five numbers, occupying 589 
{wiges. A portion was sung by the Singakademio 
as early as May 1, 1810 ; the choruses were 
performed in May 1816, three new scenes as 
late as Nov. 21, 1830, and the whole work was 
brought out by that institution after the death 
of the composer, which took place April 8, 
1833. The work was repeatedly performed 
during several years in Berlin, Danzig, Han- 
over, Leipzig, Prague, and many other places, 
as may be seen from the index to the A, M, 
Zeiiung, It made its appearance in a perform- 
ance at Hyde Park College, London, on May 
21, 1880, under the direction of L. Martin- Eiffe. 
A full analysiB of it will be found in the A. M, 
Zeilung for 1836, pp. 601, 617 ; and there is a 
copy in the British Museum. 6. 

RAFF, Joseph Joachim, bom May 27, 1822, 
at liichen on the Lake of Zurich. He received 
his early education at Wiesenstetten in Wurtem- 
berg, in the home of his parents, and then at 
the Jesnit Lyceum of Schwyz, where he carried 
off the first prizes in German, Latin, and 
mathematics. Want of means compelled him 
to give up his classical studies, and become a 
schoolmaster, but he stuck to music, and though 
unable to afibrd a teacher, made such progress 
not only with the piano and the violin, but also 
in composition, that Mendelssohn, to whom he 
sent some MSS., gave him in 1843 a recommen- 
dation to Breitkopf k Hartel. This introduction 
seems to have led to his appearing before the 
public, and to the first drops of that Hood of 
compositions of aU sorts and dimensions which 
from 1844 he poured forth in an almost un- 
ceasing stream. Of op. 1 we have found no 
critical record ; but op. 2 is kindly noticed by 
the N. Zeitsehrifl for August 5, 1844, the 

Zaltn'a Oorrnprndema with OMthe teema with notices of fhe 

reviewer finding in it * something which jwints 
to a future for the composer.' Encouraging 
notices of opp. 2 to 6 inclusive are also given 
in the A, M, Zeitung for the 2l8t of the same 
month. Amidst privations which would have 
daunted any one of less determination he worked 
steadily on, and at length having fallen in with 
Liszt, was treated by him with the kindness 
which always marked his intercourse with rising 
or struggling talent, and was taken by him on 
a concert-tour. Meeting Mendelssohn for the 
first time at Cologne in 1846, and being after- 
wards invited by him to become his pupil at 
Leipzig, he left Liszt for that purpose. Before 
he could carry this project into eflect, however, 
Mendelssohn died, and Raff remained atCologner 
occupying himself inter alia in writing critiques 
for Dehn's Cadlia, Later, in 1854, he published 
Die JFagnerfragej a pamphlet which excited 
considerable attention. Liszt's endeavours to- 
secure him a patron in Vienna in the person of 
Mecchetti the publisher, were frustrated by 
Mecchetti's death while Raff was actually oit 
the way to see him. Undismayed by these 
repeated obstacles he devoted himself to a 
severe course of study, partly at home and 
I)artly at Stuttgart, with the view to remedy 
the deficiencies of his early training. At 
Stuttgart he made the acquaintance of Biilow, 
who became deeply interested in him, and did 
him a great service by taking up his new 
Concertstuck, for PF. and orchestra, and playing 
it (Jan. 1, 1848). 

By degrees Raff attached himself more and 
more closely to the now German school, and in 
1850 went to Weimar to be near Liszt, who had 
at that time abandoned his career as a virtuoso 
and was settled there. Here he remodelled an 
opera, * Konig Alfred,* which he had composed 
in Stuttgart three yeare before, and it was 
produced at the Court Theatre, where it was 
often performed. It has also been given else- 
where. Other works followed — a collection of 
PF. pieces called * Friihlingsboten ' in 1 852, the 
first string quartet in 1855, and the first grand 
sonata for PF. and violin (E minor) in 1857. 
In the meantime he had engaged himself to 
Doris Genast, daughter of the well-known actor 
and manager, and heraelf on the stage ; and in 
1856 he followed her to Wiesbaden, where he 
was soon in great request as a pianoforte teacher. 
In 1858 he composed his second violin sonata, 
and the incidental music for * Bemhard von Wei- 
mar,' a drama by Wilhelm Genast, the overture 
to which speedily became a favourite, and was 
much played throughout Germany. In 1859 
he married. In 1863 hia first symphony, 'An 
das Vaterland,' obtained the prize offered by the 
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna (out 
of thirty-two competitors), and was followed by 
the 2nd (in C) and the 3rd (in F, * Im Walde') 
in 1869, the 4th (in G minor) in 1871, the 5th 
(*Lenore') in 1872, the 6th (*Gelebt, gestrebt, 




gelitten, gestritteu, gestorben, uimvorben ') in 
1876, and the 7th (* Alpensinfonie ') in 1877, 
the 8th (*Friihling8kliinge') in 1878, and the 
9th (* Ini Sommerzeit ') in 1880. A 1 0th (' Zur 
Herbstzeit ') was played at Wieabaden ; and the 
nth, left unfinished at his death, was revised 
by Erdmannsdbrfer. In 1870 his comic opera 
* Dame Kobold * was produced at Weimar. Other 
o)>eras for which he himself wrote the libretti 
have not been j>ei-formod in public. Two can- 
tatas, '"NVachet auf,' and another written for 
the Festival in commemoration of the battle of 
Leipzig, were his firet works for men's voices, 
and are popular with choral societies. His ar- 
rangement of Bach's six ^^olin sonatas for PF. 
is a work of great merit. 

Detailed analyses of the firat six of these 
Sym])honies will be found in the Monthly Musical 
Record for 1875, and from thase a very good 
idea of the composer's style may be gathered. 
Remembering his stniggles and hard life it is 
only a matter for wonder that he should have 
striven so earnestly and so long in a path that 
was not his natural walk. A glance at the 
nearly complete list of his works at the foot of 
this notice will explain our meaning. The 
enormous mass of 'drawing-room music' tells 
its own tale. Ralf had to live, and having by 
nature a remarkable gift of melody and jwrhaps 
not nm(!h artistic refinement, he wrote what 
would i>ay. But on looking at his works in 
the higher branch of music — his symphonies, 
concertos, and chamber music — one cannot but 
be stnick by the conscientious striving towards 
a high ideal. In the whole of his published 
Symphonies the slow movements, without a 
single exception, are of extreme melodic beauty, 
although weak from a symphonic iwint of view ; 
the tii-st movements are invariably worked out 
with surprising technical skill, the subjects 
appearing frequently in double counterpoint 
and in every kind of canon. And however 
modern and common his themes may appear, 
they have often been built up with the greiitest 
care, note by note, to this end ; showing that 
he does not, as is often said, put down the fn-st 
thing that comes into his mind. Observe tlie 
following treatment of the first subject in his 
1st Symphony ' An das Vaterland ' : — 

1st Violin 

a canon in augmentation and double augmenta- 
tion. Such instances as this are numerous, and 
the art with which these contrapuntal devices 

are made to appear spontaneous is remarkable. 
In the Pianoforte Concerto in C minor (op. 1 85), 
in each movement all the subjects are in double 
counteri>oint with one another, yet this is one 
of Raffs freshest and most melodious works. 
To return to the Symphonies : the Scherzos are, 
as a rule, weak, and the Finales without excej)- 
tion boisterous and indeed vulgar. Writing 
here, as ever, for an uneducated jmblic, Ralf 
has forgotten that for a symphony to descend 
from a liigh tone is for it to be unworthy of the 

A remarkable set of thirty Songs (Sanges- 
Friililing, op. 98) deserves notice for its wealth 
of fine melodies, some of which have become 
national property (* Kein Sorg urn den Weg ' ; 
'Schun' Else,' etc.) ; and among his pianoforte 
music is a set of twenty Variations on an original 
theme (op. 179) which displays an astonishing 
fertility of resource, the theme — of five and 
seven quavers in the bar — being built up into 
canons and scherzos of great variety and elegance. 

Raffs Pianoforte Concerto was very populai-, 
and his Suite for Violin and Orchestra (op. 180) 
only little less so. His versatility need not be 
enlarged upon. In all the forms of musical com- 
jiosition he showed the same brilliant qualities 
and the same regrettable shortcomings. His 
gift of melody, his technical skill, his inex- 
haustible fertility, and above all his jwwer of 
never re2)6ating himself — all these are beyond 
praise. But his very fertility was a misfortune, 
since it rendered him careless in the choice of 
his subjects ; writing * pot-boilers ' injured the 
development of a delicate feeling for what is 
lofty and refined ; in short, the conscientious 
critic hesitates to allow him a place in the front 
rank of composers. 

Even those who have least sympathy with 
Rafl's views on art must admire the energy and 
spirit with which he worked his way upwai-ds 
in sjiite of every obstacle poverty could throw in 
his way. He was a memljcr of several societies, 
and received various ordei-s. In 1877 he 
wtis a]j}K)inted with nmch ikilat director of 
the Hoch couservatorium at Frankfort, a post 
he held until his death, in the night of June 
24-25, 1882. [Since his death his music has 
passed, alike in Germany and England, into an 
oblivion which cannot excite surprise in those 
who realise the inherent weaknesses of the com- 
|)oser ; and the sudden change on the jiart of 
the public, from a widespread admiration to 
almost complete neglect, is of itself a severe 
criticism on his work.] 

The first of his large works performed in 
this country was probably the licnoi-e Symphony 
at the Crystal Palace, Nov. 14, 1874. [The 
Musical /^orW of August 1890, p. 629, contains 
a translation of Raffs letters explaining the 
meaning of the work.] Tliis was followed by 
the * Im Walde,* and the PF. Concerto in C 
minor (Jaell), at the Philharmonic ; the Sym- 




phonies in G minor, * Im Walde,' *Fruhling8. 
klange' and *Im Sommerzeit,'>vith the Concertos 
for violoncello and violin, and the Suite for 
PF. and orchestra, at the Crystal Palace. His 
Quintet (op. 107), two Trios (opp. 102, 112), 
Sonata (op. 128), and other pieces, were played 
at the Monday Popular Concerts. f. g. 

Calaloffiu: of Jiafs JVorks.^ 


Sermade. PF. solo. Andre. 
Tmia pMca ouvctMstiqnei. 

PF. mVa. B. * H.' 
Schcno (C minar). PF. solo. 


3Iorc«ao d« Baloo . . . mr 

•Mjtfte d« Bodenz.' PF. 

•olo. B. k H. 
4GAla9>m PF. aolo. B. ft H. 
Morcwa iiist Fkntalsle et 

Vwna. PF. aolo. B. ft H. 
RuBd«Mi tar 'lo son ricoo.' 

PF. lulo. B. ftH. 
I'i EoniaiKcs en fonn d'Xtu- 

•l0i: en 3 Cahien. PF. 

sulo. B. ftH. 
Impromiito hrilluit. PF. 

•olo. B. ft H. 
Hommace au K^roiniin- 

tUin«. Unod Gipricc. PF. 

■olo. B. ft H. 
Air inlaw, tntnacrlt. PF. 

•o)a B.ftlL 
MorcMa de Salon. Fant. 

rracicine, PF. aolo. B. ft H. 
ValM. Rondlno sor *L«a 

Hunenota.' PF. dost. B. 

Sonata ft Foyoe (^ nttnor). 

PF. aolo. B.ftlL 
«PbtaieiL PF.aolo. Scbott. 
Im|irom|itiii for PF. Unpub- 

Albmn Lgrrlqne. PF. ■olo. 

Bchubertli {A booka oontain- 

tnc t pieeeai. 
ParapkinMa (on Llact'a aonipi) 

PF. aulo. Bck. 
Paataiala dramatlqnc. PF. 

aolo. Lltolfl'. 
3 Moreaanx da Salon. S^rd- 

md* ttaHaiuM ; Air BbcnMi. 

PF. aolo. Utolir. 
Lorelajr. DIehtung ohne 

Worto. PF. aolo. Spina. 
tRliapaodi«a<Wflaiiu«k PF. 

aolo. Spina. 
SPtteaaoaract^rlatiqaaa. PF. 

■Olnc KistBMk 

Valaa mAanooIiqne. PF. 

aoUk Spina. 
Bomaaea-ttada. PF. aolo. 

Den lUnoi ScwlaUia. 

Schano. PF. ado. Spina. 
AMtlcM WUtar Tkf iin 

Kioater. Bin C/cloa. etc. H'i 

pl«eaaln2booka). PF. aolo. 

S atn from ' Bobart 1e 

DlaMc' ttmnaeribed for PF. 

Uebeafrthlinc aongiL 
2 Maaarkaa and Sevmade, 

I^imotoile, for PF. Crmiix. 
Am Rbein. Bomanse. PF. 

aolo. Spina. 
Albutnataek. for PF. Vnpob- 

, Op. 

*L 'ht Prdtcndant' . . . de 
; KQcken (3 Noa.). PF. aolo. 

'4^ Divertiaaameut aur 'La 
I J Dive.' PF. aulo. Schuberth. 

4i. Fautaaiiia aur 'Le Barbier 
I de SaTille.' PF. aolo. 

45. Souvenir de 'Don Oiovanni.' 
I PP. nolo. Schuberth. 

|441. 'L« deniiire Boae' — (The 

laat roae of aumtuer). Im- 

promptu. PF. aolo. Craiu. 

47. 3 Liedcr (by J. O. Fischer) 

for Bar. or Alto aud PF. 

48. 2 Urder for Voice and PF. 


49. 3 Lieder (by J. G. Flacher) 

for Voice and PP. Hein- 

90. 2 lUIienlache Lieder 0>7 

Sternau) for Voice and PF. 

SI. 5 Liedcr for Voice and PF. 

93. 3 Lieder for Voice and PF. 

fi3. 2 Lieder vom Bhein for V«lce 

and PF. SohloM. 
M. Tani-ohpricen (4). PP. aolo. 

S5. FrahllDgabotcn — 12 abort 

f\ fi4 PF- hjIaj- Bihu- 

86. 3 8*u«wnji:V. rr *i1m. 

57. 'Amu Avt Hchweli,' F^uUt- 

tlK7hr K^lo^ flni?hc«i*iin, 
as. 2 SiiH^lamw. PP. wmL ^ j^jUii. 

89. Dan iui A. PF. And vlultfn- 

Cd'l]']. liaicpl, 

60. SeliwrlEarvTelicl] ifl N'oa^]. 

PF, M^^\l>. 8i£habvrlh. 

61. No 1. Waifiiara ' Lxtbt^nirrlii,' 

■.►li»,-.Kii, iL r>.>. ■Tiiiiii. 
hauMr/ FitbtMie. PF. 
aolo.— No. 3. Do. ' Fli^ende 
HolUinder,' Beiuiniaceiiaen. 
PF. aolo. — No. 4. 8«hu- 
niann'a ' Oenoveva.' PF. 
aolo. Schuberth. 

60. Salon -Etuden from Wag- 
uer'a operaa. PF. aolo. 
Schleahiger. No. 1. Andante 
from ' Fllegvnde Holliitider.' 
— Nu. 2. Sestet from ' Taim- 
hSuMr.' — No. 3. Lohen- 
frin'a farewell. 

63. Duoa on inotiCa from Wag- 
ner'a operaa. PF. and V. 
Stegel. No. I. 'Flicgende 
HolMnder.'— No. 2. 'TlMin- 

6 Uadartbertraguncan, tot 

. Oawlocieito <od themea from 
'Frrlaehats'L PF. aolo. 

Faniatele Militatre (on themea 
aoloL SdiaT " 

Grand Mawurka. PF. aolo. 

Noctama (an romanoe bj 

Unii. PF. aolo. Kiatner. 
Gapriecietio k la Bohtoilenne. 

PF. aoki. Klatoer. 
Bomanoe. PF. aokx Kiatner. 

No. 3. ' Lolten- 
61 Capriceio in F minor. PF. 
, aolo. Leuckart. 

1 68. No. 1. FanUiale on motifa 
from Berlios'a ' Benvennto 
Cellini.' PF. aolo. — No. 2. 
Caprice on motifa from 
BalTa 'Alfred.' PF. aolo. 

Traum-KOnig nnd aein Lieb ' 
(Oeibel). Voice and PF. 

La Vim d' Amour.' Moroean 
'). PF. tola eaiset^riatique pour Violon 

de Concert avec PF. Schott. 
68. 8 Tranaorlutiona (Beethoven, 
Glu«k, Moatrt. Schumann, 

-). PF. aolo. 
Ita. PF. aolo. KOmer. 
70. 2 Paraphraaea da Salon (Tro- 
vatore, Travlata). PF. aolo. 

I The Idltor dealrea to expreaa bia obligationa to Meaara. Angener 
ft Co. ftv graat ■— IrtmuT kindly reodered blm In the difficult taak 
of dnvlM np thla llat 

s B ft B.-Br«ltkoirf ft BlrteL 


71. Suite in C. PF. aulo. KUhn. 

72. Suite in B minor. PF. aulo. 


73. lat Grand Sonata. PF. and 

V. (E minor). Schuberth. 

74. 3 PF. aoloa (Ballade. Scher- 

MKi, Metamorphoaen). Schu- 
79. Suite de (12) Morceaux pour 
lea petitea malua. PF. aolo. 

76. Ode au Priutempa. Morceau 

de Cunuert. PF. and Orch. 

77. Quatuor (No. 1) in D minor. 

fur Stringa. Schuberth. 

78. 'ind Grand Sonata for PF. 

and V. (in A). Schuberth. 

79. Cachoncha,CHprioe. PF.aulu. 


80. 'Wachetauf'(Gelbel). Meu'a 

voices. Solo, Chorua, and 
Orcheatra. Scbott. 

81. No. 1. Sici limine de I'Opdra 

dea 'V^prea Siciliennea.'— 
No. 2. Tarautelle de ditto. 
PF. aulo. Petera. I 

82. Suite de (12i Morceaux pour 

lea petktea maina. PF. 
dueta. Schuberth. 

83. Mnzourka-Capriue. PF. aolo. 


84. M'bant de I'Ondin.' Grande 

Etude de I 'Arpeggio tremo- 
laiido. PF. aolo. Petera. 
8.V U Mon.-eaux. PF. and V. 

86. 2 KanUiaieatncke. PF. and 

V'cello. R. B.5 

87. Introduction aud All" acher- 

xoao. PF. aolo. ^ R. B. 

88. 'AmGleMbach,' Ktude. PF. 

aolo. R. B. 
8B. Vilanella. PP. aolo. R. B. 

90. Quartf-t. No. 2. In A. for 

Strings. Schulierth. 

91. Suite in D. PF. nolo. Petera. 

92. Capriodu in D minor. PF. 

aolo. Petera. 
90. ' Dana la nacelle,' Rtverie- 

Barcarolle. PF. aolo. Peters. 
94. Impromptu Vulse. PF. aolo. 

80. 'L* Polka de U Reine.' 
Caprice. PF. aolo. Petera. 

96. 'An das Vaterland.' Prixe 

Symphony (No. 1). Schu- 

97. 10 Lieder for Male Voice*. 

96. 'Sangea-FrUbling.' .10 Ro- 
1—'--^- » i^r- Dalladen. 
a opr. and 

99. 3 F^'ii 1.1113'-' I ^ ' <tor: G; 

( . VV. p-J-i f hul>erth. 

100. 'lHiitfc>iliiTMli* \nfenite- 

huTig/ F<M f'Liitatc on 
tliD M)th «.EtnJvri ' 'Xy of the 
luttlt^ of LMiNiiL for Male 
V<ifr««nml Kahnt. 

101. Su I Uf t\ii VlTvhv'f [ i L Schott. 
10*2. lat ihaui] TH», for PP., 

^^, ^nd: '^kiWrnil o. Schu- 

103. Jubilee Overture, for Or- 
chestra. Kahnt. 

101 'Le Galop,' Caprice. PF. 
sola Petera. 

100. 8 Bgloguea. PF. aolo. Pet4>rH. 

106. Fantaisie- Polonaise. PF. 

aolo. Peters. 

107. Grund Quintuor (A minor). 

PF.. 2 VV., vloU, and 
violoncolla Schuberth. 

108. Saltarello. PF. aolo. R. B. 

109. K«verio-Nocturne. PF.aolo. 

R. B. 

110. * La Gitana.' Danse Eapagn. 

Caprice. PF. nolo. B. B. 

111. Buleroa and Val««, 2 Ca- 

prices. PF. aolo. Schu- 

112. '2nd Grand Trio (in G). PF. 

V. and violoncello. R. B. 

113. ITnoariacbe Rhapaodie. PF. 

aolo. Forberg. 

114. 12 SongN for 2 voices and 

PF. Porberg. 

115. 2 Morceaux lyriqnas. PF. 

aolo. Forherg. 

116. Valae Caprice. PF. aolo. 


117. Faatlval Overture (In A), for 

Orchestra. Kiatner. 

Valae favorite. PF. solo. 

Fantaaie. PF.aolo. Kiatner. 
Spaniah Rhapsudy, for PF. 

Kiatner, 18S5. 
lUustratiuna de ' L'Afrl- 

caine' (4 Nua.). PF. aolo. 

B. B.* 
10 Sungs for Meu'a Voices. 

Concert -Overture lin F). 

FeatiVRl-Overtiire on 4 fa- 
vourite Studeut-aongs. for 

the 50th anniversary uf 

the • Deutschen-BurM-heu- 

achaft.' PF. 4 hands. Prae- 

Garotte; Berceuse: Eapi^gle; 

Vali*. PF. solo. 8legel. 
3 CUvleiTtUckc — Menuet. 

Roniance.Capriccietto. PF. 

aulo. Praever. 
'Eln' feste Burg.' overture 

to a drama on the »»-yeani' 

wM-. Orchestra. Hufniels- 

3nt Grand Sonata. PF. and 

V. (In D). Schulierth. 
4th Grand SonaU. PF. nnd 

V, 'Chrom. Stiuate in el- 

nem Satze.' (G minor). 

2 Etudes m(51odique9. PF. 

aolo. Schulierth. 
Styrienne. PF. solo. Hof- 

Man;he brillante. PF. aolo. 

ra«5gle. PF. aolo. Hofmeis- 

'Vom Rhehi.' 6 Fantasie- 

stUcke. PF.aolo. Klstner. 
'Bliitter und Biathen.' 12 

pieces for PF. aolo. Kahnt. 
3rd Htri ng quartet (E minor). 

4th String qiwrtet (A 

minor). Schubeith. 
5th String quartet (G). 

Festmarach, for Orchestra. 

2nd Symphony (in C), for 

Orchestra. Scbott. 
Paalm 130 t' De Pmfnndis'). 

8 voices and Orch. Schu- 
Fantaisie (F|). PF. m>1o. 

Barcarolle (Eb). PF. solo. 

Tarantella (C). PF. solo. 

5th Grand Sonata. PF.and V. 

(C minor). Schuberth. 
Capriceio (Bb minor I. PP. 

solo. R. B. 
2 MediUtiuna. PF. m\o. 

II. B. 
Scherzo in Eb. PP. aulo. 

2 Elsies for PF. aolo. R. B. 
Chaconne (A minor). 2 PFs. 

Allegro agiUto. PF. aolo. 

2 Romances. PF. nolo. R. B. 
3rd Symphony. ' Im Walde ' 

(F). Oirhestra. Kiatner. 
' Dame Kobold,' Comic 

opera. B. B. 
3rd Grand Trio. PF..V.,and 

violoncello. B. B, 
Valse brillante (Eb). PF. 

aolo. Rlea. 
Cavatlne (Ab) and Etude 

'La Flleuae.' PF. solo. 

4th Grand Trio (D). PP.. 

v., and violoticellu. ^Itx. 
ltd Uumoreskc (D) In Wnlta 

form, PF. duet. B. B. 
Reiaebllder (10 Nua.). PF. 

duet. Slegel. 
Concerto for Violin ft Orch. 

(B minor). Slegel. 
Suite In G minor. PF. aolo. 

Suite in G major. PF. solo. 

Sicillenne, Romance, Tar- 

anielle. PF. aolo. B. B. 
• La Clcerenella, Nouveau 

Carnaval.' PF.aolo. Slegel. 

' R. B.«"Rleter-Bl«lermann ftCu. 
« B. B.=Bot« ft Bock. 





IW. 10 OeMuge for Mixed Choir. 

198. 2 BceiiM for Bo!o Voice And 

Orvh. * J<g«r-braut ' and 

'DleHirtin.' 8i««el. 
I. Saite lu Eb for PF. and 

Urvh. Sivgel. 

201. 7th Byiiiphony. 'In the 
Alps' (Bb|. Oroh. 8eits. 

202. 2 Quartets for FF. V. Va. 

aiid vluluncvllo <0). Sityel. 

203. • Volker." oycllnche Toudlch- 
tiing 19 No*.). V. and PP. 

8ulU?(Bb). Orch. ChalUer. 
206. 8th 8yiuphouy ' FrUhUnip)- 

kliiitge'lA). Orch. 8l(««l. 
aOd 2nd Concerto fur Y. and 

Orch. (A minor). 8iei{«rl. 
207(1. Phautaaie (O minor). 2 

PFb. Siegel. 
2)76. The tame arranged for PF. 

and strlu|(B. SirveL 
'J06. 9ih Symphony iK minor). 

* Im Bommer.' Orch. 8ie- 

■203. ' LHe TMgeuelton,' for Choir, 

PP.. and Orvh. B. A H. 
•JIO. Suite for VIn. and PF. Sicvel. 

211. 'Blondel de Netle.' Cycloa 

von OeaKugen. Barit. and 
PF. B. * H. 

212. Weltende — (leHcht - Neue 

Wclt. oratorio. B. * H. 

213. 10th Symphony. 'ZurHerbBt- 

zeit.' Sieeel. 

214. 11th Symphony. * Der Win- 

ter.' Siegel. 

215. ' Von derKhwKbiachen Alb.' 

10 PF. piece*. 8l.-gel. 

216. *Au*dcr Adventreit." 8 PF. 

pieuea. Bahu. 


IM. Idylle: Val«e champ«tre. 
PF. Milo. 8eits. 

167. 4th Symphony (G minor). 

Orchestra. Schuberth. 

168. FantaUie-Sonate li> minor). 

PF. nolo. Siegel. 
168. Bonuinie; Valite brlllante. 
PF. nolo. Siegel. 

170. Lii Polka gllMiante. Caprice. 

PF. lolo. Siegel. 

171. ' fill Kahu ' and ' Der Tanz.' 

2 simipi for Mixed Choir 
and Oruhestra. Siegel. 

172. 'Maria Stuart, cln Cyclua 

von Clemngeii.' for Voice 
andPF. (II Not.) Sie«el. 

173. 8 Gewinge for Voice and PF. 


174. * Ami dem Tanzsalon. Phaii- 

taaieStUcke'(12Noe.). PF. 
4 haiidi. Seits. 

179. ' Oriontalet,' 8 Morceanx. 

PP. eolo. Forberg. 
178. Octet for itringB (C». SeiU. 

177. 8th Symphony, * Lenore.' 

Oreh. Beitz. 

178. Seatet. 2 VV.. 2 vlobia. 2 

violoncellos. Seltz. 
170. VariatiouB on an original 
theme. PF. w>lo. Seltz. 

180. Suite for Solo V. and Orch. 


181. 2ua Uumoreske In WalU 

form, 'Todtentans (Daiuc 
macabre).' PF. duet. Siegel. 

182. 2 Romant-es for Horn |or 

violoncello) and PF. Siegel. 

183. Sonata for PF. and violon- 

cello. Siegel. 

184. 6 Songs for 3 women's voices 

and PF. Siegel. 

185. Concerto. PF. and Orch. (C 

minor). 8ie/el. 
186a. Morgenlled fur MixedChoir 

and Orch. Hiegel. 
1866. Rlner entachUfenen. So- 

p— irrn »o!r>. Phwr. aivi Orch. 

187. Erl i; ^j mii: mi V*jtin' i . (6 

N .. . IT. •'►K J^i.v-1. 

188. Sit,' .inHU tr,r *lln'l iiihLru- 

n. Ill'- Hli>y?'l. 
180. 6tl -3 iiirt y lU Miinor). 

•• I'-Ji.tiT.. gtwLif ht, hi; linen, 

gt^tLntEen. ^I'^i^irlx'n, iini' 

wiu^PTi ' Drijh. a. B. 
190. Foift fi.SVt*. f'qirj.^p-ftiide. 

P'-' ' - ' 
101. Bli igs. 

192. SStrinTQiwrte'ts. No. 6. (C 
minor) Suite kiterer Form. 
—No. 7. (U) Die sch6ne 
Muileriu.— No. 8. (C) Suite 
in Canon-form. Kahnt. 

198. Concerto I D minor). Violon- 
cello and Orch. Siegel. 

194. 2nd Suite in Ungarischer 

WeiseJF). Orch. Bahu. 

195. 10 Ocaiinge for men's voices. 

196. Etude 'am Schllf: Ber- 

ceuse : Novelette ; Im- 
promptu. PF. solo. Seltz. 

197. Capricclo (Db). PF. solo. 


RAG TIME. A modern term, of American 
origin, signifying, in the first instance, broken 
rhythm in melody, especially a sort of con- 
tinuous syncopation. *Rag time tunes' is a 
name given in tlie States to those airs which 
are usually associated with the so-called * coon ' 
songs or lyrics, which are supposed to depict 
negro life in modem America. f. k. 

RAIF, OsKAR (born July 31, 1847, at 
Zwolle, in Holland, died July 29, 1899, in 
Berlin), was a pupil of Tausig, and occupied a 
post as pianoforte teacher in the Royal Hoch- 
schule at Berlin, with the title of Koniglicher Pro- 
fessor, from 1875 till the time he died. h. v. h. 

RAIMONDI, loNAZio, Neapolitan violinist 
and composer. The date of his birth is unknown, 
but, judging by the fact that he went to 
Amsterdam in 1760, and there produced his 

Works without On*s-!irMBE». 

Valse-rondlno on motifs from 

Salomau's ' Diamautkreuz.' 

Reminiscences of the ' Meister- 

singer' (4 Pts.). Bcbott. 
Valse- impromptu k la Tyro- 

llenne. Schott. 
Abendlled by Schunwnn. Con- 
cert-paraphrase. Schuberth. 
Berceuse on an Idea of Oounod's. 

Improvisation on Damrosch's 

Lied ' Der Llndeiuweig.' Lich- 

Valse de Juliette (Qoonod). 

4 Capriccios on WalUrhlan (2) 

and Servian (21 themes. Siegel. 
Introduction and Fugue for Or- 
gan (K minor). R. B. 
Bair-Albnm^«ontaining op. 1S6 : 

l.W. Nos. 1. 2: 166. No. 2; 196. 

Nos.1-4: 11^7. SeiU. 
Oper im Salon — containing op. 

35-37. 43-45. 61, 65. Schu- 

FrUhlinvs-Lied. Met. Sop. and 

PF. Schott. 
RUindchen for Voice and PF. 


first compositions, we may infer that he was 
bom about 1735 or 1740. He died in London 
at his own house, 74 Great Portland Street, 
January 14, 1813. During his residence in 
Amsterdam he established periodical concerts, 
and produced his symphony entitled *The 
Adventures of Telemachus.' From Amsterdam 
he went to Paris, where his opera, ' La Muette, ' 
was performed, and about 1790-91 he came to 
London, where he received sufficient encourage- 
ment to induce him to make it his [lermanent 
home. His comfX)sitions became very popular 
in England, particularly a symphony entitled 
*The Battle.' On June 1, 1791, he gave a 
benefit concert at the Hanover S<|uare Rooms, 
at which he figured both as violinist and com- 
poser ; he was assisted by Signer Pacchierotti, 
Madame Mara, Lord Momington, and Monsieur 
Dahmer (vide Morning Chronicle^ June 1 , 1791). 
The following year he gave a series of subscni>- 
tion concerts at Willis's Rooms, and at these 
he both played solos and led the orchestra. 
Emanuele Barbella is said to have taught 
Raimondi the violin, but whether this be fact 
or no, we may infer from Dr. Burney's remark 
{History of Music, vol. iii.), * The sweet tone 
an'd polished style of a Raimondi,' that this 
artist's technique was of the then greatly ad- 
mired Tartini school. Raimondi's published 
compositions include two symphonies — besides 
the * Telemachus ' above mentioned, a number 
of quartets for two violins, viola, and violon- 
cello, two sets of six trios for two violins and 
violoncello, and some sonatas for two violins, 
violin and violoncello, and violin and viola. — 
Dr. Bumey, History of Music ; Park (W. T.), 
Musical Memoirs ; Fetis, Biog, des iViis. ; Eitner, 
Qiiellen - Lex ikon ; The Gentleman's Magazine, 
Jan. 1813 ; Tli^ Times, May 14, 1800. e. ha. 
RAIMONDI, PiKTRO, was bom at Rome of 
poor jMirents Dec. 20, 1786. At an early age 
he passed six years in the Conservatorio of tlie 
Piet^ de' Turchini at Naples, and after many 
wanderings, mostly on foot — from Naples to 
Rome, from Rome to Florence, from Florence to 
Genoa — and many years, he at length found an 
opportunity of coming before the public with an 
©i^era entitled *Le Bizzarrie d'Amore,' which was 
performed at Genoa in 1807. After three years 
there, each producing its opera, he passed a 
twelvemonth at Florence, and brought out two 
more. The next twenty- five years were spent 
l)etween Rome, Milan, Naples, and Sicily, and 
each year had its full complement of operas and 
ballets. In 1824 he became director of the 
royal theatres at Naples, a position which he 
retained till 1832. In that yeAv the brilliant 
success of his opera butfa,'ll Ventaglio' (Naples, 
1831), procured him the post of Professor of 
Composition in the Conservatorio at Palermo. 
Here he was much esteemed, and trained several 
promising pupils. In December 1852, he was 
called upon to succeed Basili as Maestro di 




Cappella at St Peter's ; a post for which, if 
knowledge, experience, and ceaseless labour of 
prodaction in all depiui^ments of his art could 
qualify him, he was amply fitted. Shortly 
before this, in 1848, he had after four years 
of toil completed three oratorios, 'Potiphar,' 
'Pharaoh,' and 'Jacob,' which were not only 
designed to be performed in the usual manner, 
but to be played all three in combination as 
one work, under the name of 'Joseph.' On 
August 7, 1 852, the new Maestro brought out 
this stupendous work at the Teatro Argentina. 
The success of the three single oratorios was 
moderate, but when they were united on the 
following day — the three orchestras and the 
three troupes forming an ensemble of nearly 400 
musicians — the excitement and applause of the 
spectators knew no bounds, and so great was 
iiis emotion that Raimondi fainted away. He 
did not long survive this triumph, but died at 
fiome, Oct 30, 1853. 

The list of his works is astonishing, and 
embraces 62 operas ; 21 grand ballets, composed 
for San Carlo between 1812 and 1828 ; 8 
oratorios ; 4 masses with full orchestra ; 2 
ditto with 2 choirs a cappella ; 2 requiems 
with full orchestra ; 1 ditto for 8 and 16 voices ; 
a Credo for 1 6 voices ; the whole Book of Psalms, 
for 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 voices ; many Te Deums, 
Stabats, Misereres, Tantum ergos, psalms, and 
htanies ; two books of 00 partimerUiy each on 
a separate bass, with three different accompani- 
ments ; a collection of figured basses with fugaed 
accompaniments as a school of accompaniment ; 
4 fugues for 4 voices, each independent but 
capable of being united and sung together as a 
quadruple fugue in 16 parts ; 6 fagues for 4 
voices capable of combination into 1 fugue for 
24 voices ; a fague for 16 choirs ; 16 fugues for 
4 voices ; 24 fugues for 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 voices, 
of which 4 and 5 separate fugues will combine 
into one. A fugue in 64 parts, for 16 four-part 
choirs, is said to exist Besides the above feat 
with the three oratorios he composed an opera 
seria and an opera buffa which went equally 
well separately and in combination. Such 
stupendous labours are, as Fetis remarked, 
enough to give the reader the headache : what 
must they have done to the persevering artist 
who acoomplished them ? But they also give 
one the heartache at the thought of their utter 
futility. Raimondi's compositions, with all their 
ingenuity, belong to a past age, and we may 
safely say that they will never be revived, o. 

RAINFORTH, Elizabeth, bom Nov. 28, 
1814, studied singing under George Perry and 
T. Cooke, and acting under Mrs. Davison, the 
eminent comedian. After having gained experi- 
ence at minor concerts, she appeared upon the 
stage at the St James's Theatre, Oct 27, 1836, 
as Mandane, in Ame's 'Artaxerxes,' with com- 
plete success. She performed there for the 
remainder of the season, and then removed to 


the English Opera -House. Subsequently to 
her public appearance she took lessons from 
Crivelli. In 1837 she sang in oratorio at the 
Sacred Harmonic Society, and continued to do 
so for several years. She made her first appear- 
ance at the Philharmonic, March 18, 1889. 
In 1840 she sang at the Antient Concerts, and 
in 1848 at the Birmingham Festival. After 
performing at Covent Garden from 1838 to 
1843 she transferred her services to Drury Lane, 
where she made a great hit by her performance 
of Arline, in Balfe's ' Bohemian Girl,* on its 
production, Nov. 27, 1843. In the previous 
year she had a most suocessful season in Dublin, 
and repeated her visits to Ireland in 1844 and 
1849. She was engaged as prima donna at the 
Worcester Festival of 1845. She continued to 
perform in the metropolis until about 1852, 
when she removed to Edinburgh, where she 
remained until about 1856. She then retired, 
and in 1858 went to live at Old Windsor, and 
taught music in the neighbourhood until her 
complete retirement in March 1871, when she 
removed to her father's at Bristol. Her voice 
was a high soprano, even and sweet in quality, 
but deficient in power, and she possessed great 
judgment and much dramatic feeling. Although 
her limited power prevented her from becoming 
a great singer, her attainments were such as 
enabled her to fill the first place with credit to 
herself, and satisfaction to herauditors. Shedied 
at Redland, Bristol, Sept 22, 1877. w. H. h. 
ENTE, RITENUTO— * Becoming slow again,' 
'Slackening,' 'Holding back,' 'Held back/ 
The first two of these words are used quite 
indifierently to express a gradual diminution of 
the rate of speed in a composition, and although 
the last is commonly used in exactly the same 
way, it seems originally and in a strict sense to 
have meant a uniform rate of slower time, so 
that the whole passage marked ritenuto would 
be taken at the same time, while each bar and 
each phrase in a passage marked rallentando 
would be a little slower than the one before it. 
That there exists a difference in their uses is 
conclusively proved by a passage in the Quartet 
op. 131 of Beethoven, where in the 7th move- 
ment (allegro) a phrase of three recurring 
minims, which is repeated in all five times, has 
the direction ' Espressivo, poco ritenuto ' for its 
first three appearances, which are separated by 
two bars a tempo, and for the last two times 
has rUardandOf which at length leads into the 
real a tempo, of which the former separating 
fragments were but a presage. This is one of 
the very rare instances of the use of the word 
ritenuto by Beethoven. The conclusion from it 
is confirmed by a passage in Chopin's Rondo, 
op. 16, consisting of the four bars which im- 
mediately precede the entry of the second 
subject. Here the first two bars consist of a 
fragment of a preceding figure which is repeated, 




so that both these bars are exactly the same ; 
the last tvvo bai-s, however, have a little chromatic 
cadence leading into the second subject The 
direction over the iirst two bars is 'poco ritenuto,' 
and over the last two ' rallentando/ by which 
we may be quite sure that the composer intended 
the repeated fragment to be played at the same 
speed in each bar, and the chromatic cadence 
to be slackened gradually. 

Hitenenie is used by Beethoven in the PF. 
Sonata, op. 110, about the middle of the first 
movement, and again in the Sonata, op. Ill, 
in the first movement, in the seventh and fif- 
teenth bars from the beginning of the Allegro 
eon brio. It would seem that the same effect 
is intended as if ' ritenuto ' were employed ; in 
each case, the words * meno mosso ' might have 
been used. Beethoven prefers RUardamdo to 
RaZlmtandOf which latter is common only in his 
earlier works. M. 

RAMANN, LiNA, musical writer and edu- 
cationist, was bom at Mainstockheim, near 
Kitzingen, in Bavaria, June 24, 1888. Her 
turn for music and her determination to succeed 
were evident from a very early age. It was 
not, however, till her seventeenth year that she 
had any instruction in music. At that time 
her parents removed to Leipzig, and from 1850 
to 1853 she there enjoyed the advantage of 
pianoforte lessons from the wife of Dr. F. 
Brendel, herself formerly a scholar of Field's. 
From this period she adopted the career of a 
teacher of music, and studied assiduously, 
though without help, for that end. After a 
period of activity in America, she opened (in 
1858) an institute in Gliiokstadt (Holstein) for 
the special training of music-mistresses, and 
maintained it till 1865, in which year she 
founded a more important establishment, the 
Music School at Nuremberg, in conjunction with 
Frau Ida Yolkmann of Tilsit, and assisted by 
a staff of superior teachers, under Frl. Ramann's 
own superintendence. The school was trans- 
ferred to Aug. Gollerich in 1890, when Frl. 
Ramann moved to Munich. With a view to 
the special object of her life she has published 
two works — Die Musik ala Oegenstand der 
Mrziehung (Leipzig: Merseburger, 1868), and 
Allgemgine Erzieh- und UrUerriehts-Uhre der 
Jug&nd (Leipzig : H. Schmidt, 1869 ; 2nd ed. 
1873), which were both received with favour 
by the German press. From 1 860 she was musical 
correspondent of the Hamburg Jahreszeiten. 
A volume of her essays contributed to that 
paper has been collected and published, under 
the title of Aiia der Oegenwart (Nuremberg : 
Schmid, 1868). In the early part of 1880 she 
published a study of Liszt's * Christus ' (Leipzig, 
Kahnt), and later in the year the first volume 
of a Life of Liszt, completed in two volumes in 
1894 (Leipzig, Breitkopf). The first portion was 
translated by Mrs. S. H. Eddy, Chicago, and 
by Miss £. Cowdery, and published in two vols. 

in 1882. This is an important work. It 
suffers somewhat from over -enthusiasm, but 
it is done with great care, minuteness, and 
intelligence, and obviously profited largely by 
direct information from Liszt himself. She 
also edited Liszt's writings (1880-83, in six 
volumes). Her cousin, 

Bruno Ramank, was born April 17, 1882, 
at Erfurt, and was brought up to commerce, 
but his desire and talent for music were so 
strong, that in 1857 or 1858 he succeeded in 
getting rid of his business and put himself under 
Dr. F. Brendel and Riedel, for regular instruc- 
tion. He then for five years studied under 
Hanptmann at Leipzig, and was a teacher and 
composer at Dresden from 1867 until his death, 
March 13, 1897. His works are numerous, 
but they consist almost entirely of songs for 
one or more voices, and of small and more or 
less sentimental pieces for the pianoforte. He 
also wrote poetry, and some dramatic pieces, o. 

RAMEAU, Jban Philippe, eminent com- 
poser, and writer on the theory of music, bom 
at Dijon, Oct 23, 1683,* in the house now 
No. 5 Rue St. Michel. His father,' Jean, was 
a musician, and organist of D\jon cathedral, in 
easy circumstances. He intended Jean Philippe, 
the eldest of his three sons, to be a magistrate, 
but his strong vocation for music and obstinacy 
of character frustrated these views. According 
to his biographers he played the harpsichord at 
seven, and read at sight any piece of music put 
before him : music indeed absorbed him to such 
an extent when at the Jesuit €k>llege that he 
neglected his classical studies, and was alto- 
gether so refractory that his parents were 
requested to remove him. Henceforth he never 
opened a book, unless it were a musical treatise. 
He quickly mastered the harpischord, and 
studied the organ and violin with success, but 
there was no master in Dgon capable of teaching 
him to write music, and he was left to discover 
for himself the laws of harmony and composition. 

At the age of seventeen he fell in love with a 
young widow in the neighbourhood, who in- 
directiy did him good service, since the shame 
which he felt at the bad spelling of his letters 
drove him to write correctly. To break off 
this acquaintance his father sent him, in 1701, 
to Italy, where, however, he did not remain 
long, a mistake which, in after life, he regretted. 
He liked Milan, and indeed the attractions of 
so great a centre of music must have been great ; 
but for some unknown reason he soon left with 
a theatrical manager whom he accompanied as 
first violin to Marseilles, Lyons, Ntmes, Mont- 
I^llier, and other places in the south of France. 
How long the tour lasted it is impossible to 
ascertain, as no letters belonging to this period 
are to be found. From his * Premier Livre do 

I [Th« date of Mrth la t*k«n from the coinpoMr'a montiiBeiit at 
Dtjon ! the ftnt edition of this DletlaoeYy gives the more usual 
date. Sept. SS. IfflS.] 

> His mothax's iiaine was Cl&ndlne DenuTUiMfcoarL 




pitices de clavecin' (Paris, 1706) we learn that 
he was then living in Paris, at a wig-maker's 
in the Yieille Rue du Temple, as Haydn did at 
Keller's, though without the disastrous results 
vrhich followed that connection. Meantime he 
was organist of the Jesuit convent in the Rue 
8t Jacques, and of the chapel of the P^res de la 
MercL No particulars, however, of the length 
of his stay in Paris are known, nor how he 
occupied the interval between this first visit 
and his return about 1717. In that year a 
competition took place for the post of organist 
of the church of St. Paul, and Rameau was 
among the candidates. Marchand, then at the 
head of the organists in Paris, was naturally 
one of the examiners ; and either from fear 
of being outshone by one whom he had formerly 
patronised, or for some other reason, he used 
his whole influence in favour of Daquin, who 
obtained the post Mortified at the unjust 
preferenoe thus shown to a man in all points 
his inferior, Bameau again left Paris for Lille, 
and became for a short time organist of St. 
6tienne. Thence he went to Clermont in 
Auveigne, where his brother Claude ^ resigned 
the post of organist of the cathedral in his 
favour. In this secluded mountain town, with 
a harah climate predisposing to indoor life, he 
had plenty of time for thought and study. The 
defeats of his education drove him to find out 
everything for himself. From the works of 
Descartes, Mersenne, Zarlino, and Eircher he 
gained some general knowledge of the science 
of sound, and taking the equal division of the 
monochord as the starting-point of his system 
of harmony, soon conceived the possibility of 
placing the theory of music on a sound basis. 
Henceforth he devoted all his energies to drawing 
uphis Treatise on Harmony Heduced toils Natural 
Fnmeiples, and as soon as that important work 
was finished he determined to go to Paris and 
publish it His engagement with the chapter 
of Clermont had, however, several years to run, 
and there was great opposition to his leaving, 
owing to the popularity of his improvisations 
on the organ, in which his theoretical studies, 
far from hampering his ideas, seemed to give 
them greater freshness and fertility. 

Once free he started immediately for Paris, 
and brought out his TraUd de VHamumie 
(BalUrd, 1722, 4to, 432 pp.).2 The work did 
not at first attract much attention among French 
musidaos, and yet, as F^tis observes, it laid 
the foundation for a philosophical science of 
harmony. Rameau's style is prolix and obscure, 
often calculated rather to repel than attract the 

* Clawto Bancsa. a man of indomitable witl and oaprldous 
tcwp«r. aaid a etercr orsantit. llrwl saooMriveljr at DlJon, Lyons. 
ManMlllaa, Clanaont, Origins. Stravbarg. and Auiuii. Hti won 
3m% Pfaaoofa. a ctrtcd miMlcUn. bata dtstipatod man. !• admirably 
Fortnyod by Dfdecot In bla Ntmu dt Rammau. He pablUhed In 
ITtB « poein te &*• eantoii called U Ramildt, followwf in the aame 
jwr fcy I« aMiwile RamUU; a parody by hie echoolfellow Jacqnes 
CM4te. IXm le mentioned by Mercier in hte TaUttm d» ParU. 

< The thft^ ftert cA thia via tranelated into Bngliah fifteen yean 
btcr with tte title A Trwtlm efMurte nntalntng the PrineiptM ftf 
gft w yfl e t iiew. London, no datei,8ro. 100 pp. 

reader, and the very boldness and novelty of 
his theories excited surprise and provoked 
criticism. His discovery of the law of inversion 
in chords was a stroke of genius, and led to 
very important results, although in founding 
his system of harmony on the sounds of the 
common chord, with the addition of thirds 
above or thirds below, he put both himself and 
others on a wrong track. In the application 
of his principle to all the chords he found 
himself compelled to give up all idea of touality, 
since, on the principles of tonality he could 
not make the thirds for the discoixls fall on 
the notes that his system required. Fetis 
justly accuses him of having abandoned the 
tonal successions and resolutions prescribed in 
the old treatises on harmony, accompaniment, 
and composition, and the rules for connecting 
the chords based on the ear, for a fixed order 
of generation, attractive from its apparent 
regularity, but vrith the serious inconvenience 
of leaving each chord disconnected from the 

Having rejected the received rules for the 
succession and resolution of chords which were 
contrary to his system, Rameau perceived the 
necessity of formulating new ones, and drew 
up a method for composing a fundamental bass 
for every species of music. The principles he 
laid down for forming a bass different from the 
real bass of the music, and for verifying the 
right use of the chords, are arbitraiy , insufficient 
in a large number of cases, and, as regards 
many of the successions, contrary to the judg- 
ment of the ear. Finally, he did not perceive 
that by using the chord of the 6-5-S both as 
a fundamental chord and an inversion he 
destroyed his whole system, as in the former 
case it is impossible to derive it from the third 
above or below.* After more study, however, 
particularly on the subject of harmonics, Rameau 
gave up many of his earlier notions, and corrected 
some of his most essential mistakes. The 
development and modification of his ideas may 
be seen by consulting his works, of which the 
following is a list : — Nowceav, aystime de musique 
tMorique . . . pour servir d* Introduction au 
traiti d^Harmonie (1726, 4to) ; Oiniratwn 
Tiarmonique, etc. (1787, 8vo) ; V^monatrationdu 
principe de Vharmonie (1750, 8vo) ; Nouvelles 
reflexions sur la d^monslralion du principe de 
Vharmonie (1 752, 8vo) ; Extrait d'une riponse de 
Jf. Ra/meau d M. EvJer sur VidentitS des octnves, 
etc. (1758, Svo)— all published in Paris. To 
these specific works, all dealing with the science 
of harmony, should be added the Dissertation 
sur les diffirenies mdhodes d^aceompagnemerU 
pour le clavecin ou pour Vorgue (Paris, Boiviu, 
1782, 4 to), and some articles which appeared 
in the Mcrcure de France^ and in the M&moires 
de Trdvoux, 

> Fetle hae explained, detailed, and refuted Rameau'i eyiitem in 
hie JlMttltM d» tHlHoire de fHarmanle, utrhtcb bas been used by 
tbe writer, and to which he refers hla revdem. 




The mere titles of these works aro a proof 
of the research and invention which Ranieau 
brought to bear on the theory of music ; but 
what was most remarkable in his case is that 
he succeeded in lines which are generally 
opposed to each other, and throughout life 
occupied the first rank not only as a theorist, 
but as a player and composer. Just when 
his TraUd de VHarmonie was beginning to 
attract attention he an-anged to make music 
for the little pieces which his fellow-countryman, 
Alexis Piron, was writing for the Th^&tre de la 
Foire, and accordingly, on Feb. 3, 1728, they 
produced * L'Endriague,* in three acts, with 
dances, divertissements, and grand airs, as 
stated in the title. In Jan. 1724 he obtained 
the privilege of publishing his cantatas, and 
various instrumental compositions, amongst 
others his * Pitees de clavecin, avec une Methode 
pour la m^canique des doigts,' etc., republished 
as ' Pieces de Clavecin, avec une table pour les 
agr^ments'i (Paris, 1731 and 1736, oblong 

As the favourite music-master among ladies 
of rank, and organist of the church of Ste. Croix 
de la Bretonnerie, Rameau's position and pros- 
pects now warranted his taking a wife, and on 
Feb. 25, 1726, he was united to Marie Louise 
Mango t, a good musician, with a pretty voice. 
The disparity of their ages was considerable, 
the bride being only eighteen, but her loving 
and gentle disposition made the marriage a 
very happy one. 

A few days later, on Feb. 29, Rameau pro- 
duced at the Th^tre de la Foire, a one-act piece 
called * L'EnrOlement d*Arlequin,' followed in 
the autumn by ' Le faux Prodigue,' two acts, 
both written by Pir<Hi. Such small comic pieces 
as tiiese were obviously composed, by a man of 
his age and attainments (he was now forty- two), 
solely with the view of gaining access to a stage 
of higher rank, but there was no hope of admis- 
sion to the theatre of the Academic without a 
good libretto, and this it was as difficult for a 
beginner to obtain then as it is now. There is 
a remarkable letter, still extant, from Rameau 
to Houdar de Lamotte, dated Oct. 1727, asking 
him for a lyric tragedy, and assuring him that 
he was no novice, but one who had mastered 
the 'art of concealing his art' The blind poet 
refused his request, but aid came from another 
quarter. La Popelinifere, the fermier ginned, 
musician, poet, and artist, whose houses in Paris 
and at Paasy were frequented by the most 
celebrated artists French and foreign, had chosen 
Rameau as his clavecinist and conductor of the 
music at his fStes, and before long placed at his 
disposal the organ in his chapel, his orchestra, 
and his theatre. He did more, for through his 
influence Rameau obtained from Voltaire the 
lyric tragedy of 'Samson,' which he promptly 

> BoUi Fdtia and Pongln hiiv* fallen Into the inlatak* of eoMidtr* 
lug this a Mpatnto work. 

set to music, though the performance was pro- 
hibited on the eve of its representation at the 
Academic — an exceptional stroke of ill-fortune. 
[On the history of tliis work, see Hngues Imbert's 
Symphonie (1891), and for a resume of the facts, 
see Musical Times, 1898, p. 379 ff.] At last the 
Abb^ Pellegrin agreed to furnish him with an 
opera in five acts, 'Hippolyte et Aricie,' founded 
on Racine's *Ph6dre.* He compelled Rameau 
to sign a bill for 500 livres as security in case 
the opera failed, but showed more sagacity and 
more heart than might have been expected 
from one 

Qui dfnait de I'autel et soupait du th^tre, 
Le matin catliolique et lo soir idol&tre, 

for ho was so delighted with the music on its 
first performance at La Popeliniere*s, that he 
tore up the bill at the end of the first act. The 
world in general was less enthusiastic, and after 
having overcome the ill-will or stupidity of 
the performers, Rameau had to encounter the 
astonishment of the crowd, the prejudices of 
routine, and the jealousy of his brother artists. 
Campra alone recognised his genius, and it is to 
his honour that when questioned by the Prince de 
Conti on the subject, he replied, * There is stuff 
enough in Hippolyte et Aricie for ten operas ; 
this man will eclipse us all.' 

The opera was produced at the Academic on 
Oct 1, 1733. Rameau was then turned fifty 
years of age, and the outcry with which his 
work was greeted suggested to him that he had 
possibly mistaken his career ; for a time he con- 
templated retiring from the theatre, but was 
reassured by seeing his hearers gradually accus- 
toming themselves to the novelties which at 
first shocked them. The success of * Les Indcs 
galantes' (August 23, 1735), of * Castor et 
Pollux,' his masterpiece (Oct. 24, 1737), and of 
*Les Fetes d'Ul^b^' (May 21, 1739), however, 
neither disarmed his critics, nor prevented 
Rousseau from making himself the mouthpiece 
of those who cried up Lully at the expense of 
the new composer. But Rameau was too well 
aware of the cost of success to be hurt by 
epigrams, especially when he found that he could 
count both on the applause of the multitude, 
and the genuine appreciation of the more en- 

His industry was immense, as the following 
list of his 0{>eras and ballets produced at the 
Acad($mie in twenty years will show : — 

Dardanaa. flre acts and pro- Plat^, three acta and prologue 

.^ . .> (Feb. 4. 1749». 

Nala, thre« acts and prvlogne 
(April 22, 1749t. 

Zoroaitre, five acta (Dee. 0. 

I.* Gnirlande. on lee Fleure en- 

cbant^a. one act (Sept. 21. 1751). 

Acanthe et Cdphiee, three acta 

I (Nov. 18, 1751). 

1748). I Lee Surprlees de TAmour, three 

Lee P«te8 de I'Hymen et de acte (Jnly IS. 1797). 
I'Amotir. three acta and prologue Lee Faladina, three acta (Feb. 
(Matfh 16. 1747). IS. 1760). 

Besides these, Rameau found time to write 
divertissements for 'Les Courses de Temp^,' a 

logtio (Oct. 19. 173B). 

Fetes de Polymnlo. three 
acts and prolugno (Oct 13, 1745). 

Lb Temple de la Gloire, P0te, 
in three acts and prologue (Nov. 
57. 1745). 

ZkIb, four acts and prologue 
(Feb. 39. 1748). 

Pygmalion, one act (Aug. 37, 




Ptotonl (Theiitrc Fran^ais, August 1734), and 

* La Rose ' (Theatre de la Foire, March 1744), 
both by Piron. From 1 740 to 1 745 the director 
of the Op^ra gave liim no employment, and in 
thk interval he published his 'Nouvelles Suites 
de Pieces de clavecin' and his * Pieces de clavecin 
«n eonoerta avec un violon ou une flftte' (1741), 
remarkable compositions which have been re- 
printed by Mme. Farrenc (* Le TWsor des 
Pianistes') and M. Poisot. He also accepted 
tlie post of conductor of the Op^ra-Comique, of 
which Monnet^ was manager, probably in the 
hope of attracting public attention, and forcing 
the management of the Acad<^mie to alter their 
treatment of him. Finally he comi)08ed for 
the Conrt < Lysis et D^lie,' 'Daphnis et £gl^,' 
'Lea Sybarites* (Oct. and Nov. 1768); *La 
Naiasanced'OsiriSj'and 'Anacr^n'(Oct. 1754), 
all given at Fontainebleau. Some years pre- 
viously, on the occasion of the marriage of the 
Danphin with the Infanta, he had composed ' La 
Prinoesae de Navarre' to a libretto of Voltaire's 
(three acts and prologue, performed with great 
splendour at Versailles, Feb. 28, 1745). This 
was the most successful of all his op^as de 
eirotnutance, and the authors adapted from it 

* Les FStes de Ramire,' a one-act o})era -ballet, 
also performed at Versailles (Dec. 22, 1745). 

In estimating Bameau's merits we cannot in 
instice compare him with the great Italian and 
(iennan masters of the day, whose names and 
works were then equally unknown in France ; 
we must measure him with contemporary French 
composers for the stage. These writers had no 
idea of art beyond attempting a servile copy 
of Lully, with overtures, recitatives, vocal pieces, 
and beJlet airs, all cast in one stereotyped form. 
Rameau made use of such a variety of means as 
not only attracted the attention of his hearers, 
but retained it. For the placid and monotonous 
liarmonies of the day, the trite modulation, 
insignificant accompaniments, and stereotyped 
litomelles, he substituted new forms, varied 
and piquant rhythms, ingenious harmonies, 
liold modulations, and a richer and more effective 
orchestration. He even ventured on enharmonic 
changes, and instead of the time-honoured 
aooompaniroents with the strings in five parts, 
and flutes and oboes m two, and with tuUis in 
which the wind simply doubled the strings, he 
gave each instrument a distinct part of its own, 
and thns imparted life and colour to the whole. 
Without interrupting the other instruments, he 
introduced interesting and unexpected passages 
on tlie flutes, oboes, and bassoons, and thus 
opened a path which has been followed up 
with ever -increasing success. He also gave 
importance to the orchestral pieces, introducing 
his operas with a well-oonstnicted overture, 
instead of the meagre introduction of the period, 
in which the same phrases were repeated ad 

lt« Monoct's SuppUnunt «m Roman comlqui 
m to hftiw tmxpid all aaniMii'a Uogxapben. 

rf «m Roman eomigu*, p. Bl. This fact 

Tiatiseam. Nor did he neglect the chorus ; he 
developed it, added greatly to its musical 
interest, and introduced the syllabic style with 
considerable effect. Lastly, his ballet -music 
was so new in its rhythms, and so fresh and 
pleasing in melody, that it was at once adopted 
and copied in the theatres of Italy and Germany. 

We have said enough to prove that Rameau 
was a composer of real invention and originality. 
His declamation was not always so just as that 
of Lully ; his airs have not the same grace, 
and are occasionally marred by eccentricity and 
harshness, and disfigured by roulades in doubt- 
ful taste ; but when inspired by his subject 
Rameau found appropriate expression for all 
sentiments, whether simple or pathetic, pas- 
sionate, dramatic, or heroic. His best operas 
contain beauties which defy the caprices of 
fashion, and will command the respect of true 
artists for all time. 

But if his music was so good, how is it that 
it never attained the same popularity as that 
of Lully ? In the first place, he took the wrong 
line on a most important point ; and in the 
second, he was less favoured by circumstances 
than his predecessor. It was his doctrine, that 
for a musician of genius all subjects are equally 
good, and hence he contented himself with un- 
interesting fables written in wretched style, 
instead of taking pains, as Lully did, to secure 
pieces constructed with skill and well versified. 
He used to say that he could set the Gazelte 
de HoUande to music. Thus he damaged his 
own fame, for a French audience will not listen 
even to good music unless it is founded on an 
interesting drama. 

Much as Rameau would have gained by the 
co-operation of another Quinanlt, instead of 
having to employ Cahusac, there was another 
reason for the greater popularity of Lully. 
Under Louis XIV. the king's patronage was 
quite sufficient to ensure the success of an artist ; 
but after the Regency, under Louis XV., other 
authorities asserted themselves, especially the 

* philosophes.' Rameau had first to encounter 
the vehement opposition of the Lullists ; this 
he had succeeded in overcoming, when a company 
of Italian singers arrived in Paris, and at Qnce 
obtained the attention of the public, and the 
support of a powerful party. The partisans of 
French music rallied roimd Rameau, and the 
two factions carried on what is known as the 

* Guerre des Bouffons,' but when the stniggle 
wos over, Rameau perceived that his victoiy 
was only an ephemeral one, and that his works 
would not maintain their position in the 
repertoire of the Academic beyond a few years. 
With a frankness very touching in a man of 
his gifts, he said one evening to the Abb^* 
Amaud, who had lately arrived in Paris, * If I 
were twenty years younger I would go to Italy, 
and take Pergolcsi for my model, abandon 
something of my harmony, and devote myself 




to attaining truth of declamation, which should 
be the sole guide of musicians. But after sixty 
one cannot change ; experience points plainly 
enough the best course, but the mind refuses 
to obey.' No critic could have stated the 
truth more plainly. Not having heard Italian 
music in his youth, Rameau never attained to 
the skill in writing for the voice that he might 
have done ; and he is in consequence only the 
first French musician of his time, instead of taking 
his rank among the great composers of European 
fame. But for this, he might have effected 
that revolution in dramatic music which Gluck 
accomplished some years later. 

But even as it was, his life's work is one of 
which any man might have been proud ; and in 
old age he enjoyed privileges accorded only to 
talent of the first rank. The directors of the 
Op4ra decreed him a pension ; his appearance 
in his box was the signal for a general burst of 
applause, and at the last performance of ^Dar- 
danus' (Nov. 9, 1760) he received a perfect 
ovation from the audience. At D\jon the 
Academic elected him a member in 1761, and 
the authorities exempted himself and his family 
for ever from the municipal taxes. The king 
had named him composer of his chamber music 
in 1745 ; his patent of nobility was registered, 
and he was on the point of receiving the order 
of St Michel, when, already suffering from the 
infirmities of age, he took typhoid fever, and 
died Sept. 12, 1764. All France mourned for 
him ; Paris gave him a magnificent funeral, and 
in many other towns funeral services were held 
in his honour. Such marks of esteem are ac- 
corded only to the monarchs of art 

Having spoken of Rameau as a theorist and 
composer, we will now say a word about him 
as a man. If we are to believe Grimm and 
Diderot, he was hard, churlish, and cruel, 
avaricious to a degree, and the most ferocious 
of egotists. The evidence of these writers is, 
however, suspicious ; both disliked French music, 
and Diderot, as the friend and collaboraUur of 
d'Alembert, would naturally be opposed to the 
man who had had the audacity to declare war 
against the Encyclopedists.' It is right to say 
that, though he drew a vigorous and scathing 
portrait of the composer, he did not publish it^ 
As to the charge of avarice, Rameau may have 
been fond of money, but he supported his sister 
Catherine ^ during an illness of many years, and 
assisted more than one of his brother artists — 

1 Bamoau wma uked to oorrsct the AZtlclos on music for the Xncp' 
clop4di0. but ths MSS. were uot eabinltted to him. He pubUnhed 
in eonaeqneuoe : Arnurt tur la mtuiqua datu TSnegcloptdU (I7&BI ; 
Suite On Srrturt, etc. (1786) ; JUpotue d» M. Rameau d MM. /«t 
4dUmr$ (to Vgnejfclopidia $ur leur A9tHU$emmt (1757) ; Uttre tU 
M. ^AUmbert d M. Rameau, eontemavt le enrpe tonorr, aew la 
ripoiue (to M. Rameau (undated, but apparently 176B)— all printed 
in Piirie. 

> We refer to Diderot's violent satire on the momls and philo- 
Bophie tendencies of the 18th OBntarjr, entitled U A'eeeu de Ramrau, 
It is a curious fact that this brilliantlv written dialog-uo wns only 
known In France through a re-translation of Goethe's Geiman 
version. The first Prsnch edition, by Sanr, appeared in Paris only 
in 1831. 

s A good player on the harpsichord ; ehe lived in Dijon, and died 
there, 17IBL 

such as Dauvergne, and the organist Balb&tre* 
He was a vehement oontroversialist, and those 
whom he had offended would naturally say hard 
things of him. Tall, and thin almost to 
emaciation, his sharply marked features indi- 
cated great strength of character, while his eyes 
burned with the fire of genius. There was a de- 
cided resemblance between him and Voltaire, and 
painters have often placed their likenesses side 
by side. Amongst the best portraits of Rameau 
may be specified those of Benoist (after Restout), 
Caffieri, Masquelier, and Carmontelle (full 
length). In the fine oil-painting by Ohardin in 
the Museum of D^on, he is represented seated, 
with his fingers on the strings of his violin^ 
the instrument he generally used in composing. 
The bust which stood in the /aycr of the Op^ra 
was destroyed when the theatre was bui-nt down 
in 1781 ; that in the libraiy of the Conserva- 
toire is by Destreez (1865). A bronze statue 
by Quillaume was erected at Dijon in 1880. 
The fine medal of him given to the winners of 
the grand prix de .Rome was engraved by 

There are many biographies of Rameau ; the 
most valuable are, among the older, Chabanon's 
Moge (1764) ; Maret's Eloge hisUmque (1766) ; 
and the very curious details contained in De 
Croix's VAmi des Arts (1776) ; among the 
more modem, the notices of Adolphe Adam, 
F^tis, Poi8ot(1864), Nisard (1867), and Pougin 

Rameau had one son and two daughters, 
none of them musicians. He left in MS. four 
cantatas, three motets with chorus, and frag- 
ments of an opera * Roland,' all which are now 
in the Biblioth^ue Nationale. None of his 
organ pieces have survived ; and some cantatas, 
mentioned by the earlier biographers, besides 
two lyric tragedies * Abaris * and * Linus,' and a 
comic opera, * Le Procureur dupd,* are lost ; but 
they would have added nothing to his fame. 

Some of his harpsichord pieces have been 
X^ublished in the * Tresor des Pianistes ' ; in the 
*Alte Klavierniusik * of Pauer (Ser. 2, pt. 6) 
and of Roitzsch ; also in Pauer's ' Alte Meister, ' 
and in the ' Perles Musicales ' (51, 52). A new 
edition, with a preface by Saint-Saens, appeared 
in Paris in 1 905. g. o. 

RAMONDON, Lewis, presumably a French- 
man, and at first a singer in the pre-Handelian 
Italian operas. He appeared in *Arsinoe,*^ 
1705 ; in 'Camilla,' 1706 ; and *Pyrrhus and 
Demetrius,' 1709. He sometimes took Leve- 
ridge's parts in these operas, but about 1711 
he ceased to be a public singer, and turned his 
talents to composition. He brought out the 
series called * The Lady's Entertainment' in 
1709, 1710, 1711, and 1788. He arranged 
for the harpsichord the song- tunes in * Camilla,* 
using, perhaps for the first time in music-nota- 
tion for this instrument, a five instead of a six- 
line stave, and giving as the reason — ' that the 




leoBons being placed on five lines renders them 
proper for a violin and a base.' His vocal 
compositions were in high favour, and half a 
dozen or so may be seen in Walsh's * Merry 
Musician, or a Core for the Spleen/ vol. L, 
1716 ; others are on the single song sheet of 
the period. A tune of his, ' All yon that must 
take a leap in the dark,' attained some degree 
of popularity by being sung by Macheath in 
the 'Beggar's Opera.' It is probable that he 
died about 1720, as his name does not appear 
to occur on any fresh work after that date ; 
but biographical details regarding him are 
lacking. F. K. 

RAMSEY, RoBXRT, was organist of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, from 1628 to 1644 in- 
clusive, and ' Magister Choristarum ' from 1687 
to 1644 inclusive ; but whether before or after 
those dates is not certain in either case. He 
took the degree of Mus.B. at Cambridge in 
1616, and was required to compose a 'Canti- 
cum* to be performed at St. Mary's Church. 
A Morning and Evening Service in F by him 
is contained in the Tudway Collection (Harl. 
MS. 7340) and in the Ely Library, where, and 
at Peterhouse College, Cambridge, there are 
also two anthems of his. Add. MS. 11,608 in 
the British Museum contains a setting by him 
of the dialogue between Saul, the witch, and 
Samuel — *In guiltie m'ght,' which was after- 
wards set by PurcelL Tudway miscalls him 
John. A madrigal by him is in the British 
Museum, and a ' commencement song ' a 8 was 
sold at Warren's sale in 1881. o. 

RANDALL, Johx, Mus.D., bom 1716, was 
a chorister of the Chapel Royal under Bernard 
Gates. He was one of the boys who shared 
in the representation of Handel's ' Esther ' at 
Gatee's house, Feb. 23, 1732, he himself taking 
the part of Esther. He graduated as Mus.B. 
at Cambridge in 1744, his exercise being an 
anthem. In 1748 he was appointed organist 
of King's College, and on the death of Dr. 
Greene in 1755 was elected Professor of Music 
at Cambridge. In 1756 he proceeded Mus.D. 
He composed the music for Gray's Ode for the 
Installation of the Duke of Grafton as Chan- 
cellor of the University in 1768, and some 
church music. He was organist of Trinity Col- 
lege in 1 77 7. He died at Cambridge, March 1 8, 
1799. His name is preserved in England by 
his two Double Chants. w. H. h. 

RANDALL, P., a London music-seller and 
publisher, who had a shop at the sign of * Ye 
Viol and Lute,' at Paul's Grave, without Temple 
Bar, in 1707, and for some years later. He 
may have been related, by marriage, to John 
WsJsh, senior, the great music -publisher of 
this period. Before 1710 he was a partner 
with Walsh, and had abandoned his own place 
of business for Walsh's address in Katherine 
Street, Strand. His name, in conjunction with 
Walsh's, appears on many imprints of Walsh's 

publications. Later issues of these publica- 
tions have Randall's name erased, and before 
1720 his name entirely disappears from them. 

Randall, William, is presumed to be a 
son of the preceding P. RandalL At the death 
of John Walsh, junior, Jan. 15, 1766, William 
Randall succeeded to the extensive business in 
Catherine Street, and shortly afterwards was 
for a couple of years or less in partnership 
with a person named Abell. Randall k Abell 
issued in large folio in 1768 what is practically 
the first complete edition of the * Messiah,' as 
well as some minor issues. Randall was in 
business alone in 1771, and besides reprinting 
the Walsh publications, he published many 
interesting works. One of these was a reissue 
in 1771 of Morley's Plaine and Easie Intro- 
duction, Collections of Vauxhall or other 
songs came forth, country dances, and the 
like. William Randall died about 1780, and 
his widow, Elizabeth, carried on the business 
until it was taken over, about 1788, by Messrs. 
Wright k Wilkinson, who made a great busi- 
ness almost solely by reprinting Handel's works 
from the origins^ plates. f. k. 

RANDEGGER, Albekto, composer, con- 
ductor, and singing-master, was bom at Trieste, 
April 13, 1832. He began the study of music 
at the age of thirteen, under Lafont for the PF., 
and L. Ricci for composition, soon began to 
write, and by the year 1852 was known as the 
composer of several masses and smaller pieces 
of Church music, and of two ballets — *La 
Fidanzata di Castellamare ' and 'La Sposa 
d' Appenzello,' both produced at the Teatro 
grande of his native town. In the latter year 
he joined three other of Ricci's pui>ils in the 
composition of a buffo opera to a libretto by 
Gaetano Rossi, entitled * II Lazzarone,' which 
had much success, first at the Teatro Mauroner 
at Trieste, and then elsewhere. In the next two 
years he was occupied as musical director of 
theatres at Fiume, Zara, Sinigaglia, Brescia, 
and Venice. In the winter of 1854 he brought 
out a tragic opera in four acts, called * Bianca 
Capello,' at the chief theatre of Brescia. At 
this time he was induced to come to London. 
He gradually took a high position there, and 
has become widely known as a teacher of sing- 
ing, conductor, and composer, and an enthusi- 
astic lover of good music of whatever school or 
country. He has resided in England ever since, 
and is one of the most prominent musical figures 
in the metropolis. In 1864 he produced at the 
Theatre Royal, Leeds, *The Rival Beauties,* a 
comic operetta in two acts, which has had much 
success in London and many other places. In 
1868 he became Professor of Singing at the 
Royal Academy of Music, and has since been 
made an honorary member and director of that 
institution and a member of the Committee of 
Management. He is a Professor of Singing at 
the Royal College of Music, and is on the Board 




of Professors. In the autumn of 1857 he con- 
ducted a series of Italian operas at St. James's 
Theatre, and in 1879-85 the Carl Rosa Com- 
pany. [He conducted grand opera under Harris's 
management at Drury Lane and Covent Garden 
in 1887-98. He conducted the Queen's Hall 
Choral Society in 1895-97, but his most im- 
])ortant position of this kind was the conductor- 
ship of the Norwich Festival, which he lield 
with great success from 1881 to 1906 inclusive.] 

Mr. Randegger's published works are numer- 
ous and important They comprise a dramatic 
cantata (words by Mme. Rudersdorff), entitled 
' Fridolin/ composed for the Birmingham Festi- 
val, and produced there with great success, 
August 28, 18r73 ; two soprano scenas — 'Medea,' 
sung by Mme. Rudersdorff at the Gewandhaus, 
Leipzig, in 1869, and *Saffo,' sung by Mme. 
Lemmens at the British Orchestral Society, 
March 31, 1875 ; the 150th Psalm, for soprano 
solo, chorus, orchestra, and organ, for the Boston 
Festival, 1872 ; Funeral Anthem for the death 
of the Prince Consort, twice performed in 
London ; a scena, 'The Prayer of Nature,' sung 
by Edward Lloyd at a Philharmonic concert in 
1887 ; and a large number of songs and con- 
certed vocal music for voice and orchestra or 
PF. He is also the author of the PHmer of 
Singing in Novello's series. As a teacher of 
singing, Mr. Randegger has a large number of 
pupils now before the English public as popular 
singers. (See the Mitsical Times for 1899, p. 
658 fr.) o. 

trian musician, memorable for his connection 
with Schubert. He was born at Ruprechtshofen, 
in Lower Austria, July 27, 1802 ; at ten years 
old came to the Convict school at Vienna, and 
was then a pupil of Salieri's. He afterwards 
studied for the law, and for ten years was Secre- 
tary to Count Sz^h^nyi, an official about the 
Court. But lie forsook this line of life for 
music ; in 1832 entered the Court Chapel as a 
tenor singer ; in 1844 became Vice-Court-Capell- 
meister, and in 1862, after Assmayer's death, 
entered on the full enjoyment of that dignity. 
His compositions are more than 600 in number, 
comprising an opem, 'Konig Enzio' ; 20 masses ; 
60 motets ; symphonies ; quartets, etc. ; 400 
songs, 76 4 -part songs, etc. Of all these, 
124, chiefly songs, are published ; also a vol. 
of Greek national songs, and a vol. of Greek 
liturgies. His acquaintance with Schubert 
l>robably began at the Convict, and at Salieri's; 
though as he was Schubert's junior by five years, 
they can have been there together only for a 
short time ; but there are many slight traces of 
the existence of a close friendship between them. 
He was present, for example, at the first trial 
of the D minor String Quartet (Jan. 29, 1826), 
and he was one of the very few friends who 
visited Schubert in the terrible loneliness of his 
last iUness. But ibr Randhartinger it is almost 

certain that Schubert's 'Schone MUllerin' would 
never have existed. He was called out of his 
room while Schubert was paying him a visit, 
and on his return found that his friend had 
disappeared with a volume of W. MUller's 
poems which he had accidentally looked into 
while waiting, and had been so much interested 
in as to carry off. On his going the next day 
to reclaim the book, Schubert presented him 
with some of the now well-known songs, which 
he had composed during the night. Thb was 
in 1823. It is surely enough to entitle Rand- 
hartinger to a i)erpetual memory. 

He had a brother Josef, of whom nothing 
is known beyond this — that he was probably 
one of the immediate entourage of Beethoven's 
coffin at the funeral. He, Lachner, and 
Schubert are said to have gone together as 
torch-bearers (Kreissle von Hellbom's Schubert, 
p. 266). G. 

RANDLES, Elizabeth, an extraordinary 
infant musical prodigy and performer on the 
pianoforte. She was born at Wrexham, August 
1, 1800, and played in public before she was 
fully two years of age. Her father, a blind 
harper and organist of Wrexham, of some degree 
of local fame (1760-1820), placed her under 
John Parry the har{)or, and afterwards took 
her on tour to London, where she attracted 
much attention, and was made a pet of by the 
Royal family. A second visit to London was 
undertaken in 1808, and a concert for her 
benefit given in the Hanover Squai*e rooms. 
At this Madame Catalan! and other singers 
and instrumentalists gave their gratuitous ser- 
vices, Sir George Smart conducting. She settled 
in Liverpool as a music teacher about 1818, 
and died there in 1829. f. k. 

were situated on the bank of the Thames, 
eastward of Chelsea Hospital. They were 
erected and laid out about 1690 by Richaixi 
Jones, Viscount (afterwards Earl of) Ranelagh, 
who resided there until his death in 1712. In 
1733 the property was sold in lots, and eventu- 
ally the house and part of the gardens came 
into the hands of a number of persons who 
converted them into a place of public entertain- 
ment In 1741 they commenced the erection 
of a spacious Rotunda (185 feet external, and 
150 feet iutenial diameter), with four entrances 
through porticos. Surrounding it was an 
arcade, and over that a covered gallery, above 
which were the windows, sixty in number. In 
the centre of the interior and supporting the 
roof was a square erection containing the 
orchestra, as well as fireplaces of peculiar 
construction for warming the building in 
winter. Forty-seven boxes, each to contain 
eight persons, were placed round the building, 
and in these the company ])artook of tea and 
cofiee. In the garden was a Chinese building, 
and a canal ujion which the visitors were 




rowed about in boats. Banelagh was opened 
with a public breakfast, April 5, 1742. The 
admission was 2s. including breakfast On 
May 24 following it was opened for evening 
ooucerts ; Beard was the principal singer, 
Festing the leader, and the choruses were 
chiefly from oratorios. Twice a week ridottos 
were given, the tickets for which were £1 : Is. 
each, including supper. Masquerades were 
shortly afterwards introduced, and the place 
soon became the favourite resort of the world 
of fashion. Ranelagh was afterwards opened 
about the end of February for breakfasts, and 
on Easter Monday for the evening entertain- 
ments. On April 10, 1746, a new organ by 
Bytield was opened at a public morning rehearsal 
of the music for the season, and Parry, the 
celebrated Welsh harper, appeared. In 1749, 
in honour of the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, an 
entertainment called 'A Jubilee Masquerade 
in the Venetian manner,' was given, of which 
Horace Walpole, in a letter to Sir Horace 
Mann, dated May 3, 1749, gives a lively 

This proved so attractive that it was repeated 
several times in that and succeeding years, 
until the sappression of such entertainments in 
1755. In 1751 morning concerts were given 
twice a week, Signora Frasi and Beard being 
the singers. At that date it had lost none of 
its charm. 'You cannot conceive,' says Mrs. 
Ellison, in Fielding's Ameliaj 'what a sweet 
elegant delicious place it is. Paradise itself 
can hardly be equal to it' In 1754 an 
entertainment of singing, recitation, etc. was 
given under the name of * Comus's Court,' 
which was very successful. In 1755 a pastoral, 
the words from Shakespeare, the music by Ame, 
was produced ; Beard and Miss Young were the 
singers ; Handel's * L'Allegro ed 11 Pensieroso ' 
was introduced on Beard's benefit night, and 
Stanley was the organist In 1759 Bonnell 
Thornton's burlesque Ode on St Cecilia's Day 
was performed with great success. In 1762 
Tenducd was the principal male singer. In 
1 764 a new orchestra was erected in one of the 
porticos of the Rotunda, the original one being 
found inconvenient from its height On June 
29, 1764, Mozart, then eight years old, per- 
formed on the harpsichord and organ several 
pieces of his own composition for the benefit of 
a charity. In 1770 Bnmey was the organist. 
Fireworks were occasionally exhibited, when the 
price of admission was raised to 5s. In 1777 
the fashionable world played one of its strange, 
unreasoning freaks at Ranelagh. Wal])ole 
WToit on June 18 : — * It is the fashion now to 
go to Ranelagh two hours after it is over. You 
may not believe this, but it is literal. The 
mosic ends at ten, the company go at twelve. ' 
This practice caused the concert to be commenced 
at a later hour than before. In 1790 a repre- 
sentation of Mount Etna in eruption, with the 

Cyclops at work in the centre of the mountain, 
and the lava pouring down its side, was 
exhibited. The mountain was 80 feet high. 
In 1798 the Chevalier d'£ou fenced in public 
with a French professor, and about the same 
time regattas on the Thames in connection with 
the place were established. In 1802 the 
Installation Ball of the KnighU of the Bath 
was given at Ranelagh, and also a magnificent 
entertainment by the Spanish Ambassador. 
These were the last occurrences of any import- 
ance ; the fortunes of the place had long been 
languishing, and it opened for the last time 
July 8, 1808. On Sept 80, 1806, the 
proprietors gave directions for taking down the 
house and rotunda ; the furniture was soon 
after sold by auction, and the buildings re- 
moved. Tlie organ was placed in Tetbury 
Church, Gloucestershire. No traces of Ranelagh 
remain ; the site now forms part of Chelsea 
Hospital garden. w, h. h. 

RANK. A rank of oigan-pipes is one com- 
plete series or set, of the same quality of tone 
and kind of construction from the largest to 
the smallest, controlled by one draw-stop, acting 
on one slider. If the combined movement of 
draw-stop and slider admits air to two or more 
such series of pi|>e8, an organ-stop is said to be 
of two or more ranks, as the case may be. 
Occasionally the twelfth and fifteenth, or 
fifteenth and twenty-second, are thus united, 
forming a stop of two ranks ; but, as a nile, 
only those stojis whose tones are reinforcements 
of some of the higher upi)er-i)artials of the 
ground -tone are mode to consist of several 
ranks, such as the Sesquialtera, Mixture, 
Furniture, etc. These sto})s have usually from 
three to five ranks each, reinforcing (according 
to their s})ecial disposition) the ground-tone by 
the addition of its 17th, 19th, 22nd, 24th, 
26th, 29th,— -that is, of its Si-d, 5th, and 8th 
in the third and fourth octave above. [See 
Sesquialtera and Mixture.] j. s. 

RANSFORD, Edwin, baritone vocalist, song- 
writer, and composer, bom Mareh 13, 1805, at 
I^urton-on- the- Water, Gloucestershire, died in 
London, July 11, 1876. He first appeared on 
the stage as an * extra ' in the opera-chonis at 
the King's Theatre, Hay market, and was 
after\vards engaged in that of Covent Garden 
Theatre. During Charles Kemble's manage- 
ment of that theatre he mode his first appear- 
ance OS Don Caesar in ' Tlie Castle of Andalusia,' 
on May 27, 1829, and was engaged soon 
afterwards by Arnold for the English Opera- 
House (now the Lyceum). In the autumn of 
1829, and in 1830, he was at Covent Gai-den. 
In 1831 he played leading characters under 
El listen at the Surrey Theatre, and became 
a general favourite. In 1832 he was with 
Joe Grimaldi at Sadler's Wells, playing Tom 
Truck, in Campbell's nautical drama *The 
Battle of Trafalgar, ' in which he made a great 




Mt with Neukomm's song, * The Sea. ' At this 
theatre he sustained the part of Captain 
Cannonade in Bamett's opera * The Pet of the 
Petticoats.' He afterwards fulfilled important 
engagements at Drury Lane, the Lyceum, and 
Covent Garden. At Covent Garden he played 
the Doge of Venice in ' Othello,' March 25, 
1833, when £dmund Keau last appeared on the 
stage, and Sir Harry in ' The School for Scandal ' 
on Charles Kemble's last appearance as Charles 
Surface. His final theatrical engagement was 
with Macready at Covent Garden in 1837-38. 
He wrote the words of many songs, his best 
being perhaps ' In the days when we went 
gipsying.' In later years his entertainments, 
* Gipsy life,' ' Tales of the Sea,' and * Songs of 
Dibdin,' etc., became deservedly popular. As 
a genial bon camarade he was universally liked. 

SHe was also a music-seller and publisher, and 
luring the forties and fifties issued a great 
number of the popular songs of the day. His 
shop was in Charles Street, Soho, but in 1850 
he moved to 461 Oxford Street In 1869 he 
went into partnership with his son, William 
Edwin, at 2 Princes Street, Cavendish Square. 
The son, who continued the business after his 
father's death, was a tenor vocalist of ability. 
He died Sept. 21, 1890. F. k.] w. h. 

RANTZAU, I. Opera in four acts, text by 
G. Targioni-Tazzetti and G. Menasoi, music by 
Mascagni. Produced at the Pergola, Florence, 
Nov. 10, 1892, and at Covent Garden, July 
7 1893 

' RANZ DES VACHES (Kuhreihm, Kuhrei- 
gen ; Appenzell patois Chucreiha), a strain of an 
irregular description, which in some parts of 
Switzerland is sung or blown on the Alpine horn 
in June, to call the cattle from the valleys to 
the higher pastures. Several derivations have 
been suggested for the words rams and reihen or 
reigen, Jianz has been translated by the English 
*rant,' and the French * rondeau,' and has been 
derived from the Keltic root * renk ' or *rank,' 
which may also be the derivation of reihen^ in 
which case both words would mean the * proces- 
sion or march of the cows.' Stalder (Sdiweize- 
riscfies Idiotikon) thinks that reihen means ' to 
reach,' or * fetch,' while other authorities say 
that the word is the same as reigen (a dance 
accompanied by singing), and derive ranz from 
the Swiss patois * ranner,' to rejoice. 

The Ranz des Yaches are very numerous, and 
differ both in music and words in the different 
cantons. They are extremely irregular in char- 
acter, full of long cadences and abrupt changes 
of tempo. It is a curious fact that they are 
seldom strictly in tune, more particularly when 
])layed on the Alpine horn, an instrument in 
which, like the Bag pipe, the note represented 
by F is really an extra note between F and Ftf . 
This note is very characteristic of the Ranz des 
Vaches ; passages like the following being re- 
peated and varied almost ad infinitum. 

The most celebrated Ranz des Vaches is 
that of Appenzell, a copy of which is said to 
have been sent to our Queen Anne, with whom 
it was a great favourite. The first work in 
which it was printed is Georg Rhaw's Bieinia 
(Wittenberg, 1545). It is also to be found in 
a dissertation on Nostalgia in Z winger's Fauci- 
cuius Disaertationum Medicarum (Basle, 1710). 
Rousseau printed a version in his DiciioniuUre 
de Musiqiic^ which Laborde arranged for four 
voices in his Essai sur la Musique. It was 
used by Gr^try in his Overture to * Guillaume 
Tell,' and by Adam in his Method de Piano du 
Conservatoire.^ It has been also arranged by 
Webbe, Weigl, Rossini (' Guillaume Tell '), and 
Meyerbeer. w. b. 8. 

RAPPOLDl, Eduard, bom at Vienna, Feb. 
21, 1831. He was placed by his father at an 
early age iinder Doleschall, and made his first 
appearance in his seventh year as violinist, 
pianist, and composer. His talent for the 
pianoforte was so great as to induce the Countess 
Banffy to put him under Mittag, Thalbeig's 
teacher. But the violin was the instrument of 
his choice, and he succeeded in studying it 
under Jansa, who induced him to go to London 
in 1850. Here he made no recorded appearance. 
On his return to Vienna he was so far provided 
for by the liberality of the same lady, that he 
became a pujiil of the Conservatorium under 
Hellmesberger from 1851 to 1854. He then 
put himself un(fer Bohm, and shortly began 
to travel, and to be spoken of as a promising 
player. The first real step in his career was 
conducting a concert of Joachim's at Rotterdam 
in 1866, where he had been concertmeister since 
1861. At the end of that year he went to 
LUbeck as capellmeister, in 1867 to Stettin in 
the same capacity, and in 1869 to the Landes- 
theater at Prague. During this time he was 
working hard at the violin, and also studying 
com position with Scchter and Hiller. From 1871 
to 1877 he was a colleague of Joachim's at the 
Hochschule at Berlin —where he proved himself 
a first-rate teacher — and a member of his 
quartet party. In 1876 he was made Royal 

> Thciv it « carious analogy between the above and the following 
ntrnin, which !• rani; ^'th Inflnlte rariatloni In the agrlcoltunu 
iliatricta near Ixjndon to frii^hten away the bird* from the eecd. 
In both paaMgce the F U more nearly ¥^ 

s Other esaainlee and dnKriptionii will be found In the following 
works :-Cappeller'i Pilati Montis Ni^oria (1797| ; HtolbefK'i Ketat 
in Dtutwrhland, der Sehtartx, He. (1794 • : Ebel'e Scha4terung drr 
OiMrgnakmr drr SehmH (1798) ; AlKninnd von Wagner'ii Acht 
ath¥>eiMr Kuhrrihfn (IHOA) ; tbe article on Vlotti in the M<wl« 
Fhilo»ofikiqu9 (An 6) : Caatelnan'e Conaidiratiotta tur la Noatataie 
(1806) : Bdward Jonee'e Muaicai CurioaitUt (1811) : RturuHl de Rant 
dea ToflkM ft da Ctutntnna .VatioHat«$ /lulaaet. third edition. Bemr, 
1818. alao IVrenne'n Sammtung whi SeMwHaer jr«Ar«A«n und t'oUa- 
Uad«m (1R18) ; Habere AviiW/ d* Ranadearaehn (18MI ; and Tobler** 
AppemalHaeher S/jradiarhata (1KI7i. 




Prafeaaor, and soon after received a call to a 
court concertmeistership at Dresden. This, 
howeyer, his love for Joachim and for Berlin, 
where he had advanced Bufficiently to lead the 
Quartets alternately with his chief, induced him 
for a long time to hesitate to accept, notwith- 
standing the very high terms otfered. At 
length, however, he did accept it, and became 
(in 1877) joint coucertmeister with Lauterbach 
at the Dresden opera, and chief teacher in the 
Conservatorium. He retired in 1898, after 
which time he only taught a few favoured 
pupils ; ]ie died in Dresden, May 16, 1903. 
Though a virtuoso of the first rank he followed 
in the footsteps of Joachim by sacrificing display 
to the finer interpretation of the music, and 
succeeded in infusing a new spirit into chamber- 
music at Dresden. He composed symphonies, 
quartets, sonatas, and songs, some of which 
have been printed. They are distinguished for 
earnestness, and for great beauty of form, and 
a quartet was performed in Dresden in the 
winter of 1878 which aroused quite an unusual 
sensation. In 1874 Bappoldi married a lady 
nearly as distinguished as himself, Laujla 
Kahrbr, who was bom in Vienna, Jan. 14, 
1858, and whose acquaintance he made many 
years before at Prague. Her talent, like his, 
showed itself very early. On the nomina- 
tion of the Empress Elisabeth she became a 
pupil of the Conservatorium at Vienna, under 
Dacha and Dessoff, from 1866 to 1869. After 
taking the first prize, she made a toumSe to the 
principal towns of Germany, ending at Weimar. 
There she studied under Liszt, and matured 
that beauty of touch, precision, fire, and 
intelligence, which have raised her to the first 
rank of pianists in Germany, and which induced 
Hcrr von Biilow — no lenient critic — to praise 
her playing of Beethoven's op. 106 in the 
highest terms. She was the worthy colleague of 
her husband in the best concerts of Dresden, g. 
RASELIUS, Andreah, was bom at Hahn- 
bach near Amberg in the Upper Palatinate some 
time between 1562 and 1564. He was the son 
of a Lutheran preacher, who had studied at 
Wittenberg under Melanchthon, and whose ori- 
ginal name, Basel, Melanchthon latinised into 
Rasclius. From 1581tol584 Andreas attended 
the then Lutheran University of Heidelberg, 
taking his degree as Magister Artium in the 
latter year. In the same year he was appointed 
cantor and teacher at the Gymnasium of 
Batisbon, then conducted under Lutheran 
auspices. In his capacity as cantor he published 
in 1589 a Musical Instraction book with the 
title ffexaehordum aeu Quaestiones Mtisicae 
Praetieae sex eapitibus comprehenme, which was 
still in use at Batisbon in 1664. In 1599 
appeared his ' Begenspurgischer Kirchen-Contra- 
punkt,' which contains simple settings a 5 of 
51 of the older Lutheran Psalm -tunes and 
chorales. The full title describes them as set 

so that the congregation may easily sing the- 
chorale-tune while the trained choir provide the 
harmonies. The chorale-tune is in the upper 
part, but the harmonies are not always mere 
note-for-note counterpoint as in a modem hymn- 
tune. A few specimens of these settings are 
given in Schbberlein's Schaiz, Other published 
works of Baselius are 'Teutsche Spriiche aus den 
Sonntaglichen Evangelia . . .,' 58 German 
Motets a 6 (Nuremberg, 1594), and *Neue 
Teutsche Spriiche auf die . . . Fest nnd 
Aposteltage . . .,'22 Motets a 5-9, described 
as composed on the 12 Modes of the Dodeca- 
chordon (Nuremberg, 1595). Besides these 
published works there remain in MS. several 
collections of Latin and German motets and 
magnificats by Baselius. He is also known as 
the author of a historical work, a chronicle of 
Batisbon, originally written both in Latin and 
German, of which only the German edition 
survives. Baselius remained at Batisbon till 
1600, when he received a pressing invitation 
from the Elector Palatine Frederick IV. to 
return to Heidelberg as Hofcapellmeister. This 
higher post of honour he was not permitted to 
retain long, as death carried him off on Jan. 6, 
1602. A monograph on Baselius by J. Auer of 
Amberg appeared as a Beilage to Eitner'a 
M<mat8hefte of 1892. J. R. M. 

BASOUMOWSKY,! Andreas Kyrillo- 
viTSCH, a Bussian nobleman to whom Beethoven 
dedicated three of his greatest works, and whose 
name will always survive in connection with 
the ' Basoumowsky Quartets ' (op. 59). He was 
the son of Kyrill Basum, a peasant of Lemeschi^ 
a village in the Ukraine, who, with his elder 
brother, was made a Count (Graf) by the 
Empress Elisabeth of Bussia. Andreas was 
bom Oct. 22, 1752, served in the English and 
Bussian navies, rose to the rank of admiral, 
and was Bussian ambassador at Venice, Naples, 
Copenhagen, Stockholm, and Vienna. In Eng- 
land his name must have been familiar, or Foote 
would hardly have introduced it as he has in 
* The Liar ' (1762). At Vienna he married, in 
1788, Elisabeth Countess of Thun, one of the 
'three Graces,' elder sister of the Princess Carl 
Lichnowsky [see vol. ii. p. 723a] ; and on Mai'ch 

25, 1792, had his audience from the Emperor 
of Austria as Bussian ambassador, a post which 
he held with short intervals for more than 
twenty years. He was a thorough musician, 
an excellent player of Haydn's quartets, in 
which he took second violin, not improbably 
studying them under Haydn himself. That, 
with his connection with Lichnowsky, he must 
have known Beethoven is obvious ; but no direct 
trace of the acquaintance is found until May 

26, 1806 (six weeks after the withdrawal of 
*Fidelio'), which Beethoven — in his usual poly- 
glot — has marked on the first page of the 

I Runmoffiiky and Buoamoflkky are forma uaed by Beethoven 
in varioua dedlcaitons. 




Quartet in F of op. 59, as the date on which 
he began it — * Quartetto angefangen am 26 ten 
May 1806.' 

In 1808 the Count formed his famous quartet 
l»arty — Schuppanzigh, first violin; Weiss, viola; 
Lincke, violoncello ; and he himself second 
violin — which for many years met in the even- 
ings, and performed, among other compositions, 
Beethoven's pieces, *hot from the fire,' under 
his own immediate instructions. 

In April 1809 appeared the C minor and 
Pastoral Symphonies (Nos. 5 and 6), with a 
dedication (on the Parts) to Prince Lobkowitz and 
'son excellence Monsieur le Comte de Rasu- 
moffsky ' (Breitkopf k Hiirtel). These dedica- 
tions doubtless imply that Beethoven was largely 
the recipient of the Count's bounty, but there 
is no direct evidence of it, and there is a strange 
absence of reference to the Count in Beethoven's 
letters. His name is mentioned only once — 
July 24, 1813 — and there is a distant allusion 
in a letter of a much later date (Nohl, Briefe 
B. 1866, No. 364). In the autumn of 1814 
came the Vienna Congress (Nov. 1, 1814- 
June 9, 1816), and as the Empress of Russia 
was in Vienna at the time, the Ambassador's 
Palace was naturally the scene of special festivi- 
ties. It was not, however, there that Beethoven 
was presented to the Empress, but at the Arch- 
duke Rodolph's.^ The Count's hospitalities 
were immense, and, vast as was his palace, a 
separate wooden annexe had to be constructed 
capable of dining 700 ]^iersons. 

On June 3, 1815, six days before the signa- 
ture of the final Act of the Congress, the Count 
was made Prince (Fiirst), and on the 31st of the 
following December the diniug-hall just men- 
tioned was burnt down. The Emperor of Russia 
gave 400,000 silver roubles (£40,000) towards 
the rebuilding, but the misfortune appears to 
have been too much for the Prince ; he soon 
after sold the property, pensioned his quartet, 
and disappears from musical history. The 
quartet kept together for many years after this 
date, Sina playing second violin. Beethoven 
mentions them hproi>os of the Galitzin Quartets 
in the letter to his nephew already referred 
to, about 1825. A. w. t. 

The three quartets to which Rasoumowsky's 
name is attached form op. 59, and are in F, E 
minor, and respectively. The first of the 
three, as already mentioned, was begun May 
26, 1806, and the whole three were finished 
and had evidently been played before Feb. 27, 
1807, the date of a letter in the Allg, mus. 
Zeitung describing their characteristics.^ They 
were published in January 1808 (Vienna Bureau 
des Arts ; Pesth, Schreyvogel), and the dedi- 
cation (on the Parts) begins *Troi8 Quatuors 

> Srhlndler. i. S33 (quoted by Thayer, ill. 331). 

3 They are antn alluded to in the iiuinlier for May 6 as more and 
more fluocenful. and ponibly to be aoon pubtiiihed ; and then, with 
Mtonlshine nalvtfi, follows ' Ebcrl's newest coinpoeitlonii, too, are 
anticipated with great pleasure ' ] 

tres humblement dedi^es k son Excellence Mon- 
sieur le Comte,' etc. Beethoven himself men- 
tions them in a letter to Count Brunswick, 
which he has dated May 11, 1806, but which 
Thayer (iiL 11) sees reason to date 1807. 

The Quartet in F is the one which Bernard 
Romberg is said to have thrown on the ground 
and trampled upon as unplayable. — The slow- 
movement is entitled in the Sketchbook ' Einen 
Trauerweideii oder Akazienbaum aufs Grab 
meines Bruders' — * A weeping willow or acacia 
tree over the grave of my brother.' But which 
brother? August died in 1783, twenty-three 
years before, Carl not till ten years after, and 
Joliann not till 1848. Carl's marriage-contract 
had, however, been signed only on May 25, 1806. 
Is it possible that this inscription is a Beet- 
hovenish joke on the occasion ? If so, he began 
in fun and ended in earnest. The finale has a 
Russian theme in D minor for its principal 
subject, and the second of the three has a Rus- 
sian theme in £ major as the Trio of its third 
movement g. 

[The tunes are given in Kohler's 'Album 
Russe ' as Nos. 188 and 175 respectively ; and 
are also in 'Chants Natiouaux Russes,' Nos. 
13 and 45.] 

RATAPLAN, like Rub-a-dub, is an imitative 
word for the sound of the drum, as Tan-ta-ra 
is for that of the trum^iet, and Tootle-tootle 
for the flute.^ It is hardly necessary to mention 
its introduction by Donizetti in the * Fille du 
Regiment, ' or by Meyerbeer in the * Huguenots ' ; 
and every Londoner is familiar with it in 
Sergeant Bouncer's part in Sullivan's ' Cox and 
Box.' 'Rataplan, der kleine Tambour* is the 
title of a Singspiel by Pillwitz, which was 
produced at Bremen in 1831, and had a con- 
siderable run both in North and South Germany 
between that year and 1886. o. 

RAUZZINI, Vknanzio, born 1747, in Rome, 
where he made his debut in 1765, captivating 
his audience by his fine voice, clever acting, 
and prepossessing appearance. In 1 766 or 1 767 
he was at Munich, where Burney heard him in 
1772, and where four of his ot>eras were per- 
formed. He sang at various places during this 
period. In London he made his first appearance 
in 1774, in Corri's 'Alessandro nell' Indie.' 
[His appearance in a pasticcio of ' Armida ' in 
the same year has resulted in the attribution 
to him of an opera of that name dated 1778, 
and the error has been copied into most 
dictionaries from the first edition of this work.] 
He also distinguished himself as an excellent 
teacher of singing, Miss Storace, Braham, Miss 
Poole (afterwards Mrs. Dickons), and Incledon, 
being among his pupils. In 1778 and 1779 
he gave subscription concerts with the violinist 
Lamotte, when they were assisted by such 
eminent artistsas Miss Harrop, Siguor Rovedino, 

s other form* are Ptitapataplan, Palalalatan. Bumberuinbnmbuin. 
Bee the mctionnair* Xnr^opidivtie of Saehii * VlUatte. 




Fiacher, Cervetto, Stamitz, Decamp, and de- 
menti. He also gave brilliant concerts in the 
new Assembly ^ooms (built 1771) at Bath, 
where he took up his abode on leaving London. 
Here he invited Haydn and Dr. Buniey to visit 
him, and the three spent several pleasant days 
together in 1794. On this oocasion Haydn 
wrote a four-part canon (or more strictly a 
round) to an epitaph on a favourite dog buried 
in Baazzini 8 (^uden, ' Turk was a faithful dog 
and not a man.' (See Turk.) Bauzzini's 
operas performed in London were 'Piramo e 
Hsbe' (March 16, 1775, and afterwards in 
Vienna), *Le Ali d'Amore' (Feb. 27, 1776); 
*Creu8a in Delfo' (1783); *La Regina di 
Golconda* (1784); and * La Vestale' (1787). 
' L' Eroe Cinese,' originally given at Munich in 
1771, was performed in London in 1782. 
(These dates are from the Public Advertiser.) 
He composed string-quartets, sonatas for PF., 
Italian arias and duets, and English songs ; 
also a Requiem produced at the little Haymarket 
Theatre in 1801, by Dr. Arnold and Salomon. 
He died, universally regretted, at Bath, April 8, 
1810. His brother 

MA.TTBO, bom in Rome 1754, made his first 
appearance at Munich in 1772, followed his 
brother to England, and settled in Dublin, 
where he produced an opera, ' II R^ pastore,' in 
1784. He had written * Le finte Gemelli' for 
Munich in 1772, and * L' opera nuova' for Venice 
in 1781. He employed himself in teaching 
singing, and died in 1791. c. f. p. 

RAVENSCROFT, John, one of the Tower 
Hamlets waits, and violinist at Goodman's Fields 
Theatre, was noted for his skill in the composi- 
tion of hornpipes, a collection of which he pub- 
lished. Two of them are printed in Hawkins's 
History, and another in vol. iii of 'The Dancing 
Master.' A set of sonatas for two violins and 
violone or arch-lute, were printed at Rome in 
1695. He died about 1745. w. h. h. 

RAVENSCROFT, Thomas, Mus.B., bom 
about 1582, was a chorister of St. Paul's under 
Edward Pearce, and graduated at Cambridge in 
1607. In 1609 he edited and published * Pam- 
melia. Musickes Miscellanic : or Mixed Varietie 
of pleasant Roundelayes and delightful Catches 
of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Parts in one '—the earliest 
collection of rounds, catches, and canons printed 
in this country. A second impression appeared 
in 1618. Later in 1609 he put forth *Deutero- 
melia ; or the Second Part of Musick*s Melodie, 
or melodius Miisicke of Pleasant Roundelaies ; 
K. H. mirth, or Freemen's Songs and such 
delightfull Catches' ; containing the catch, 
' Hold thy peace, thou knave,' sung in Shake- 
speare's 'Twelfth Night' In 1611 he published 
'Melismata. Musicall Phansies, fitting the 
Court, Citie, and Countrey Humours, to 3, 4 
and 5 Voyces.' In 1614 he published 'A Briefe 
Discourse of the true (but neglected) use of 
Charact'ring the Degrees by their Perfection, 

Imperfection, and Diminution in Mensurable 
Miisicke against the Common Practise and Cus- 
tome of these Times ; Examples whereof are 
exprest in the Harmony of 4 Voyces Concerning 
the Pleasure of 5 vsuall Recreations. 1. Hunt- 
ing. 2. Hawking. 8. Dancing. 4. Drinking. 
5. Enamouring ' — a vain attempt to resuscitate 
an obsolete practice. The musical examples 
were composed by Edward Pearce, John Bemiet, 
and Ravenscroft himself. [Much of the material 
is found in a MS. in the Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 
19,758 (Diet, of Nat. Biog.), In 1618-22 he 
was music -master at Christ's Hospital (Mus. 
Times, 1905, p. 580.)] In 1621 he published 
the work by which he is best known, *The 
Whole Booke of Psalmes ; With the Hymnes 
Evangelicall and Spirituall. Composed into four 
parts by Sundry Authors with several! Tunes as 
have been and are usually sung in England, 
Scotland, Wales, Germany, Italy, France, and 
the Netherlands.' Another edition was pub- 
lished in 1683. Four anthems or motets by 
Ravenscroft are among the MSS. in the library 
of Christ Church, Oxford. [For other music by 
him see the Quellen-Lexikon.'] The date of his 
death is not known. It is said by some to 
have been about 1630, and by others about 
1635. w. H. u. 

RAVINA, Jean Henri, a pianoforte com- 
poser, was bom May 20, 1818, at Bordeaux, 
where his mother was a prominent musician. 
At the instance of Rode and Zimmermann the 
lad was admitted to the Conservatoire of Paris 
in 1831. His progress was rapid — second prize 
for PF. in 1832; first prize for the same in 
1834 ; first for harmony and accompaniment in 
1835, ajoint professorship of PF. Nov. 1835. In 
Feb. 1837 he left the Conservatoire and embarked 
on tlie world as a virtuoso and teacher. He 
resided exclusively at Paris, with the excep- 
tion of a journey to Russia in 1853, and Spain 
in 1871. He received the Legion of Honour in 
1861. His compositions are almost all salon 
pieces, many of them very popular in their time, 
graceful and effective, but with no permanent 
qualities. He also published a 4 -hand arrange- 
ment of Beethoven's nine symphonies. Ravina 
died in Paris, Sept. 80, 1906. — The above 
sketch is indebted to M. Pougin's supplement 
to F^tis. G. 

RAWLINGS, or RAWLINS, Thomas, bora 
about 1703, was a pupil of Dr. Pepusch, and 
a member of Handel's orchestra at both opera 
and oratorio performances. On March 14, 
1753, he was appointed organist of Chelsea 
HospitaL He died in 1767. His son, Robert, 
born in 1742, was a pupil of his father, and 
afterwards of Barsanti. At seventeen he was 
appointed musical page to the Duke of York, 
with whom he travelled on the continent until 
his death in 1767, when he returned to England 
and became a violinist in the King's band and 
Queen's private band. He died in 1814, leaving 




A son, Thomas A., bom in 1775, who studied 
music under his father and Dittenhofer. He 
composed some instrumental music performed 
.at the Professional Ck)ncerts, became a violinist 
at the Opera and the best concerts, and a teacher 
•of the pianoforte, violin, and thorough-bass. 
He composed and arranged many pieces for the 
pianoforte, and some songs, and died about the 
middle of the 19th century. w. H. H. 

romantic English Opera in three acts ' ; words 
by E. Fitzball, music by K J. Loder. Pro- 
duced at Manchester in 1855, and at St. James's 
Theatre, London, June 11, 1859. o. 

RE. The second note of the natural scale in 
solmisatiou and in the nomenclature of France 
and Italy, as Ut (or Do) is the first, Mi the 
third, and Fa the fourth — 

Ut queant laxis resonare flbris 
Afira gestorum, /amuli taoruiii. 

By the Germans and English it is called D. o. 

RE PASTORE, XL. A dramatic cantata to 
Metastasio's words (with compressions), com- 
posed by Mozart at Salzburg in 1775, in honour 
of the Archduke Maximilian. First performed 
April 23, 1775. It contains an overture and 
fourteen numbers. The autograph is in the 
Royal Library at Berlin, and the work is pub- 
lished in Breitkopfs complete edition as Series 
V. No. 10. Aminta's air, *L'amer6,' with 
violin obbligato, is the number by which the 
work is most widely known. o. 

REA, William, born in London, March 25, 
1827 ; when about ten years old learnt the 
pianoforte and organ from Josiah Pittman, for 
whom he acted as deputy for several years. In 
about 1848 he was appointed organist to Christ- 
church, Watney Street, St, George's-in-the-East, 
and at the same time studied the pianoforte, 
composition, and instrumentation under Stern- 
dale Bennett, appearing as a pianist at the 
concerts of the Society of British Musicians in 
1845. On leaving Chnstchurch he was appointed 
organist to St Andrew Undershaft In 1849 
he went to Leipzig, where his masters were 
Moscheles and Richter ; he subsequently studied 
under Dreyschock at Prague. On his return 
to England, Mr. Rea gave chamber concerts at 
the Beethoven Rooms, and became (1858) 
organist to the Harmonic Union. In 1856 he 
founded the London Polyhymnian Choir, to 
the training of which he devoted much time, 
and with excellent i-esults ; at the same time 
he conducted an amateur orchestral society. In 
1858 he was appointed organist at St Michael's, 
Stockwell, and in 1860 was chosen by competi- 
tion organist to the corporation of Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, where he also successively filled the 
same post at three churches in succession, and 
at the Elswick Road Chapel. At Newcastle 
Mr. Rea worked hard to diflfnse a taste for good 
music, though he met with less encouragement 

than his labours and enthusiasm deserved. 
Besides weekly organ and pianoforte recitals, 
he formed a choir of eighty voices, which in 
1862 was amalgamated with the existing Sacred 
Harmonic Society of Newcastle. In 1867 he 
began a series of excellent orchestral concerts 
which were carried on every season for nine 
years, when he was compelled to discontinue 
them, owing to the pecuniary loss which they 
entailed. In 1876 he gave two performances 
of * Antigone' at the Theatre Royal, and devoted 
much of his time to training his choir (200 
voices), the Newcastle Amateur Vocal Society, 
and other Societies on the Tyne and in Sunder- 
land, besides giving concerts at which the best 
artists performed. His published works com- 
prise four songs, three organ pieces, and some 
anthems. At the close of 1 880 he was appointed 
organist of St Hilda's, S. Shields, in 1888 he 
resigned the corporation appointment [He 
was an honorary Fellow of the Royal College 
of Organists, and in 1886 received the honorary 
degree of Mu8.D. from theUniversity of Durham. 
He composed a * Jubilee Ode ' for the Newcastle 
Exhibition of 1887, and he died at Newcastle, 
March 8, 1903. An account of his life and 
works is in Musical Times^ April 1903. His 
wife, Emma Mary {-nAe Woolhouse), was an ac- 
complished musician, actively connected with 
the musical life of Newcastle. She died May 6, 
1893. F. K.] w. B. s. 

READE, Charles, English dramatist and 
novelist — bom June 8, 1814, died April 11, 
1884 — claims a notice in his capacity of expert 
connoisseur, and one of the earliest collectors of 
old violins. He devoted much time to the 
study of violin constniction, and — as his sons 
put it — acquired * as keen a scent for the habitat 
of a rare violin, as the truffle dog for fungus 
beneath the roots of the trees.' He gathei-ed 
much of this accurate knowledge from one 
Henri, a player and a maker to boot, resident in 
Soho, with whom he engaged in experiments in 
varnish, and in the business of importing fiddles 
from abroad for the English dealers. Frequent 
visits to Paris, in the latter connection, resulted 
sometimes in profit, and at other times in finan- 
cial catastrophe ; but they succeeded in bring- 
ing to England some of the finest specimens of 
Cremona instruments that are known to-day. 
They were in Paris, buying a stock of thirty 
fiddles, when the Revolution of 1848 broke out, 
and Henri threw aside fiddle-dealing and joined 
the revolutionists. He was shot before his 
friend's eyes at the first barricade, and Charles 
Reade escaped with difficulty, leaving the fiddles 
behind. 'These were found stored away in a 
cellar after the Revolution, and eventually 
reached Reade, who records that he sold one 
of them for more than he paid for the whole 
lot At the time of the Special Loan Exhibi- 
tion of Musical Instruments held at the South 
Kensington Museum in 1872, Reade wrote a 




series of letters upon Cremona fiddles in tlie 
Pall McUl GaxeUe, in which he propounded the 
theory that the * Lost Cremona Varnish ' was 
a spirit varnish laid over an oil varnish. 
Coming as it did from so noted a connoisseur, 
there were many who accepted the theory as 
the solution of the question. These lettei-s 
were privately reprinted by G. H. M. Muntz, 
under the title A Lost Art Hevived : Cremona 
Fiolins and V/imish (Gloucester, 1878), and 
again in the volume entitled Headiana (Chatto 
k Windus, 1882). In later life Charles Reade 
abandoned fiddles and fiddle-trading, but we 
find traces of his infatuation in his writings. 
The adventurous career of John Frederick Lott, 
the violin- maker, is told by him, somewhat 
romantically, in his novel Jack of all Trades ; 
whilst interesting matter concerning the violin 
comes into Christie JchnsUme^ and his collection 
of tales entitled Cream, — Reade (Charles L., 
and Rev. Compton), Charles Reade ; Coleman 
(John), Charles Reader Sutherland -Edwards, 
Perwnal ReeoUeetians ; Hart (G.), The Violin ; 
Diet. ofNoL Biog, E. H-A. 

READING, John. There were three musi- 
cians of these names, all organists. The first 
was appointed Junior Vicar Choral of Lincoln 
Cathedral, Oct. 10, 1667, Poor Vicar, Nov. 28, 
1667, and Master of the Choristers, June 7, 
1670. He succeeded Randolph Jewett as 
organist of Winchester Cathedral in 1675, and 
retained the office until 1681, when he was 
appointed organist of Winchester College. He 
died in 1692. He was the composer of the 
Latin Graces sung before and after meat at the 
annual College election times, and the well-known 
Winchester School song, ' Dulce Domum ' ; all 
printed in Dr. Philip Hayes's *Harmonia 
Wiccamica.' The second was organist of 
Chichester Cathedral from 1674 to 1720. 
Several songs included in collections published 
between 1681 and 1688 are probably by one or 
other of these two Readings. The third, bom 
1677, was a chorister of the Chapel Royal under 
Dr. Blow. In 1696-98 he was organist of 
Dulwich Collie [information fh>m Dr. W. H. 
Cnmmings]. He was appointed Junior Vicar 
and Poor Clerk of Lincoln Cathedral, Nov. 21, 
1702, Master of the Choi-isters, Oct. 5, 1708, 
and Instructor of the choristers in vocal music, 
Sept 28, 1704. He appears to have resigned 
these posts in 1707, and to have returned to 
London, where he became organist of St. John, 
Hackney (in 1708), St Dunstan in the West, 
St Mary Woolchurchhaw, Lombard Street, and 
St Mary Woolnoth. He published ' A Book 
of New Songs (after the Italian manner) with 
Symphonies and a Thorough Bass fitted to the 
Hsrpsichord, etc,* and (about 1709) * A Book 
of New Anthems.' One of the Readings was 
also the reputed composer of the tune to ' Adeste 
fideles.' He died Sept 2, 1764. 

There was another person named Reading, 

who was a singer at Drury Lane in the latter 
part of the 17th century. In June 1695 he and 
Pate, another singer at the theatre, were removed 
from their places and fined 20 marks each for 
being engaged in a riot at the Dog Tavern, Drury 
Lane, but were soon after reinstated. 

A Rev. John Reading, D.D., Prebendary of 
Canterbury Cathedral, preached there a sermon 
in defence of church music, and published it in 
1663. w. H. H. 

REAL FUGUE. See Fugue. 

REAY, Samuel, bom at Hexham, March 1 7, 
1822, was noted for his fine voice and careful 
singing asa chorister at Durham Cathedral ; and 
under Henshaw the organist, and Penson the 
precentor there, became acquainted witli much 
music outside the regular Cathedral services. 
After leaving the choir he had organ lessons 
from Mr. Stimpson of Birmingham, and then 
became successively organist at St. Andrew's, 
Newcastle (1845); St Peter's, Tiverton (1847); 
St John's Parish Church, Hampstead (1854) ; 
St Saviour's, Warwick Road (1866); St 
Stephen's, Paddington ; Radley College (1859, 
succeeding Dr. E. G. Monk) ; Bniy, Lancashire 
(1861); and in 1864 was appointed 'Song- 
schoolmaster and organist ' of the parish Church 
Newark, retiring from the latter post in 1901, 
but retaining that of Song schoolmaster on the 
Magnus foundation until his death, which took 
place at Newark, July 22, 1906. In 1871 
Reay graduated at Oxford as Mus.B. In 1879 
he distinguished himself by producing at the 
Bow and Bromley Institute, London, two comic 
cantatas of J. S. Bach's (* Caffee-cantate ' and 
* Bauem-cantate '), which were performed there 
— certainly for the first time in England — on 
Oct 27, under his direction, to English woixls 
of his own adaptation. Mr. Reay was noted as 
a fine accompanist and extempore player on the 
organ. He published a Morning and Evening 
Service in F, several anthems, and tw^o madrigals 
(all Novello) ; but is best known as a writer of 
part-songs, some of which ('The clouds that 
wrap, ' * The dawn of day, ' written for the Tiverton 
Vocal Society) are deservedly popular. g. 

REBEC (Ital. Ribeca, Riheha ; Span. Rah4, 
Rabet). The French name (said to be of Arabic 
origin) of that primitive stringed instniment 
which was in use throughout western Eiirojie in 
the Middle Ages, and was the parent of the viol 
and violin, and is identical with the German 
< geige ' and the English ''fiddle ' ; in outline 
something like the mandoline, of which it was 
probably the parent. It was shaped like the 
half of a pear, and was everywhere solid except 
at the two extremities, the upper of which was 
formed into a peg-box identical with that still 
in use, and surmounted by a carved human 
head. The lower half was considerably cut 
down in level, thus leaving the upper solid part 
of the instrument to form a natural finger-board. 
The portion thus cut down was scooped out. 




and over tlie cavity thus formed was glued a 
short pine belly, pierced with two trefoil-shaped 
sound -holes, and fitted with a bridge and sound- 

post. The player either rested the curved end 
of the instrument lightly against the breast, or 
else held it like the violin, between the chin 
and the collar-bone, and bowed it like the violin. 
It had three stout gut strings, tuned like the 
lower strings of the violin (A, D, G). Its tone 
was loud and harsh, emulating the female voice, 
according to a French poem of the 13th century. 
Quidam rebecAm arcuabant, 
Muliebrem Yocem conflugentes.^ 

An old Si^auish poem speaks of ' el rabe gri- 
tador, * 3 or the * squalling rebec. ' This powerful 
tone made it useful in the mediseval orchestra ; 
and Henry the Eighth employed the rebec in 
his state band. It was chiefly used, however, to 
accompany dancing ; and Shakespeare's musicians 
in Romeo and Juliet^ Hugh Rebeck, Simon 
Catling (Catgut), and James Soundpost, were 
undoubtedly rebec- players. After the inven- 
tion of instruments of the viol and violin type 
it was banished to the streets of towns and to 
rustic festivities, whence the epithet 'jocund' 
applied to it in Milton's VAllegro. It was 
usually accompanied by the drum or tambourine. 
It was in vulgar use in France in the 18th cen- 
tury, as is proved by an ordinance issued by 
Guignon in his official capacity as *Roi des 
Violons'iu 1742, in which street-fiddlers are 
prohibited from using anything else ; * II leur 
sera permis d'y jouer d'une esp^ d'instrument 
hk trois cordes seulement, et connu sous le nom 
de rebec, sans qu'ils puissent se servir d'un 
viol on \k quatre cordes sous quelque pr^texte que 
ce soit' A similar order is extant, dated 1628, 
in which it is forbidden to play the treble or bass 
violin 'dans les cabarets et les mauvais lieux, 
but only the rebec. The rebec was extinct in 
England earlier than in France. Itis now totally 

> VAymtiio de Poyiat; see Du Cfenge's Qloitarium, i.t. *1»n- 
' Don Ant Rod. de HIU; aee Vldal, U$ Ini(rument$ A artkrt. 

disused, and no specimen was known until, at 
the exhibition of Musical Instruments at Milan 
in 1881, six genuine specimens were shown. 
Representations of it In sculpture, paintings 
manuscripts, etc., are abundant. The illustra- 
tion is from an Italian painting of the 13th 
century engraved in Vidal's Instruments a 
Archet. [The custom of playing songs in 
unison with the voice, which came into vogue 
in the 15th century, resulted in the classifica- 
tion of rebecs into definite ' sets ' answering in 
pitch to the Treble, Alto, Tenor, and Bass voices. 
Martin Agricola, in his Musica InstrumenUUis, 
1528, gives woodcuts of a 'set' of rebeca 
which he calls Discant, Altus, Tenor, and 
Bassus. £. H-A.] E. J. p. 

REBEL, Jean F^ry, bom in Paris about 
1661, [the son of Jean, a singer in the service 
of the French court, from 1661 to his death in 
1692.] After a precocious childhood he entered 
the Op^ra as a violinist. In 1703 he produced 
' Ulysse,' opera in five acts with prologue, con- 
taining a pas seul for Fran9ois Pr^vot to an air 
called 'Le Caprice,' for violin solo. The opera 
failed, but the Caprice remained for years the 
test-piece of the haJlerine at the Opera. After 
this success, Rebel composed violin solos for 
various other ballets, such as 'La Boutade,' 
' Les Caractkes de la Danse' (1715), 'Terpsi- 
chore' (1720), 'La Fantaisie' (1727), 'Les 
Plaisirs Champ^tres,' and 'Les l^lements.' 
Several of these were engraved, as were his 
sonatas for the violin. In 1713 he was accom- 
panist at the Op^ra, and in 1717 was one of 
the '24 violons,' and by 1720 'compositeur 
de la chambre ' to the King. [This latter office 
he resigned in 1727, in favour of his son 
Fran9ois, and later passed on to him the duties 
of conductor of the Opera, which he had fulfilled 
for many years.] He died in Paris, 1746 or 
1747, and was buried on Jan. 3, 1747. [His 
sister, Anne- Ren £e, bom 1662, became one 
of the best singers of the court, and from the 
age of eleven years, appeared in the ballet, etc. 
She was married in 1684 to Michel Richard de 
Lalande (sec vol. ii. p. 623), and she died iu 

Jean-Fery's son Francois, born in Paris, 
June 19, 1701, at thirteen played the violin 
in the Op^ra orchestra. It seems to have been 
at Prague, during the festivities at the corona- 
tion of Charles YI. in 1723, that he became 
intimate with Fran9ois Francoeur ; the two 
composed conjointly, and produced at the 
Academic, the following operas : — ' Pyrame et 
Thisbe' (1726); 'Tarsis et Z^lie' (1728); 
'Scanderbe^' (1735); 'Ballet de la Paix ' 
(1738) ; * Les Augustales ' and * Le Retour du 
Roi' (1744); 'Z^lindor,' 'Le Tioph^' (in 
honour of Fontenoy, 1745) ; * Ism^ne ' (1750) ; 
* Les G6nies tut^laires ' (1751) ; and ' Le Prince 
de Noisy' (1760) ; most of which were com- 
posed for court f^tes or public rejoicings. [Rebel 




seems to have been the sole author of a * Pas- 
torale heroiqae' (1730).] 

From 17S8 to 1744 Rebel and Franctjeur 
were joint leaders of the Acad^mie orchestra, 
and in 1753 were appointed managers. They 
soon, however, retired in disgust at the petty 
Texations they were called upon to endure. 
Loois XV. made them surintendants of his 
miuic, with the Order of St. Michel. In March 
1757 these inseparable friends obtained the 
privilege of the Op^ra, and directed it for ten 
years on their own account, with great ad- 
ministrative ability'. 

Rebel died in Paris, Nov. 7, 1775. He com- 
posed some cantatas, a Te Deum, and a De 
Profandis, performed at the Concerts Spirituels, 
but all his music is now forgotten, excepting a 
lively air in the first finale of ' Pyrame et Thisb6 ' 
which was adapted to a much-admired pcu seal 
of Mile, de Camaaigo, thence became a popular 
contredanse — the first instance of such adapta- 
tion — and in this form is preserved in the * C\i 
da Caveau,' under the title of *La Camargo.' 

SA veiy interesting account of the family, with 
ietailed notices of the music of G. F. Rebel, 
appeared in the Sammelbdnde of the InL 
Mus. Ges, voL .vii. p. 258, by M. L. de la 
Laorencie.] G. c. 

REBER, NapolAon-Henei, bom at Miil- 
hansen, Oct. 21, 1807 ; at twenty entered the 
Ptms Conservatoire, studying counterpoint and 
fbgue under Senriot and Jelenspeiger, and com- 
position under Lesueur. Circumstances led him 
to compose chamber -mnsic, after the success 
of whidi he attempted opera. His music to 
the second act of the charming ballet *Le 
Diable amoureux' (Sept. 23, 1840) excited 
considerable attention, and was followed at the 
Op^-Comique by * La Nuit de Noel,' three acts 
(Feb. 9, 1848), <LeP^reGaillard,' threeact8(Sept 
7, 1852), * Les Papillotes de M. Benoit,' one act 
(Dec 28, 1853), and ' Les Dames Capitaines,' 
three acts (June 3, 1857). In these works he 
strove to counteract the tendency towards noise 
and bombast then so prevalent both in French 
and Italian opera, and to show how much may 
be made oat of the simple natural materials of 
the old French opera-comique by the judicious 
use of modem orchestration. 

In 1851 he was appointed Professor of har- 
mony at the Conservatoire, and in 1853 the 
well-merited success of * Le Pire Gaillard ' pro- 
cured his election to the Institut as Onslow's 
successor. Soon after this he renounced the 
theatre, and returned to chamber-music. He 
also b^gan to write on music, and his TraiU 
d'Harmottie (1862) went through many editions, 
and is without comparison the best work of its 
kind in France. The outline is simple and 
methodical, the classification of the chords easy 
to follow and well connected, the explanations 
lamuumsly dear, the exercises practical and 
well calculated to develop musical taste — in a 


word, everything combines to make it one of the 
safest and most valuable of instruction-books. 
The second part especially, dealing with * acci- 
dental ' notes — or, notes foreign to the constitu- 
tion of chords —contains novel views, and obser- 
vations throwing light upon points and rules of 
harmony which before were obscure and con- 

In 1862 M. Reber succeeded Halevy as 
Professor of composition at the Conservatoire ; 
since 1871 he was also Inspector of the 
succurtcUes or branches of the Conservatoire. 
He died in Paris, after a short illness, Nov. 24, 
1880, and was succeeded as Professor by M. 

His compositions comprise four symphonies, 
a quintet and three quartets for strings, one PF. 
ditto, seven trios, duets for PF. and violin, and 
PF. pieces for two and four hands. Portions of 
his ballet ' Le Diable amoureux ' have been pub- 
lished for orchestra, and are performed at con- 
certs. In 1875 he produced a cantata called 
* Roland,' but *Le MenStrier h la cour,' opera- 
comique, and *Kaim,' grand opera in five acts, 
have never been performed, though the overtures 
are engraved. His best vocal works are his 
melodies for a single voice, but he has composed 
choruses for three and four men's voices, and 
some sacred pieces. o. c. 

RECITA (Ital.), 'performance.' 

RECITAL, a term which has come into use 
in England to signify a performance of solo 
music by one performer. It was probably first 
used by Liszt at his performance at the Hanover 
Square Rooms, June 9, 1840, though as applying 
to the separate pieces and not to the whole 
performance. The advertisement of the concert 
says that *M. Liszt will give Recitals on the 
Pianoforte of the following pieces. ' The name 
was afterwards adopted by Hall^ and others, 
and is in the present day often applied to con- 
certs when two or more soloists take part. 

The term Opera Recital is used for a concert 
in which the mnsic of an opera is sung without 
costume or action. o. 

RECITATIVE (Ital. EeeUativo ; Germ. Be- 
citcUiv ; Fr. It^citatif ; from the Latin JiecUare), 
A species of declamatory music, extensively 
used in those portions of an Opera, an Oratorio, 
or a Cantata, in which the action of the drama 
is too rapid, or the sentiment of the poetry too 
changeful, to adapt itself to the studied rhythm 
of a regularly constructed Aria. 

The invention of Recitative marks a crisis in 
the history of music, scarcely less important 
than that to which we owe the discovery of 
harmony. Whether the strange conception in 
which it originated was first clothed in tangible 
form by Jacopo Peri, Giulio Caccini, or Emilio 
del Cavalieri, is a question which has never been 

Thus first launched upon the world, for the 
purpose of giving a new impetus to the progress 




of ftrt, this particular style of composition has 
undergone less change, during the last 300 
years, than any other. What simple or unac- 
companied Recitative (RecUativo secco) is to-day, 
it was, in all essential particulars, in the time 
of * Euridice.' Then, as now, it was supported 
by the lightest possible accompaniment, origin- 
ally a figured-bass. Then, as now, its periods 
were moulded with reference to nothing more 
than the plain rhetorical delivery of the words 
to which they were set ; melodious or rhythmic 
phrases being everywhere carefully avoided, as 
not only unnecessary, but absolutely detrimental 
to the desired effect — so detrimental that the 
difficulty of adapting good recitative to poetry 
written in short rhymed verses is almost 
insuperable, the jingle of the metre tending 
to crystallise itself in regular form with a 
persistency which is rarely overcome except by 
the greatest masters. Hence it is, that the 
best poetry for recitative is blank verse ; and 
hence it is, that the same intervals, progres- 
sions, and cadences have been used over and 
over again by composers who, in other matters, 
have scarcely a trait in common. We shall best 
illustrate this by selecting a few examples from 
the inexhaustible store used by some of the 
greatest writers of the I7th, 18th, and 19 th 
centuries ; premising that, in phrases ending 
with two or more reiterated notes, it has been 
long the custom to sing the first as an appog- 
giatura, a note higher than the rest. We have 
shown this in thi-ec cases, but the rale applies 
to many others. 

(a) PsRi(1600). (a) Cavalieri (1<K)0). 


(a) HatdxOTWX 

at) ^ Mkndcubobm (188^ 




.]■ 1 


■P"' "^ <• 1^ 



r gp i^.-f^-s- = — -| 





— ^ 


The universal acceptance of these, and similar 
figures, by oompoeers of all ages, from Peri down 
to Wagner, sufficiently proves their fitness for 




the purpose for which they were originally 
designed. But the staunch conservatism of 
ReeiUUivo seeco goes even farther than this. Its 
aooompaniment has never changed. The latest 
composers who have employed it have trusted 
for its support to the simple Basso amtinnOf 
which neither Peri, nor Carissimi, nor Handel, 
nor Mozart cared to reinforce by the introduc- 
tion of a fuller aooompaniment. The chief 
modification of the original idea which has 
found favour in modem times was when the 
harpsichord and the pianoforte wei'e banished 
from the opera orchestra, and the accompani- 
ment of Recitative secoo was confided to the 
principal violoncello and double bass ; the former 
filling in the harmonies in light arpeggios, while 
the latter confined itself to the simple notes of 
the Basso eorUinuo, In this way the Recitatives 
were performed at Her Majesty's Theatre for 
more than half a century by Lindley and 
Dragonetti, who always played at the same 
d^k, and accompanied with a perfection at- 
tained by no other artists in the world, though 
Charles Jane Ashley was considered only second 
to Lindley in expression and judgment The 
general style of their accompaniment was 
exceedingly simple, consisting only of plain 
chords, played arpeffffiando ; but occasionally 
the two old friends would launch out into 
I>aaBage8 as elaborate as those shown in the 
following example ; Dragonetti playing the 
large notes, and lindley the small ones. 

governed by no law whatever beyond that of 
euphony. Its harmonies exhibit more variety 
now than they did two centuries ago ; but 
they are none the less free to wander wherever 
they please, passing through one key after 
another, until they land the hearer somewhere 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the key 
chosen for the next regularly constructed move- 
ment Hence it is that recitatives of this kind 
are usually written without the introduction of 
sharps or flats at the signatm-e ; since it is 
manifestly more convenient to employ any 
number of accidentals that may bo needed, than 
to place three or four sharps at the beginning 
of a piece which is perfectly at liberty to end in 
seven flats. 

But notwithstanding the unchangeable char- 
acter of BeciUUivo secco, declamatory music has 
not been relieved from the condition which im- 
poses progress upon every really living branch 
of art. As the resources of the orchestra in- 
creased, it became evident that they might be no 
less profitably employed in the accompaniment 
of highly impassioned recitative than in that 
of the aria or chorus ; and thus arose a new 
style of rhetorical composition, called accom- 
panied recitative (BgdtoHvo stromenUito), in 
which the vocal phrases, themselves unchanged, 
received a vast accession of power, by means of 
elaborate orchestral symphonies interpolated 
between them, or even by instrumental passages 
designed expressly for their support. [Tlie 



Don GiovAKin. 


i^-^!-~g##giP g g|g ^-^^oS=^-=t 

Fiv teaMM «■»•!• to -lams pnoda An-co-im magUo 

1 mr 

y y ■ 

ITMM-iw-ia. miaMinweU 


hit t 

^^ ^ .^' 





In no country has this peculiar style been so 
mcoessfhlly cultivated as in England, where 
the traditions of its best period are scarcely 
yet foigotten. [On an interesting MS. of 
MendelsBohn's, showing the kind of treatment 
he preferred while following the English prac- 
tice, see Musical TimeSy 1902, p. 727. J A 
return was made to the old method by the 
employment of the piano, first by Mr. Otto 
Ooldschmidt at a performance of Handel's 
' L' Allegro ' in 1868, and more recently by Sir 
John Stainer, at St Paul's, in various oratorios. 

Again, this simple kind of recitative is as 
free now as it was in the first year of the 17th 
centory, from the trammels imposed by the laws 
of modulation. It is the only kind of music 
which need not begin and end on the same key. 
As a matter of fact it usually begins upon some 
€hord not far removed from the tonic harmony 
of the aria or concerted piece which preceded 
it ; and ends in or near the key of that which 
is to follow ; but its intermediate course is 

fii-st example of it seems to be in Landi's ' San 
Alessio' (1634)], and its advantages in telling 
situations were so obvious that it was im- 
mediately adopted by other composers, and 
at once recognised as a legitimate form of art — 
not, indeed, as a substitute for simple recitative, 
which has always been retained for the ordinary 
business of the stage, but as a means of produc- 
ing powerful effects, in scenes, or portions of 
scenes, in which the introduction of the measured 
aria would be out of place. 

It will be readily understood that the sta- 
bility of simple recitative was not communicable 
to the newer style. The steadily increasing 
weight of the orchestra, accompanied by a 
correspondent increase of attention to orchestral 
effects, exercised an irresistible influence over 
it. Moreover, time has proved it to be no less 
sensitive to changes of school and style than 
the aria itself; whence it frequently happens 
that a composer may be as easily recognised by 
his accompanied recitatives as by his regularly 




constructed movements. Scarlatti's accompani- 
ments exhibit a freedom of thought immeasur- 
ably in advance of the age in which he lived. 
Sebastian Bach's recitatives, though priceless 
as music, are more remarkable for the beauty of 
their harmonies than for that spontaneity of 
expression which is rarely attained by composers 
unfamiliar with the traditions of the stage. 
Handel's, on the contrary, though generally 
based upon the simplest possible harmonic found- 
ation, exhibit a rhetorical perfection of which 
the most accomplished orator might well feel 
proud ; and we cannot doubt that it is to this 
high quality, combined with a never -failing 
truthfulness of feeling, that so many of them 
owe their deathless reputation — to the unfair 
exclusion of many others, of equal worth, which 
still lie hidden among the unclaimed treasures of 
his long- forgotten operas. Scarcely less success- 
ful, in his own peculiar style, was Haydn, whose 

* Creation ' and ' Seasons ' owe half their charm 
to their pictorial recitatives. Mozart was so 
uniformly great, in his declamatory passages, 
that it is almost impossible to decide upon their 
comparative merits ; though he has certainly 
never exceeded the perfection of * Die Weiselehre 
dieser Knaben,' or ' Non temer.' Beethoven at- 
tained his highest flights in ' Abscheulicher ! wo 
eilst du hin ? ' and * Ah, perfido 1 ' ; Spohr, in 

* Faust,' and * Die letzten Dinge * ; Weber, in 

* Der Freischiitz.* The works of Cimarosa, Ros- 
sini, and Cherubini abound in examples of ac- 
companied recitative, which rival their airs in 
beauty ; and it would be difldcult to point out 
any really great composer who has failed to 
appreciate the value of the happy invention. 

Yet even this invention failed either to meet 
the needs of the dramatic composer or to ex- 
haust his ingenuity. It was reserved for Gluck 
to strike out yet another form of recitative, 
destined to furnish a more powerful engine for 
the production of a certain class of effects than 
any that had preceded it. He it was who first 
conceived the idea of rendering the orchestra 
and the singer to all outward appearance en- 
tirely independent of each other ; of filling the 
scene, so to speak, with a finished orchestral 
groundwork, complete in itself, and needing no 
vocal melody to enhance its interest, while the 
singer declaimed his part in tones which, how- 
ever artfully combined with the instrumental 
harmony, appeared to have no connection with 
it whatever ; the resulting effect resembling 
that which would be produced, if, during the 
interpretation of a symphony, some accomplished 
singer were to soliloquise aloud in broken 
sentences, in such wise as neither to take an 
ostensible share in the performance nor to 
disturb it by the intix)duction of irrelevant 
discord. An early instance of this may be 
found in 'Orfeo.' After the disappearance of 
Euridice, the orchestra plays an excited ores- 
oendo, quite complete in itself, during the 

course of which Orfeo distractedly calls his lost 
bride by name, in tones which harmonise with 
the symphony, yet have not the least appearance 
of belonging to it In * Iphig^nie en Tauride,' 
and all the later operas, the same device is 
constantly adopted ; and modem composers 
have also used it freely — notably Spohr, who 
opens his * Faust ' with a scene, in which a 
band behind the stage plays the most delightful 
of minuets, while Faust and Mephistopheles 
sing an ordinary recitative, accompanied by 
the usual chords played by the regular orchestra 
in front. 

By a process of natural, if not inevitable 
development, this new style led to another, in 
which the recitative, though still distinct from 
the accompaniment, assumed a more measured 
tone, less melodious than that of the air, yet 
more so, by far, than that used for ordinary 
declamation. Gluck has used this peculiar 
kind of Afezzo MecUativo with indescribable 
power, in the prison scene, in * Iphig^nie en 
Tauride.' Spohr employs it freely, almost to 
the exclusion of symmetrical melody, in 'Die 
letzten Dinge.' Wagner makes it his eheval de 
boUailley introducing it everywhere, and using 
it as an ever-ready medium for the production 
of some of his most powerful dramatic effects. 
His theories on this subject have already been 
discussed so fully that it is unnecessary to 
revert to them here. Suffice it to say that his 
J^fcloSf though generally possessing all the more 
prominent characteristics of pure recitative, 
sometimes approaches so nearly to the rhythmic 
symmetry of the song, that — as in the case of 
* Nun sei bedankt, mein lieber Schwan ! ' — 
it is difficult to say, positively, to which class 
it belongs. We may, therefore, fairly accept 
this as the last link in the chain which fills up 
the long gap between simple * Rccitativo secco ' 
and the finished aria. [The free declamation, 
built on the natural inflexions of the spoakin<r 
voice, which is employed for the vocal part of 
Debussy's 'Pell^as et M^lisande,' though not 
styled * recitative,' has much in common with 
it.] w. s. K. 

RECITING-NOTE (Lat. RejyercussiOy NoUt 
dominans), A name sometimes given to that 
important note, in a Gregorian Tone, on which 
the greater portion of every verse of a psahn 
or Canticle is continuously recited ; and it is 
commonly used of the corresponding note in 
Anglican chant. 

As this particular note invariably corresponds 
with the Dominant of the Mode in which the 
Psalm-Tone is written, the terms, Dominant, 
and Reciting -Note, are frequently treated as 
interchangeable. [See Modes and Psalmody.] 

The Reciting -Note makes its appearance 
twice in the course of every tone ; first, as the 
initial member of the Intonation, and after- 
wards as that of the Ending ; the only exce]>- 
tion to the general rule is to be found in the 




Tunus Peregrinns (or Irr^ularis), in which the 
true Dominant of the Ninth Mode (E) is used for 
the first Beciting-Note, and D for the second. 

The Eeciting-Notes of Tones III, V, VII, 
VIII, and IX, are so high that they cannot 
be sung, at their tme pitch, without severely 
straining the voice ; in practice, therefore, these 
tones are almost always transposed. An 
attempt has been sometimes made so to arrange 
their respective pitches as to let one note — 
generally A — serve for all. This plan may, 
perhaps, be found practically convenient ; but 
it shows very little concern for the expression 
of the words, which cannot but suffer, if the 
jubilant phrases of one Psalm are to be recited 
on exactly the same note as the almost despair- 
ing accents of another. w. s. r. 

RECORDER. A name given in England to 
a kind of flute, now discarded, but once very 
]>opular in Western Europe. The verb *to 
record' was formerly in common use in the sense 
of to warble or sing as a bird, e.g.^ 'Hark! 
hark ! oh, sweet, sweet 1 How the birds record 
too' (Beaumont and Fletcher). A recorder, 
then, is a warbler, than which a more appropri- 
ate appellation for the instrument, looking to 
its sweetness and facility for trilling, it would 
be hard to find. "When the word sprang up 
is uncertain. There is reason for believing 
that it was in use in the 14 th century ; it is 
indisputable that in the 15th it was known 
from Cornwall to Scotland ; for in a miracle- 
play in the Cornish language, the manuscript 
of which is of that date, we have * recordys ha 
symphony ' (recorders and symphony), and in 
the Scottish work entitled the Buke of the How- 
laU maid be Holland {c. 1450), ' The rote, and 
the reoordour, the ribup, the rist.' 

The recorder belonged to the fipple flute 
family (see Fipple Flute), of which the flageo- 
let is a familiar example. It was distinguished 
from the other members of the family by the 
number and position of its finger-holes. Their 
number was eight. The highest, which was 
closed with one of the thumbs, was pierced at 
the back, the lowest, played with a little finger, 
at the side, of the tube. The remaitiing six 
were placed in the front of the instrument. 
In early recorders, which were made in one 
piece, the lowest hole was duplicated for the 
accommodation of left-handed players ; there 
were thus two holes for the little finger, but 
one of them was kept stopped with wax. The 
duplication of the hole explains a paradox. 
Although the recorder was an eight -holed 
instrument, it was called in France (in addition 
to la fi4JU donee and la JliUe d^Angleterre) la 
JUUe a neuf trous, or the nine-holed flute. The 
largest contrabass recorders were pierced with 
three holes below the eight. They were covered 
with keys, the two lowest of which were closed 
in some instruments by the otherwise unem- 
ployed thumb, in others by the feet, of the 

player. An existing contrabass measures 8 feet 
8 inches; its lowest note is D below the bass stave. 
Instruments of different families were formerly 
kept apart, each family forming a consort, or 
band, of its own. The basis of the consort was 
the quartet — the discant, the alto, the tenor, 
and the bass. But the consort was not confined 
to the quartet ; thus Virdung, referring to 
recorders, writes : ' Generally, one makes four 
flutes in one case, or six ; this is called a set, 
two discant, two tenor, and two bass.' The 
circumstance that each set was kept in a separate 
case, enables us to say how many recorders were 
played together. In the time of Henry VIII. 
the number rose to seven, eight, and nine, as 
the inventory of that monarch's recorders shows. 
"VNTienPraetorius wrote twenty-one were required 
to form a full flute consort Dr. Bumey saw 
a set at Antwerp comprising no less than thirty 
or forty, the case for which, when filled, was 
so heavy that eight men were required to raise 
it from the ground. By the middle of the 
18th century the number had dwindled in 
France to five, and in a very late set, now in 
the Grosvenor Museum at Chester, it is I'educed 

Discant Alto. Tenor. Baas. 
The CaESTEii Flites. 

to four. The date of this set is unknown, but 
they are marked with the name of Bressan, a 
maker of whose flutes Sir John Hawkins speaks 
in a way which shows that they were in common 
use in his time (1719-89) ; in 1724 Mr. Bressan, 
by whom presumably the Chester set was made, 
was carrying on business at the Green Door in 
Somerset House Yard, in the Strand. 

The tone of the recorder was remarkable for 
two characteristics, solenmity and sweetness. 




Bacon twioe alludes to its solemnity ; Milton 
speaks of its < solemn touches/ and under the 
name of 'the solemn pipe/ mentions it as one 
of the instraments played on a great occasion 
in Heaven. Its sweetness was ineffable. Refer- 
ring to the effect of recorders used at a theatre 
to represent a choir of angels, Pepys writes : 
* But that which did please me beyond any- 
thing in the whole world was the wind-musique 
wlien the angel comes down, which is so sweet 
that it ravished me, and indeed, in a word, did 
wrap up my soul so that it made me really sick, 
just as I have formerly been when in love with 
my wife ; that neither then, nor all the evening 
going home, and at home, I was able to think 
of anything, but remained all night transported, 
so as I could not believe that ever any musick 
hath that real command over the soul of a man 
as this did upon me : and makes me resolve to 
practice wind-musique, and to make my wife 
do the like.' Some weeks afterwards he buys 
a recorder, * which,' he says, *I do intend to 
learn to play on, the sound of it being of all 
sounds in the world, most pleasing to me/ 

The * command ' which recorders had * over 
the soul of a man,' and their 

—power to mitigate and 'swage 
With solemn touches troubled thoughts, and chase 
Anguish, and doubt, and fear, and sorrow, and iialn 
From mortal or immortal minds- 
may serve to explain why Hamlot, in the 
frenzied state to which he had been wrought 
by the spectacle of the murder of his father 
played before his guilty uncle, should bethink 
him of the calming influence of a consort of 
these instruments. 'Come,' he cries, 'some 
music ; come, the recorders.' If Shakespeare's 
design were carried out, instead of the two 
musicians we generally see furnished with 
little pipes not unlike penny whistles, there 
would come upon the stage in the recorder 
scene at least four recorder players carrying 
instruments varying in length from nearly two 
to nearly four feet. It is needless to say that 
even the discant is far too stout to be snapped 
like a twig, so that the act of \'iolence some- 
times seen, the breaking to pieces of the recorder 
borrowed of the player, would be as impractic- 
able as it is foreign to the true spirit of the 
scene, and out of keeping with the nature of 
the gentle Hamlet. 

With the advance of the orchestra the 
consorts of wind instruments broke up and 
disappeared, only such members of each family 
being retained as were most suitable for the 
new combination. The member of the recorder 
family which survived had a compass of two 
octaves, from/' to/"', fingerings up to a!" being 
sometimes given. About the end of the 17 th 
century the instrument ceased to be called the 
recorder, retaining only the appellation of flute, 
and descending after a time to that of the 
Common flute. In France it came to be styled 

the fMt a bee. The change of name led to a 
strange chapter in the history of music — a 
chapter which should be a warning to those 
who attempt to reconstruct extinct instruments 
out of preconceived ideas of what they might, 
or must, have been. For more than a hundred 
years the recorder was enshrouded in mystery. 
It was asked, What was a recorder ? Sir John 
Hawkins put forward the notion that it was 
a flageolet, and persuaded himself that Lord 
Bacon had spoken of the recorder as having 
six holes, the number of those of the flageolet. 
Bumey, writing thirteen years after Sir John, 
stated authoritatively that a recorder was a 
flageolet, thereby revealing the secret that he 
had availed himself of his rival's labours with- 
out acknowledging lus obligation. Next came 
Mr. William Chappell, who brought himself to 
the belief that he had discovered in a book of 
instructions for the recorder the statement that 
the instrument was pierced with a hole called 
the recorder. He fancied that the recorder 
took its name from the hole, and drawing 
further on his imagination, supposed the hole 
to be covered with, a piece of thin skin. Finally, 
Carl Engel acquired a Common flute (it is now 
in the South Kensington Museum) in which 
there was a hole covered with membrane. He 
pronounced this flute to be a recorder of tho 
17th century, and explained that the hole thus 
covered was intended to make the sound reedy 
and tender ; whereas an examination of the 
instrument would have shown him that his 
recorder of the 17th century was made in New 
Bond Street between 1800 and 1812, and that 
the hole covered with membrane was so placed 
that it was impossible for it to affect the tone. 
The claim of the recorder to be considered 
the head of instruments of the flute kind was 
destined to be called in question. Its supremacy 
was challenged by the transverse flute, an instru- 
ment called by the French the German flute, 
to distinguish it from the recorder, which tliey 
termed the English flute. In lip flutes, to 
which family the German flute belongs, the 
channel from which the jet of air issues (see 
Flute) is formed by the lips. The control 
exercised by the lips over the shape of the jet and 
the size of the opening of the mouth-hole of the 
flute enables the player to influence the intona- 
tion and the quality of the tone, advantsges (not 
to mention greater power) more than sufficient 
to compensate for inferiority in sweetness and 
dignity. In Handel's orchestra the German 
and the Common flute existed side by side, a 
circumstance which enabled Handel to express 
niceties of flute timbre to which we are strangers. 
Thus in 'Judas Maocabsus' he was able to 
avail himself of the martial strains of two 
German flutes for 'See the Conquering Hero 
comee,' but to assign the cigolery of 'Wise 
men flattering may deceive yon ' to the cooing 
blandishments of two Common flutes. We can 




al'R'ays tell which flute he intends to be used, 
for he terms the Common flute Flauio ; the 
(remian flute Traversa^ Traverse , Traversare, 
Traversiera ; sometimes, but rarely, FlaiUo 
Traverta, Scarcely ever does he leave open 
which flute is to be employed ; there is, how- 
ever, in ' Pamasso in Festa,' a passage marked 
FlatUo on Trae, i., Flauto au Trav, II. 
Handel's orchestra is known to have contained 
four hautboys and four bassoons ; his flutes, as 
will be shown, were still more numerous. He 
onoe uses una traverta basga. When he wrote 
ii a ver si e r i tuUi, he no doubt expected not short 
of four treble transverse flutes to respond. It 
seems certain that he had at his command as 
many Common flutes ; for the fourth scene of the 
tint act of ' Giustino ' opens with a passage in 
which not less than four Flauti and a Bcaso de^ 
FlaiUi play together^ We are not bound to 
suppose that Handel had in his pay ten 
musicians who devoted themselves exclusively 
to the flute ; performers on other instruments, 
especially the hautboy, were expected to take 
the flute when required. 

Handel could call for not only five but six 
fipple flutes, his ottavino being ^ flaxUo piccolo, 
or octave Common flute, not a transverse instru- 
ment. This does not seem to be even suspected, 
yet the evidence S& quite conclusive. Here one 
proof must suffice. The accompaniment to 
' Augelletti che cantate ' (the air in ' Rinaldo,' 
on the singing of which birds were let loose) is 
marked in the conducting score flauto piccolo^ 
but in the autograph copy in Buckingham 
Palace Handel has written * Flageolett' Now 
Handel would never have called a transverse 
piccolo a flageolet The usual description of 
this accompaniment, that it is scored for two 
flutes and a piccolo, gives to the modem reader 
a fiilBe impression, neither the flutes nor the 
piccolo being the instruments we now call by 
those names. It is a trio for three fipple flutes, 
i^JlarUo piccolo and two flauli ; the flatUo piccolo 
playing a brilliant solo which the flauti support. 
The accompaniment has been pronounced by a 
musician to be the * loveliest imaginable ' ; the 
scoffing Addison writes of it, ' The musick pro- 
ceeded firom a concert of flagelets and bird-calls 
which were planted behind the scenes. ' Handel 
uses the flatUo piccolo in a Tamburino in * Alcina, ' 
and in two movements of the Water Music. In 
the latter two piccolos which play in unison are 
employed. Theyare not in the same key as the 
orchestral piccolo, but, like it, they were Apple 
flutes. Thrice the flatUo piccolo furnishes a florid 
aooompaniment to the soprano voice ; in ' Augel- 
letti che cantate,' just mentioned, in a song in 
'Riocardo,' and in 'Hush, ye pretty warbling 
choir,' in 'Acis and Galatea.' The obhligato 
in the last-named work to the bass solo; 'O 
ruddier than the cherry,' is marked in the 
score flautOj but seems to have been always 
assigned to the flmUo piccolo* As late as 

the third decade of the 19th century, long 
after that instrument had been banished from 
the orchestra, the second hautboy player used 
to play the part on a so-called flageolet at the 
Antient Concerts. As the society was estab- 
lished in 1776, only seventeen years' after 
Handel's death, it is reasonable to suppose that 
the practice was handed down from the time 
of the great composer. 

When the orchestra was remodelled by Haydn 
only the transverse flute was retained, the 
Common flute being altogether rejected. The 
German flute having thus captured its rival's 
place, proceeded to usurp its title of FlaulOy and 
to drop its old name, Traversa. Its superiority 
for orchestral purposes was already so marked 
as to cause Haydn's choice to fall upon it; 
but during Haydn's career as a composer it 
received an improvement which gave the eo^ip 
de grdce to the old favourite. The improve- 
ment consisted in boring new holes in the tube 
and covering them with keys kept closed by 
springs. To make clear the importance of this 
step it is necessary to explain that in the one- 
keyed flute, which was then in use, there were 
no holes for four of the notes of the chromatic 
octave. When the player was in want of 
either of them, he muffled, and to some extent 
flattened, the note above the accidental needed 
by closing one or more holes below the hole 
from which the note to be flattened issued. 
Although the spurious notes thus obtained were 
so impure, feeble, and out of tune as to make 
the flute and those who played it bywords 
amongst musicians, the one-keyed flute held its 
ground for a period of not far short of a century. 
Remonstrances on the subject of its imper- 
fections were put to silence by the dictum that 
the flute, like the violin, was perfect ; the 
player, it was asserted, not the instrument, was 
at fault. At length a stand was made against 
authority. The rebellion broke out in England, 
where two professional players named Tacet and 
Florio had the courage to adopt a flute with no 
less than six keys. Their example was quickly 
followed. Between 1770 and 1780 the six- 
keyed flute came into use in this country, and 
by degrees, in spite of opposition, the keys were 
introduced abroad. 

The advantages conferred on the transverse 
flute by the completion of the chroma^o octave 
were so immense that it is inconceivable that 
the makers of the time should not have thought 
of applying the system to the Common flute. 
Why the idea was not carried out is unknown, 
but it may be coi\jectured that mechanical 
difficulties stood in the way. Of the ten digits 
with which the hands of man are fiimiflhed 
but nine are available for execution, the tentli 
being required for holding the flute. As the 
Common flute was pierced with eight holes, 
only one finger was free when they were all 
closed. Possibly, then, the makers may have 



been unable to contrive a method of acting on 
the five keys required for the chromatic octave, 
being baffled by the want of fingers for the 
purpose ; but whatever was the cause, closed 
keys did not find their way to the Common flute, 
and so the instrument after a time fell completely 
into disuse. (See Proceedings of the Musical 
Aaaociaiion^ 1897-98, pp. 145-224 ; 1900-1, pp. 
110-120; and 1901-2, pp. 106-137.) The 
above is epitomised from the writer's Lectures on 
the Becorder, to be published shortly, c. w. 

RECTE ET RETRO, PER (Imiialio can- 
erizans, ImUtUio per Motum retrogradum, Imi- 
tatio recurrens ; ItaL Imitaziane al Boveedo, o 
cUla Riveraa ; Eng. Retrograde Tmitatioji), 
A peculiar kind of Imitation, so constructed 
that the melody may be sung backwards as 
well as forwards ; as shown in the following 
two-|>art canon, which must be sung, by the 
first voice, from left to right, and by the second, 
from right to left, both beginning together, but 
at opposite ends of the music. 

The earliest known instances of Retrograde 
Imitation are to be found among the works of 
the Flemish composers of the 15th century, 
who delighted in exercising their ingenuity, not 
only upon the device itself, but also upon the 
Inscriptions prefixed to the canons in which it 
was employed. The Netherlanders were not, 
however, the only musicians who indulged 
successfully in this learned species of recreation. 
Probably the most astonishing example of it 
on record is the motet, ^ 'Diliges Dominum,' 
written by William Byrd for four voices- 
Treble, Alto, Tenor, and Bass — and transmuted 
into an eight-part composition, by adding a 
second Treble, Alto, Tenor, and Bass, formed 
by singing the four first parts backwards. It 
is scarcely possible to study this complication 
attentively, without feeling one's brain turn 
giddy ; yet, strange to say, the effect produced 
is less curious than beautiful. 

or the cry of the Evil Spirits — 

In giruni imos noctu ecce at consumimur igni. 

Tlie canons were frequently constructed in exact 
accordance with the method observed in these 
curious lines ; and innumerable quaint conceits 
were invented, for the purpose of giving the 
singers some intimation of the manner in which 
they were to be read. * Canit more Hebraeorum * 
was a very common motto. 'Misericordia et 
Veritas obviaveruut sibi ' indicated that the 
singers were to begin at opposite ends, and meet 
in the middle. In the second ' Agnus Dei ' of 
his ' Missa Graecorum,' Hobrecht wrote, ' Aries 
vertatur in Pisces * — ^Aries being the fiirst sign 
of the Zodiac, and Pisces the last. In another 
part of the same Mass he has given a far more 
mysterious direction — 

Tn tenor cancrixa et per antiflnuin canta. 
Cum fnrcis in capita antiftuizando reiMte. 

This introduces ua to a new complication ; the 
secret of the motto being, that the tenor is not 
only to sing backwards, but to invert the inter- 
vals (* per antifrasin canta '), until he reaches 
the ' Horns * — that is to say, the two cusps of 
the semicircular Time-Signature — after which 
he is to sing from left to right, though still con- 
tinuing to invert the intervals. This new device, 
in which the intervals themselves are reversed, 
as well as the sequence of the notes, is called 
* Retrograde Inverse Imitation' (Lat. ImiUUio 
cancrizans motu conlrario ; Ital. Imitazione al 
eontrario riverso). It might have been thought 
that this would have contented even Flemish 
ingenuity. But it did not The part-books 
had not yet been turned upside down ! In the 
subjoined example we have endeavoured to 
show, in an humble way, the manner in which 
this most desirable feat may also be accomplished. 
The two singers, standing face to face, hold the 
book between them ; one looking at it from the 
ordinary point of view, the other, upside down, 
and bo^ reading from left to right — that is to 
^yt beginning at opposite ends. The result, 
if not strikingly beautiful, is, at least, not 
inconsistent with the laws of counter]X)in t. ( For 
other examples see iNwniiPTioN.) 

Laa • d»>ta DoBlnum. out • nes f ta 

There is little doubt that the idea of singing 
music from right to left was first suggested by 
those strange Oracular Verses ^ which may be 
read either backwards or forwards, without 
ii\jury to words or metre ; such as the well- 
known Pentameter — 

Roma tibi snbito motibns ibit amor. 

t ReprintMl hy Hawkins. BUtorp, oh. 9a 

* VermiB raoiirr«nt«B. raid to been (Int InTenttd hr the 
Qittk. Poet. Sotadn. daring 'the raign of Ptolnny Phlladelphoa. 
The exaniplm we have quoted are. however, of much later date ; 
Uie oldest ol tbem bdng certainly not earlier than the 7Ui ovntary. 

tee, laa-da-te Do*ini-nam. 

Retrograde Imitation has survived, even to 

our own day ; and in more than one very 

popular form. In the year 1791 Haydn wrote 

for his Doctor's degree, at the University of 

Oxford, a ' Canon oancrizans, a tre ' ( ^ Thy Voice, 

Harmony ' ), which will be found in vol. iL 

p. 857, and he has also used the same device 

in t\h minuet of one of his symphonies. Some 

i other modem composers have tried it, with 

I less happy efiect But perhaps it has never 

I yet appeared in a more popular form than 




that of the wellrknown Doable Chant by Dr. 

It would be difficult to point to two schools 
more bitterly opposed to each other than those 
of the early Netherlanders, and the English 
Cathedral writers of the 19th century. Yet 
here we see an artifice, invented by the former, 
and naed by one of the latter, so completely con 
aninre, that, backed by the harmonies peculiar 
to the modem 'free style,' it has attained a 
IMsition quite unassailable, and will probably 
fast as long as the Anglican Chant itself shall 
continue in use. [Sir John Stainer wrote a 
hymn- tune * Per Recte et Retro* in 1898 for 
the Church Hymnary (No. 381) ; it is also No. 
81 of Novello's edition of the composer's hymns. 
It reads backwards in all the parts.] With 
these things before us, we shall do well to 
pause, before we consign even the moat glaring 
pedantries of our forefathers to oblivion, w. 8. r. 

REDEKER, Louise Dorette Auguste, a 
contralto singer, who made her first appearance 
in London at the Philharmonic Concert of June 
19, 1876, and remained a great favourite until 
she retired from public life on her marriage with 
Dr. (ftow Sir) Felix Semon, Oct. 19, 1879. She 
wasbomatDuingen, Hanover, Jan. 19, 1858, and 
from 1 870 to 1878 studied in the Conservatorium 
at Leipzig, chiefly under Konewka. She sang 
first in public at Bremen in 1878. In 1874 
she made the first of several appearances at 
the Grewandhaus, and was much in request for 
concerts and oratorios in Germany and other 
conatnes during 1874 and 1875. In England 
she sang at all the principal concerts, and at 
the same time maintained her connection with 
the Continent, where she was always well 
received. Her voice is rich and sympathetic ; 
she sings without effort and with great taste. 6. 

REDE^iPTION, THE. A Sacred Trilogy, 
writtenand composed by Charles Gounod. First 
performed at the Birmingham Festival, August 
30, 1882, under the composer's direction. M. 

REDFORD, John, was organist and almoner, 
and master of the Choristers of St. Paul's 
Cathedral in the latter part of the reign of 
Henry VIIL (1491-1647). Tusser, the author 
of the Hundred good Points of Hushandrie, 
was one of his pupils. An anthem, < Rejoice 
in the Lorde alway,' printed in the appendix 
to Hawkins's History and in the Motett Society's 
first volume, is remarkable for its melody and 
expression. Some anthems and organ pieces 
by him are in the MS. volume collected by 
'niomas Mulliner, master of St Paul's School, 
afterwards in the libraries of John Stafford 
Smith and Dr. Rimbault, and now in the 

British Museum. A motet, some fancies, and 
a voluntary by him are in MS. at Christ Chureh, 
Oxford. [See also the Afonaishe/te for 1902, for 
list of other works by him.] His name is in- 
cluded by Morley in the list of those whose works 
he consulted for his 'Introduction.' w. u. h. 

REDHEAD, Richard, born March 1, 1820, 
at Harrow, was a chorister at Magdalen College, 
Oxford, 1829-86, having received his musical 
education therefrom Walter Vicary, the organist. 
He was organist at Old Margaret Chapel (now 
All Saints' Church), Margaret Street, in 1839- 
1864, and from the latter date at St Mary 
Magdalene, Paddington, a post he held till his 
death at Hellingley, Sussex, April 27, 1901. 
His works are almost exclusively written or 
compiled for use in the Church of England 
service, viz. * Church Music,* etc., 1840, *Laudes 
Diumae, the Psalter and Canticles in the Morn- 
ing and Evening Service,' 1843, Music for the 
Office of the Holy Communion,' 1853; *0 
my people,' anthem for Good Friday ; ' Church 
Melodies, a collection of short pieces and Six 
Sacred Songs,' 1868 ; *The Celebrant's Office 
Book,' 1863 ; * Ancient Hymn Melodies, Book 
of Common Piayer with Ritual music, Canticles 
at Matins and Evensong, pointed as they are 
to be sung in churches and adapted to the 
Ancient Psalm Chants, and Parish Tune Book 
and Appendix,' 1865 ; *The Universal Organist, 
a Collection of Short Classical and Modern 
Pieces,' 1866-81; 'Litany with latter jMirt 
of Commination Service, Music to the Divine 
Liturgy during the Gradual, Offertoriuni and 
Communion, arranged for use throughout the 
year,' 1874 ; Festival Hymns for All Saints and 
St. Mary Magdalene Days, Hymns for Holy 
Seasons, Anthems, etc. A. c. 

REDOUTE. Public assemblies at which the 
guests appeared with or without masks at 
2)leasure. The word is French, and is explained 
by Voltaire and Littre as being derived from 
the Italian ridoUo — perhaps with some analogy 
to the word * resort.' They soon made their 
way to Germany and England. They are 
frequently mentioned by Horace Walpole under 
the name 'Ridotto,' and were one of the 
attractions at Yauxhall and Ranelagh in the 
middle of the 18th century. In Germany and 
France the French version of the name was 
adopted. The building used for the purpose 
in Vienna, erected in 1748, and rebuilt in stone 
in 1754, forms part of the Burg or Imperial 
Palace, the side of the oblong facing the 
Josephs-Platz. There was a grosse and a kleins 
Redoutensaal. In the latter Beethoven played 
a concerto of his own at a concert of Haydn's, 
Dec. 1 8, 1 795. The rooms were used for concerts 
till about 1870. The masked balls were held 
there during the Carnival, from Twelfth Night 
to Shrove Tuesday, and occasionally in the 
weeks preceding Advent ; some being public, 
i,e. ox)en to all on payment of an entrance fee. 




and others private. Special nights were reserved 
for the court and the nobility. The * Redou- 
tentanze ' — Minuets, AUemandes, Contredanses, 
Schottisches, Anglaises, and Landler — were 
composed for full orchestra, and published 
(mostly by Artaria) for pianoforte. Mozart,^ 
Haydn, BeiBthoven,* Hummel, "Woelfl, Gyrowetz, 
and others, have left dances written for this 
purpose. c. f. p. 

REDOWA, a Bohemian dance which was 
introduced into Paris in 1846 or 1847, and 
([uickly attained for a short time great popu- 
larity, both there and in London, although it is 
now never danced. In Bohemia there are two 
variations of the dance, the Rejdovdk, in 3-4 
or 3-8 time, which is more like a waltz, and 
the Rejdovacka, in 2-4 time, which is some- 
thing like a polka. The ordinary Redowa is 
written in 3-4 time (M.M. J=160). The 
dance is something like a Mazurka, with the 
rhythm less strongly marked. The following 
example is part of a Rejdovdk which is given 
in Kohler's * Volkstiinze aller Nationen ' — 

W. B. 8. 

REED (Fr. Anehe ; Ital. Ancia ; Germ. Blatt, 
Jtohr). The speaking part of many instruments, 
both ancient and modern ; the name being de- 
rived from the material of which it has been 
immemorially constructed. The plant used for 
it is a tall grass or reed, the Arundo Danax or 
ScUiva^ growing in the South of Europe. The 
substance in its rough state is commonly called 
* cane,' though differing from real cane in many 
respects. Tlie chief supply is now obtained from 
Frejus on the Mediterranean coast. Many other 
materials, such as lance- wood, ivory, silver, and 
'ebonite,' or hardened india-rubber, have been 
experimentally substituted for the material first 
named ; but hitherto without success. Organ 
reeds were formerly made of hard wood, more 
recently of brass, Gorman silver, and steel. 
The name Reed is, however, applied by organ- 
builders to the metal tube or channel against 
which the vibrating tongue beats, rather than 
to the vibrator itself. 

Reeds are divided into the Free and the 
Beating ; the latter again into the Single and 
the Double forms, 'fiie Free reed is used in 

1 Sm K0oh«rs Ofttidonc No. SBt. ate. 
« 8m Nottabohtn's Thematle CuttJoffoe, Button it iMfM 115^. 

the harmonium and concertina, its union with 
Beating reeds in the oigan not having proved 
suocessfuL [See Free Reed, voL ii. p. 106.] 
The vibrator, as its name implies, passes freely 
through the long slotted brass plate to which 
it is adapted ; the first impulse of the vrind 
tending to push it within the slot and thus 
close the aperture. In ' percussion ' harmoniums 
the vibrator is set suddenly in motion by a blow 
from a hammer connected with the keyboard. 
[See Harmonium, vol. ii. p. 808.] [Tlie 
Beating reed in its single form is that of the 
organ and the clarinet. In this the edges of 
the vibrator overlap the slot leading into the 
resonating pipe or tube, and so close it periodi- 
cally during vibration. The reed, which is a 
thin blade or lamina, has roughly the form of a 
long parallelogram, and it is firmly secured for a 
portion of its length to the bed or table of the 
tnbe or mouthpiece in which the slot is cut. In 
the organ reed the necessary opening for the 
entrance of the wind at the free end is obtained 
by giving a slight curvature to the blade or 
reed ; the pressure of the wind tends to close 
this opening, and vibration is thus set up. 
In the clarinet the same result is obtained by 
giving a slight curvature to the bed of the 
mouthpiece towards its tip, the under side of 
the reed itself being left perfectly flat (see 

The Double reed, as used in the oboe and 
the bassoon, is constructed of two segments 
united in a tubular form at one end, and 
splayed out and flattened at the other so as to 
leave a slight opening in shape like the section 
of a double-convex lens. The bassoon reed is 
placed directly upon the * crook * of the instru- 
ment, but the oboe reed is built up upon a 
small tube or * staple.' The exact appearance 
of both single and double reeds will be gathered 
better from the drawings than from a more 
detailed description. 

1. 'i. 3. 4. 

single Beed :— I. Clarinet rred. m held to the mouthpiece bjr a 
metal lifatare. 

DoaUe Reedi :— S. Baeeoon reed. S. Baaeooo reed, fomhortened 
to show the opctitng between the two l>ladee. 4. Oboe reed. 

The single reed is used also on the saxophone, 
and the double reed for the chaunter of the 
Highland bagpipe, but the drones of the bag- 




pipe are sounded by single reeds of a most 
radimentary character. It la possible to replace 
the doable reed of the oboe and bassoon by a 
single reed of the clarinet type fitted to a small 
moathpieoe. The old dolcino or alto-fagotto 
was 80 played in the band of the Coldstream 
(foarda by the late Mr. Henry Lazanis when a 
boy. The idea has been revived of late years 
as a novelty, but neither the oboe nor the 
bassoon is capable of improvement in this way, 
although the saxophone, also a conical tube, is 
well adapted to the single reed, being an instru- 
ment of wider calibre. ] w. h. s. ; with addi- 
tions by B. J. B. 

REED, Thomas Gebmax, bom at Bristol, 
June 27, 1817. His lather was a musician, 
and the son first appeared, at the age of ten, 
at the Bath Concerts as a PF. player with 
John Loder and lindley, and also sang at the 
Concerts and at the Bath Theatre. Shortly 
after, he appeared at the Haymarket Theatre, 
London, where his father was conductor, as 
PF. player, singer, and actor of juvenile parts. 
In 1832 the fomily moved to London, and 
the &ther became leader of the band at the 
Garrick Theatre. His son was his deputy, 
and also organist to the Catholic Chapel, 
Sloane Stroet. (rerman Reed now entered 
esgerly into the musical life of London, was 
an early member of the Society of British 
Musicians, studied hard at harmony, counter- 
point, and PF. playing, composed much, gave 
many lessons, and took part in all the good 
music he met with. His work at the theatre 
consisted in great measure of scoring and 
idapting, and getting up new operas, such as 
'Fra Diavolo' in 1837. In 1838 he became 
Musical Director of the Haymarket Theatre, 
a post which he retained till 1851. In 1838 
he also succeeded Mr. Tom Cooke as Chapel- 
master at the Royal Bavarian Chapel, where 
the music to the Mass was for long noted both 
for quality and execution. Beethoven's Mass 
in C was produced there for the first time in 
England, and the principal Italian singers 
habitually took part in the Sunday services. 
At the Haymarket, for the Shakespearean 
^performances of Macready, the Eeans, the 
Cushnians, etc., he made many excellent 
innovations, by introducing, as overtures and 
entr'actes, good pieces, original or scored by 
himself, instead of the rubbish usually played 
at that date. During the temporary closing 
of the theatre. Reed did the work of producing 
Pacini's opera of 'Sappho' at Drury Lane 
(April 1, 1843 — Clara Novello, Sims Reeves, 
etc.). In 1844 he married Miss Priscilla 
Horton, and for the next few years pursued 
the same busy, usefnl, miscellaneous life as 
before, directing the production of English 
opera at the Surrey, managing Sadler's Wells 
daring a season of English opera, with his 
wife, Miss Louisa Pyne, Harrison, etc., con- 

ducting the music at the Olympic under Mr. 
Wigan's management, and making prolonged 
provincial tours. 

In 1855 he started a new class of performance 
which, under the name of *Mr. and Mrs. Ger- 
man Reed's Entertainment,' made his name 
widely and favourably known in England. Its 
object was to provide good dramatic amusement 
for a large class of society who, on various 
grounds, objected to the theatres. It was 
opened at St. Martin's Hall, April 2, 1855, 
as 'Miss P. Horton's Illustrative Gatherings,' 
with two pieces called 'Holly Lodge' and 
* The Enraged Musician ' (after Hogarth), 
written by W. Brough, and presented by Mrs. 
Reed, with the aid of her husband only, as 
accompanist and occasional actor. In Feb. 
1856 they removed to the Gallery of Illustra- 
tion, Regent Street, and there produced 'A 
Month from Home,' and *My Unfinished Opera' 
(April 27, 1857); *The Home Circuit' and 
'Seaside Studies' (June 20, 1859)— all by 
W. Brough; 'After the Ball,' by Edmund 
Yates ; ' Our Card Basket,' by Shirley Brooks ; 
'An Illustration on Discord' ('The Rival 
Composers '), by Brough (April 3, 1861) ; and 
'The Family Legend,' by Tom Taylor (March 
31, 1862). They then engaged Mr. John 
Parry, and produced the following series of 
pieces specially written for this company of 
three, and including some of Mr. Parry's most 
popular and admirable songs in the characters 
of Paterfamilias at the Pantomime, Mrs. Rose- 
leaf, etc. etc. : — 

* The Charming Cottage.' April 

6. ises. 

'ThePjFamld.' Shirley Brooks. 
Feb. 7, 1864. 

'The Bard and hU Birthday.' 
W. Brough. April 20. lE&L 

'The Peculiar Family.' Do. 
March 16. 186B. 

"The Yachting Cruise.' F. C. 
Bomand. Aprll2, 186& 

At this period the company was further in- 
creased by the addition of Miss Fanny Holland 
and Mr. Arthur Cecil, and soon after by Mr. 
Comey Grain and Mr. Alfred Reed. The 
following was the repertory during this last 
period : — 

' A Dream In Venice.' T. W. 
Robertson. March 18. 18S7. 

' Our Quiet Chfttean.' R. Reece. 
Deo. 26. 1867. 

'Inquire within.' F. C. Bur- 
nand. July 22. 1868. 

' Last of ttie Paladins.' R. Beeoe. 

* LUehenand Fritaohen.' Offen- 
■ . ^ ! .4nd 

I jnu- 

' Near Relations.' Art 
Sketohley. August 14. 1871. 
Chrlstnuis.' Plan< 

Dea 26. 1871 

'Charity begins at Home.' B. 
Roweand Celller. Feb. 7, 1872. 

* My Aunt's Secret.' Burnand 
,aud Molloy. March S. 1872. 


Aixadla.' W. 8. OH- 

wy A 
bert and F. Clay. Oct 28. 1872. 

' Very Catching.' Burnand and 
MoUoy. Not. 18. 1872. 

'I ..Ired's Well.' Burnand 
and . . .nnan Reed. May 5. 1873. 


' Ahi^ Ag»i, w > ail l*rt And 
F. OLfcjr, N(?T. '£>, 

' llettfi^ iii^ \ l^^{ hbcur.* F. C. 
Bnnuiiui, HanJ) ^, IKid. 

' Our tplnlvt Ucniie.' W. B. OU- 
hert. Juii^m, IJ^O. 

'Th* field Et-crnit,' r, riay. 
JuLr I«H 1B70. 

' Aiirf;nMtti>liN'U't^vl/ Du. 4an. 

During this period a diversion was made by the 
introduction of 'Opere di Camera,' for four 
characters. These comprised : — 

'JesayLea.' Oxenfoid and Mac- 1 ' Widows bewitdied.' Virginia 
fiuren. OabrleL 

' Too Many Cooks.' Ofllrobach. 'AFalrVxohange'; 'AHappr 

• The Bleeping Beauty.' Balfe. Result ' ; ' Ching Chow HI.' All 

• The Soldier^ Legacy.' Oxen- three by Ofltenbach. 
ford and Maefarren. ' 




While the entertainment still remained at 
the Gallery of Illustration, Reed became lessee 
of St. George's Hall for the production of Comic 
Opera. He engaged an orchestra of forty and 
a strong chorus, and *The Contrabandista ' 
(Burnand and Sullivan), ' L'Ambassadrice ' 
(Auber), and the * Beggar's Opera ' were pro- 
auced, but without the necessary success. Mr. 
Reed then gave his sole attention to the Gallery 
of Illustration, in which he was uniformly 
successful, owing to the fact that he carried 
out his entertainments, not only with perfect 
respectability, but always with great talent, 
much tact and judgment, and constant variety. 

When the lease of the Gallery of Illustration 
expired, the entertainment was transferred to 
St. George's Hall, and there the following 
entertainments were produced : — 

' H»'r Coming.' F. C Baniand 
and Genoui Beed. 

' Tbo Many by One.' F. C Bur- 
uand and F. Oowan. 

' The nane Tenants ' ; 'Ancient 
BrlUraa.' Qilbort A'Beokett and 
Uerman Beed. 

•A T9le of Old China.' F. C. 
Burnand and Mnlloy. 

' Byes and no Kyea.' W. B. Gil- 
bert and G«nnan Beed. 

' A Spanish Bond ' ; ' An Indian 

PimzIa': *The Wi 

Gilbert A'Beekett and Oennan 

'Matched and Match.' F. C. 
Burnand and German Beed. 

' A Faff of Sraoke. ' C. J. Bowe 
and Mme. Ooeta. 

'OorDoIle'HouM.' a J. Bowe 
and Cotefbrd Dick. 

•A HIght'i SorpriM.' Went 
Cromer and German Beed. 

' Foeter Brothers.' F. C. Bur- 
nand and King Hall. 

* Happy Bungftlow.' A. Lav. 

Ponle'; 'The Wicked Duke.' 

The following were produced under the 
management of Mr. Gomey Grain and Mr. 
Alfred Reed :— 


' No. 204.' F. C. Burnand and 
German Beed. 

' Once in a Century.' G. 
A'Beekett and VivUn Bllgh. 

•Our New Doll*' House.' W. 
Yardley and Ootoford Dick. 

' Answer Paid.' F.C. Burnand 
and W. Austin. 

' Doableday's WIIL' Burnand 
and Klnc HaU. 

'Artfiu Automaton.' Arthur 
Law and King HaU. 

'A Tremendous Mystery.' F. 
C. Burnand and King HaU. 

' Bnchantmeot.' A. Iaw and 
German Beed. 

' Grimstone Grange.' O. 
A'Beekett and King Hall. 

'£100 Be ward.' A. Iaw and 
Coriiey Grain. 

• Back from India.' Fottinger 
Stevens and Cotsford Dick. 

' The Pirate's Home.' 
A'Beekett and ViTian Bllgh. 

'A Christmas Stocking.' u. 
A'Beekett and Kltig HalL 

'CasUe Botherem.' A. Law 
and Hamilton Clarke. 

'The Three Hate.' A. A'Beekett 
and Edouard Marlois. 

' A Flying Visit' A. Law and 
Comey Grain. 

' The Turquoise Blng.' G. W. 
Godfrey and Lionel Benson. 

' A Mernr Christmas.' A. Law 
and King HalL 

'Bandford and Morton.' Bur- 
nand and A. S. Gatty. 

*AU at Sea.' A. Law and 
Corney Grain. 

'Many Happy Beturiia' G. 
A'Beekett and Lionel Benson. 

■A Bright Idea.' A. Law and 
Arthur CeeiL j 

'Cherry Tree nu-m.* A. Law 
and Hamilton Clarke. 

'The Head of the Poll.' A. Iaw 
and Raton Fanlng. 

• Nobody's Fault.' 
Hamilton Clarke. 

' A Strange Host.' 

• That Drewlful _.,. 
A'Beekett and Corney Grain. 

'A Mountain Heiress.' G. 
A' Beckett and Lionel Benson. 

' Treasure Trove." A. Law and 
A. J. Cildicott. 

A. Law and 



'A Water Cure.' A. Law. Ar- 
nold FeUx, and George Gear. 

' A Moss Boee Bent.' A. Law 
and A. J. Caldloott. 

*A Double Event' A. Law, 
Alfred Beed. and Carney Grain. 

' Fkirly Panled.' OUver Brand 
and Ham U ton Clarke. 

' A Terrible Fright' A. Law 
and Comey Grain. 

'Old Knockles.' A. Law and 
A. J. Caldicott 

' A Peculiar Case.' A. Law and 
G. Grossmith. 

' Hobbies.' Stephens, Yardley, 
and O. Gear. 

* A Pratty Bequest' M. Wat- 
eon and HamUtOD Clarke. 

'A Night In Wales.' H. Gard- 
ner and Comey Grain. 

'In Cupid's Court' M. Wat- 
eon and A. J. C^dloott 

' A United Pair.' ComynsCarr 
and A. J. Caldloott 

' The Friar.' Do. 

' The Natoialist' ComynsCarr 
and King HalL 

'Tally-Ho!' M. Watson and 
A. J. Caldloott 

'Wanted an Heir.' Do. 

'The Bo'sun's Mate.' W. 
Browne and A. J. Caldloott 

■ Brittany Fblk.' Walter Frith 
and A. J. Caldicott 

'Tuppins and Co.' Malcolm 
Wateon and Bdward Solomon. 

'The Verger.' Walter Frith 
and King HalL 

■Oiurnival Time.' M. Wateon 
and Comey Grain. 

' Poesessioo.' Walter Browne 
and A. J. Caldloott 

' KUUecrnmper.' M. Watson 
and E. Solomon. 

■The Old Bureau.' H. M.FauU 
and A. J. Caldicott 

"The Barley Mow.' Walter 
Frith and C. Grain. 

' Dan'l'a Delight' Archie Arm- 
strong and J. W. Elliott 

•An 0<ld Pair.' M. Watson 
and A. J. Caldicott 

' Peggy's Plot' SomenriUe Gib- 
ney and Walter Slaughter. 

•A Big Bandit' M. Wateon 
and W. Slaughter. 

'Melodtainanis.' Du. 

A. C. 

The accompaniments to these pieces were played 
on a pianoforte and harmonium. For many 
years the 'Musical Sketches' of Mr. Comey 
Grain were a principal attraction of the enter- 
tainment. German Reed died at Upper East 
Sheen, Surrey, March 21, 1888, and in 1895 
the entertainments came to an end, with the 
deaths of Alfred German Reed, March 10, and 
Corney Grain, March 16. An attempt was 
made to revive the enterprise, but without effect. 

Mrs. German Reed, ii4e Prihcilla Hokton, 
was bom at Birmingham, Jan. 1, 1818. From 
a very early age she showed unmistakable quali- 
fications for a theatrical career, in a fine sti-oug 
voice, great musical ability, and extraordinary 
power of mimicry. She made her first appear- 
ance at the age of ten, at the Surrey Theatre, 
under Elliston's management, as the Gipsy Girl 
in 'Guy Mannering.' After this she was con- 
stantly engaged at the principal metropolitan 
theatres in a very wide range of parts. Her 
rare combination of great ability as a singer, 
with conspicuous gifts as an actress, and most 
attractive appearance, led to a very satisfactory 
step in her career. On August 16, 1837, she 
signed an agreement with Macready for his 
famous performances at Covent Garden and 
Drury Lane, in which she acted Ariel, Ophelia, 
the FooP in *Lear,' the Attendant Spirit in 
*Comus,' Philidel in * King Arthur,' and Acis 
in 'Acis and Galatea.' After the conclusion 
of this memorable engagement, Miss Hortou 
became the leading spirit in Planoh^'s graceful 
burlesques at the Haymarket Theatre. On 
Jan. 20, 1844, she married Mr. German Reed, 
and the rest of her career lias been related under 
his name. She died at Bexley Heath, March 
18, 1896, a few days after her son and Comey 
Grain. g. 

reed-stop. When the pipes of an organ, 
controlled by a draw-stop, produce their tone 
by means of a vibrating tongue striking the 
face of a reed, the stop is called a Reed-stop ; 
when the pipes contain no such reeds, but their 
tone is produced merely by tlie impinging of 
air against a sharp edge, tiie stop is called a 
Flue-stop. Any single pipe of the former kind 
is called a Reed-pipe, any single pipe of the 
latter kind, a Flue-pipe. Pipes containing Free 
reeds are seldom used in English organs, but 
are occasionally found in foreign instruments 
under the name of Physharmonika, etc. [See 
Harmonium, Reed.] The reed-stoiw consisting 
of * striking-reeds ' are voiced in various ways 
to imitate the sounds of the Oboe, Cor Anglais, 
Clarinet, Bassoon, Horn, Cornopean, Trumi)et, 
etc., all of which are of 8 -ft pitch (that is, in 
unison with the diapason). The Clarion 4-ft. 
is an octave reed-stop. The Double Trumpet 
16 -ft. is a reed-stop one octave lower in pitch 
than the diapason ; it is also called a Conti-a- 
ix)8aune, or sometimes a Trombone. Reed-stops 

I See Jtaereadg'B AeniiMlweneet, by Sir P. Pollock, ii. 99. 




of the trumpet dasB are often placed on a very 
high pressure of wind under such names as 
Taha inirabilis, Tromba mi^'or, etc. ; such high- 
pressure reed-stops are generally found on the 
Solo-manual ; the reed-stops of the Great organ 
being of moderate loudness ; those on the Choir 
organ altogether of a softer character. A very 
much larger proportion of reed-stops is usually 
assigned to the Swell organ than to any other 
manual, owing to the brUliant crescendo which 
they produce as the shutters of the swell-box 
open. Reed-stops are said to be 'harmonic' 
when the tubes of the pipes are twice their 
normal length and perforated half-way with a 
small hole. Their tone is remarkably pure and 
brilliant. The best modem organ-builders have 
made great improvements in the voicing of reed- 
stops, which are now produced in almost infinite 
variety both as to quality and strength of 
tone. J. ». 

REEL (Anglo-Saxon hreol, connected with the 
Suio-Grothic rtdla, * to whirl '). An ancient dance, 
the origin of which is enveloped in much ob- 
scurity. The fact of its resemblance to the 
Norwegian HcUlungf as well as ita popularity 
in Scotland, and its occurrence in Denmark, the 
north of England, and Ireland, has led most 
writers to attribute to it a Scandinavian origin, 
although its rapid movements and lively char- 
acter are opposed to the oldest Scandinavian 
danoe-rhythma. The probability is that the 
reel is of Keltic origin, perhaps indigenous to 
Britain, and from there introduced into Scandi- 
navia. In Scotland the reel is usually danced 
by two oouples ; in England — where it is now 
almost only found in connection with the Sword 
Dance, as performed in the North Riding of 
Yorkshire — it is danced by three couples. The 
figures of the reel differ slightly according to 
the locality ; their chief feature is their circular 
character, the dancers standing face to face and 
describing a series of figures of eight. The 
music consists of 8-bar phrases, generally in 
common time, but occasionally in 6-4. The 
Irish reel is played much faster than the Scotch ; 
in Yorkshire an ordinary hompi{)e-tune is used. 
The following example, *Lady Nelson's Reel,' 
is from a MS. collection of dances in the posses- 
sion of the present writer : — 

[In Newefnm SeoUand (1591) it is stated 

that * Giles Duncan did go before them playing a 
reill or dance upon a small trump. ' Tlie Irish 
reel, which is apparently alluded to here, is in 
2-4, orcommon time, and isalwaysdancedsingly : 
the first eight bars, danced in steps, are followed 
by a round for the next eight bars, when the 
original steps are resumed,but reversed, w. h. g. f. T 

An example of the Danisli reel will be found 
in Engel's * National Music ' (London, 1866). 

One of the most characteristic Scotch reels is 
the Reel of Tulloch (Thulichan) :— 

Others, equally good, are * Colonel M'Bean*a 
Reel,' *Ye're welcome, Charlie Stuart,' *The 
Cameronian Rant,' * Johnnie's friends are ne'er 
pleased,' and * Flora Macdonald.' 

For the slow Reel see Strathspey, w. b. s. 

REEVE, William, bom 1757 ; after quitting 
school, was placed with a law stationer in Chan- 
cery Lane, where his fellow-writer was Joseph 
Munden, afterwards the celebrated comedian. 
Determined, however, upon making music his 
profession, he became a pupil of Richardson, 
organist of St. James's, Westminster. In 1781 
ho was appointed organist of Totnes, Devonshire, 
where he remained till about 1783, when he was 
engaged as composer at Astley's. He was next 
for some time an actor at the regular theatres. 
In 1791, being then a chorus singer at Covent 
Garden, he was applied to to complete the com- 
position of the music for the ballet-pantomime 
of ' Oscar and Malvina, ' left unfinished by Shield, 
who, upon some differences with the manager, 
had resigned his appointment. Reeve thereupon 
produced an overture and some vocal music, 
which were much admired, and led to his being 
appointed composer to the theatre. In 1792 
he was elected organist of St. Martin, Ludgate. 
In 1802 he became part ])roprietor of Sadler's 
Wells Theatre. His principal dramatic com[K)- 
sitions were 'Oscar and Malvina,' and *Tippoo 
Saib,* 1791 ; 'Orpheus and Eurydice,' partly 
adapted from Gluck, 1792 ; * The Apparition,' 
'British Fortitude,' 'Hercules and Omphale,' 
and 'The Purse,' 1794; 'Merry Sherwood' 
(containing Reeve's best-known song, ' I am a 
Friar of orders grey '), 1796; 'Harlequin and 
Oberon,' 1796, * Bantry Bay,' 'The Round . 
Tower,' and ' Harlequin Quixote,' 1797 ; ' Joan 
of Arc,' and ' Ramah Droog' (with Mazzinghi), 

1798 ; ' The Turnpike Gate ' (with Mazzinghi), 
'The Embarkation,* and 'Thomas and Susan,' 

1799 ; 'Paul and Virginia' (with Mazzinghi), 
and 'Jamie and Anna,' 1800; 'Harlequin's 
Almanack,* 'The Blind Girl ' (with Mazzinghi), 
1801; 'The Cabinet' (with Braham, Davy, 
and Moorehead), and ' Family Quarrels ' (with 
Braham and Moorehead), 1802 ; 'The Caravan,' 




1803; *The Dash/ and * Thirty Thousand' 
(with Davy and Braham), 1804 ; * Out of Place* 
(with Braham), and 'The Corsair,' 1805 ; *The 
White Plume,'*RokebyCastle,'and* An Bratach,' 
1806; 'Kais' (with Braham), 1808; < Tricks 
upon Travellers ' (part), 1810; and 'The Out- 
side Passenger ' (with Whitaker and D. Corn), 
1811. He^vrote music for some pantomimes 
at Sadler's Wells; amongst them 'Bang up,' 
by C. Dibdin, jun., containing the favourite 
Clown's song, * Tippity witchet, ' for Grimaldi. 
He was also author of The Juvenile Preceptor, 
cr Entertaining Instinietor, etc. He died June 
22, 1816. w. H. H. 

REEYES, John Sims, son of a musician in 
the Royal Artillery, was born at Woolwich, 
Sept 26,1 1818 (^ifemairs of the RoyaJ, AHil- 
Itry Band, by H. G. Farmer (1904), p. 74 If.). 
He received his early musical instruction from 
his father, and at fourteen obtained the post 
of organist at North Cray Church, Kent. Upon 
gaining his mature voice he determined on 
becoming a singer, and [after a year spent in 
studying for the medical profession] in 1839 
made his first appearance at the Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne Theatre, as the Gipsy Boy in * Guy 
Mannering,' and subsequently performed Dan- 
4ini in 'La Cenerentola,' and other baritone 
parts. The true quality of his voice, however, 
having asserted itself, he placed himself under 
J. W. Hobbfl and T. Cooke, and in the seasons 
•of 1841-42 and 1842-43 was a member of 
Macready's company at Drury Lane, as one of 
the second tenors, performing such parts as 
the First Warrior in Puroell's ' King Arthur,' 
•Ottocar in ' Der FreischUtz,' and the like. He 
then went, to prosecute his studies, first to 
Paris under Bordogni, and subsequently to 
Milan under Mazzucato ; he appeared at the 
Scala as Edgardo in Donizetti's 'Lucia di 
Lammermoor ' with marked success. Return- 
ing to England he [appeared at various con- 
certs, and] was engaged by Jullien for Drury 
Lane, where he made his first appearance on 
Monday, Dec. 6, 1847, as Edgar in ' The Bride 
•of Lammermoor,' and at once took position as 
an actor and singer of the first rank. ' His 
voice had become a pure high tenor of delicious 
quality, the tones vibrating and equal through- 
out, very skilfully managed, and displaying 
remarkably good taste. His deportment as an 
actor was natural and easy, his action manly 
and to the purpose, and exhibiting both jvission 
and power, wi^out the least exaggeration.' A 
fortnight later he performed his first original 
part, Lyonnel in Balfe's 'Maid of Honour.' 
[Berlioz, who conducted the performance, en- 
gaged him for the performance of two parts of 
La DamiuUiion de Fiust at Drury Lane, Feb. 7, 
1848.] In 1848 he was engaged at Her 
Majesty's Theatre, and came out as Carlo in 

1 Or poflribly Oct 91 (b« entered hla naina In a ' Urthdaj book ' 
M» bom on that day). 

Donizetti's 'Linda di Chamounix,' appearing 
also as Florestan in 'Fidelio.' [His operatic 
career was more or less overshadowed by the 
great place he made for himself in oratorio ; he 
sang the part of Faust when Gounod's opera 
was given for the first time in English, at 
Her Majesty's Theatre, and for a few (ler- 
formances he sang Braham's old part of Sir 
Huon in * Oberon. * Captain Macheath, in * Tlie 
Beggar's Opera,' was one of the last operatic 
parts in which he appeared.] In the autumn 
of 1848 he was engaged at the Norwich Musi- 
cal Festival, where he showed his ability as 
an oratorio singer by an extraordinarily fine 
delivery of ' The enemy said ' in ' Israel in 
Egypt.' On Nov. 24 following he made his first 
appearance at the Sacred Harmonic Society in 
Handel's ' Messiah.' The rapid strides which he 
was then making towards perfection in oratorio 
were shown — to take a few instances only — 
by his performances in ' Judas Maooabssus ' and 
'Samson,' 'Elijah,' 'St Paul,' and 'Lobgesang,' 
and ' Eli ' and ' Naaman ' (both composed ex- 
pressly for him). [He sang in Bach's ' St. 
Matthew Passion/ under Stemdale Bennett, 
when the work was given for the first time in 
England in 1854.] But his greatest triumph 
was achieved at the Handel Festival at the 
Crystal Palace in 1857, when, after singing in 
'Messiah' and 'Judas Maccabeeus' with in- 
creased reputation, he gave ' The enemy said ' 
in 'Israel in Egypt' with such remarkable 
power, fire, and volume of voice, breadth of 
style, and evenness of vocalisation, as com- 
pletely electrified his hearers. He repeated 
this wonderful performance at several succeed- 
ing festivals, and in the Handelian repertory 
nothing was more striking than his delivery of 
'Total Eclipse' from 'Samson.' [He was the 
first representative of various tenor parts in 
oratorios and cantatas that are for the most part 
forgotten in the present day^ such as Benedict's 
'St. Peter,' Bennett's 'May Queen,' Sullivan's 
* Prodigal Son ' and ' Light of the World. ' His 
singing of ' Tom Bowling ' and ' Come into the 
garden, Maud ' remained unapproachable until 
the end of his life. It was unfortunate that 
he was compelled by adverse circumstances to go 
on singing after lus voice had begun to decay. 
His farewell concert took place at the Albert 
Hall on May 11, 1891, but he sang afterwards 
at Covent Garden, and at music halls. Some 
critics, who only heard him in his last days, were 
inclined to question whether he had ever been 
great, but their doubts were without foundation. 
In the quarter of a century during which his voice 
was at its best, he sang on the orchestra with 
Jenny Lind, Clara Novello, Tietjens, Adelina 
Patti, and Christine Nilsson, and held his own 
with them all. Assuredly none but a great 
artist oould have done that. Even in his vocal 
decay there was nothing- harsh or ugly. He 
neyer sang off the key, and even when he was 




nearly seventy his legato singing was a model 
of steadiness and breath management The 
expression < yoice colouring ' was not much used 
in Sims Reeves's day, but of the art implied in 
the words he was a past master. No one could 
"nith greater certainty find the exact tone to 
fit the most varied emotions. It was a com- 
prehensive talent indeed that could range at 
will from the levity of Captain Macheath's 
songs to the poignant pathos of Handel's 
* Deeper and deeper still,' the emotional warmth 
of Beethoven's 'Adelaide/ or the cycle *An 
die feme Geliebte.' He died at Worthing, 
Oct. 25, 1900.] Sims Reeves married, Nov. 2, 
1850, Miss EscMA Lucombis, soprano singer, 
who had been a pupil of Mrs. Blane Hunt, and 
appeared at the Sacred Harmonic Society's 
concert of Jnne 19, 1839, and sang there and 
at other concerts until 1845, when she went 
to Italy. She returned in 1848, and appeared 
in opera as well as at concerts. She retired 
from public life and occupied herself as a 
teacher of singing, for which she had a de- 
servedly high reputation. [She died at Upper 
Norwood, June 10, 1895 ; and in the same 
year her husband married his pupil, Miss Maud 
Rene, with whom he went on a successful con- 
cert tour in South Africa in 1896.] His son 
Herbert, after a careful education under his 
father and at Milan, made his successful debut 
at one of Mr. Ganz's concerts (June 12, 1880), 
and met with considerable favour from the 
public, w. H. H. ; additions from the Did. of 
yat, Biog., S. H. Pardon, Esq., etc 

Mendelssohn's own name for his Symphony in 
D minor, written with a view to performance at 
the Tercentenary Festival of the Augsburg Pro- 
testant Confession, which was intended to be 
celebrated throughout Germany on June 25, 
1 830. The first mention of it appears to be in 
a letter of his own from North Wales, Sept, 2, 
1829. On May 25, 1830, he writes from 
Weimar that it is finished, and when copied 
will be sent to Leipzig. It was not, however, 
then performed ; the political troubles of that 
year prevented any festive demonstrations. In 
Januaiy and March, 1832, it was in rehearsal 
in Paris, but it did not come to actual per- 
formance tm November 1832, when it was 
played under his own direction at Berlin. It 
was not repeated during his life, but was re- 
vived at the Crystal Palace, Nov. 30, 1867. 
It was afterwards played at the Gewandhaus, 
Leipzig, Oct. 29, 1868, and was published in 
score and parts by Novello k Co., and by 
Simrock as * Symphony No. 5 ' — op. 107, No. 
36 of the posthumous works. The first Allegro 
is said to represent the conflict between the old 
and new religions, and the Finale is founded 
on Luther's Hymn, * Ein' feste Burg ist unser 
Oott' One of the most prominent themes of 
the work is the beautiful ascending phrase 

known as the 'Dresden Amen,' which has 
been used with marvellous effect in Wagner's 
'Parsifal.' g. • 

REFRAIN (Fr. He/rain ; Germ. JieimJcchr). 
This word is used in music to denote what in 
poetry is called a ' burden,' ue. a short sentence 
or phrase which recurs in every verse or stanza. 
It was probably first employed in music in order 
to give roundness and unity to the melody, and 
was then transferred to the poetry which was 
written especially for music. Such collections 
as the ' &hos du temps pass^ ' give an abundance 
of examples in French music, where songs with 
refrains are most frequently to be found. * Lil- 
liburlero ' may be cited as one English instance 
out of many. [See vol. ii. p. 781.] Schubert's 
four Refrain - Lieder were published as op. 
95. M. 

REGAL (Fr. li^ale ; It. It^gale or Kinfale). 
[The word may be derived from *regulus,* the 
idea of gradation being inherent in a keyboard. 
The wooden harmonicon, when played with a 
keyboard, was at one time called 'regale en 
hois.'] This name describes a variety of organ, 
which is especially interesting as being in some 
ways the prototype of the modern harmonium. 
It consists of a single row of * beating ' reeds, the 
pipes of which are in some instances so small 
as hardly to cover the reeds. A fine specimen 
Is in the possession of the Brussels Conservatoire, 
and was lent to the Inventions Exhibition in 
1885. The name 'bible regal' is the title of 
another variety, the peculiarity of which consists 
in its being arranged to fold in two, on a similar 
principle to that on which leather backgammon 
boards are made. The bellows are covered with 
leather, so that when the instrument is folded 
it presents the appearance of a large book. 
Praetorius in his Syntag^na, vol. iii. pi. iv., 
gives a view of one, which in its extended con- 
dition, bellows and all, appears to be about 
3 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft. He ascribes (ii. p. 73) 
the invention to a nameless monk ; others give 
it to YoU, an oi^gan-builder at Nuremberg in 
1575. The specimen preserved in the Mus^e 
of the Conservatoire at Paris is said to date 
from the end of the 16th century, and has a 
compass of four octaves. The instrument has 
been long since extinct, but the name ' regal ' 
is still applied in Germany to certain reed- 
stops. [The word is used by Fetis, Rimbault, 
and Engel to denote the portable organ of the 
12th and 13th centuries. Mr. Hipkins \)ob- 
sessed a remarkably fine specimen, believed to 
be unique as far as Great Britain is concerned. 
It is smaller than the Brussels one, being 2 ft 
5 in. wide, and (with the bellows) 3 ft. 8 in. 
long. The compass is from E to c"'. The 
sharps are of boxwood stained black, the naturals 
of bird's-eye maple. The keys are not balanced 
but hinged. The instrument is of oak, and is 
dated 1629, with no maker's name.] 

In the inventory of Henry VIII. 's musical 




instruments [Harleian MS., 1419, A fol. 200], 
we find thirteen pairs of single regalls (the ^pair ' 
ifteant only one instrument) and five pairs of 
double regalls (that is with two pipes to each 
note). The name continued in use at the Eng- 
lish Court down to 1773, the date of the death 
of Bernard Gates, who was * tuner of the Regals 
in the King's household.' For further parti- 
culars the reader is referred to Mr. A. J. Hip- 
kins's Musical InstrumerUs (A. & C. Black, 
1887), where instruments are figured; also to 
the same writer's History of the Pianoforte^ 
1898. a; with additions from MS. notes left 
by Mr. Hipkins. 

REGAN, Anna, soprano singer. [See 


REGER, Max, was bom March 19, 1873, at 
Brand, a village near Kemnath in Bavaria, and 
left his native place when but a year old for 
Weiden, whither his father, who was a teacher, 
was transferred in 1874. There he received his 
first musical training through his father and the 
organist, whose name was Lindner. In 1890 
he went to study with Riemann at Sonders- 
hausen, whom he followed to Wiesbaden on the 
latter 's appointment to the Conservatorium, and 
became himself a teacher there in 1895, till 
in 1896 he was called to the service of his 
country. After recovering from a severe illness 
he returned to his own home in 1898, removed 
again in 1901, this time to Munich, where he 

Of all the composers of the modem German 
school of chamber and church music Herr Reger 
occupies a place that is probably the most pro- 
minent of any, and the fact that his publishers 
attest to an enormous sale of his works in Berlin 
and other musical centres must contribute to 
that belief. It cannot be denied that he is a 
composer gifted, as a celebrated German critic 
remarks, with strong individuality, and that he 
handles with the utmost facility the art of 
counterpoint ; but to a large number of persons 
at the present day his resources of harmony and 
his indulgences in rhythm and in form will 
appear so infinite as to fog even a most attentive 
and experienced listener with their complexity. 
Truly, however, his compositions contain remark- 
able and original effects. In his songs, to quote 
the aforesaid critic, * hat er sich vielfach von 
einer Stromung fortreissen lassen, welche das 
Grundwesen des Liedes zerstort.* To which he 
adds that Herr Reger's powers of invention are 
so rich that only the employment of a conscious 
limitation of his artistic means instead of an 
intentional eclipse of his forerunners is to be de- 
sired of him, and he would then be the master to 
continue the direct line of the gi'eat German com- 
posers. For a man of thirty-four years of age 
the number of his compositions is enormous, as 
will be seen from the catalogue below, which, it 
will be noticed, contains only one number for 
orchestra (op. 90). 


1. Scmata for rloUn and piano, in O minor. 
*i. Trlu for piano, rioUu and viola. 
S. Sonata for Tiolln and piano, in D. 

4. SlzSonipk 

5. Sonata fur Tlolonoello and piano, in F minor. 
,, f Two Sacred Songi with orgau. 

Isooga for 4 voiow with piano. 

7. Three Oqptn pleoea. 

8. PiveSoniis. 

8. ' Walaer Kaprioen ' (piano picoes for 4 handa). 

10. ' Deutache Tunie ' (piano picoes fbr 4 hands). 

11. WaltM* for PF.. solo. 
VL FiveSonga. 

13. ' Loee BUtter.' PF. mIo. 

1^ Doeta for aopiano and alto, with piano. 

lA. TanSonga. 

18. Suite in E minor, for organ. 

17. ' Ana der Jumndaelt.' twenty pieora for PF. sola 

18. ' Improriaauoa,' PF. aolo. 

19. Two Sacred Songa, with organ. 
90. Fire Hnmareaken for PF. solo. 

81. Hymn ' An der Oeeang ' (male ehoroa, with orcheitra). 

as. SU Waitaaa. for piano (4 handa). 

8S. Four Songa. 

94. Six Pieces for PF. aolo. 

SB. Aquarellen for PF. aolo. 

98. Seren Ftuitadestaeke for PF. aolo. 

97. Fantasia for organ on ' Bin' feat* Bxag.' 

88. Sonata for piano and vloloDoallo. in O minor. 

98. Fantaale anid Fogae. minor, for ornn. 
" ' • ' .- .. ■■ - ^^, o nieine Seele.' 

90. Fantasie for organ on ' Freu' dich a 

SI. Six Songs. 

39. Seven CharaoterlaUe Pieces for PF. aolo. 

83. Sonata for Organ. Ft uiiiior. 

34. * Pl«aea Pittoiwquea for piano (4 hands). 

33. StxBoQfi. 

36. Bante BUtter, nine small piecea for PF. aolo. 

37. FiveSonga. 

(Two Tnlutnr^ of Folk-songa fbr male chorus (a 5-9). 
^a I TwLi vi>lijriv^ 1 of Folk-songs for mixed thanu (a 6-8). 
**■ * si^jLTwi i>rr ir an Folk-songs (a 7-18). 

\ -Sevr<n rh> r <ses for male voices. 
39. Ttir^t' ^1 1 F^L't Choruses for mixed voices. 
J. I I. l-Aiitk^i. on ' Wie schOn leucht't uns der Morgenstem.' 
*'-| II, iHiLi^.i 'Straf michnicht in deinemZoru' (both for organ). 
41. -: -MnUi 111 A ror violin and piano. 

.Lir Hijij^tu for violin, in D minor. A. B minor, and G minor. 

48. ^ ■■ ■ d for piano. 

46. 1 Fugue on BACH for oigMi. 

47. -^ i^.-.^ i— organ. 

48. Seven Songs. 

«i / Fonr Sonatas for violin alone (one in the ityle of Bach). 

ITwo Sonatas for clarinet and piano. 
80. Two Bomauoea fbr violin in G and D. 
51. Twelve Songs. 

f Organ Fantasie on ' Alle Mensehen mOsseu aterbeo.' 
88. i Ditto. ' Wachet anf. raft una die Stimme.' 

^ Ditto. • HalleluK Gott zu loben.' 

53. ' Silhouetten ' for piano. 

54. Three String Quartette in O, A. and D minor. 
56. Fifteen Songs. 

56. Five easy Preludes and Fugues for organ. 

ip. / Variations on ' Hell nnserm K8nig, Hell.' \ «^. .^ ^ ., 

^- isymphonic Fantaale and Fugue. / ^ °'^^°- 

66. Six Burlesken for PF. (4 hands). 

SO. Twelve Pieces for ornn. 

00. Sonata for oqpitn in D minor. 

{' Palmsonntagmorgen ' (6 voices a cappella). 
Der evangellsche Klrchenchor (for 4 voices), forty Raay Com- 
positions fbr church performance. 

62. Sixteen Songs. 

63. Twelve Monologues for the organ. 

64. String quintet in C Minor (two vioUos. two Ttolaa, and riokn* 

66. Twelve Piecea fbr organ. 

66. Twelve Bonn. 

67. Flfty-thrm Basy 'Choral Voraplele' 
69. Blx Bongs. 

69. Ten Organ Pieces. 

70. Seventeen Songs. 

71. 'Oesang der Verkttrten' (for 8- voiced choir and grand or< 


72. Sonata for piano and violin. 

7:1. Variations and Fugue on an original theme for organ. 

74. Btrinc quartet in D minor. 

75. EiRhtecn Sodkh. 

7R. Fifteen ' Sohllchte Weii«n ' for piano and voice. 

77. (a) Serenade in D for flute, violin, and viola. 

(6) Trio in A minor for violin, viola, and violonceUa 

78. Boiwta for violoncello and PF. in F. 

79. Fourteen volumes of Pieces for piano, for organ, for piano and 

violin, for piano and violoncello, and songs. 

80. Five Easy Preludes and Fugues. Bach's Two-part Inventions 

arranged as organ trios (with K. Straube), and twelve 
pieces fdf organ. 

81. Variations and Fugue on a theme of J. S. Bach, for PF. solo. 

82. Twelve small ploovs for PF. solo, ' Aus melnem l^tgebuche.' 

83. Bight Songs for male chorus. 

84. Sonatas for PF. and violin in Ff minor. 

85. Four Preludes for the organ. 

86. Variations and Fugue on a theme by Beathovwi for two PFs. 

(4 hands). 

87. Two Compoadtions for violin and PF. 

88. Four Songi. 

8B. Two Sonatas (B minor and D) for PF. sohk. 
80. SlnfoniattofororohMtm. 




Wilhout opoB nntnbecs axe : — 

T«« Book* of Quwns (IBBS) for PP. 

PF. TkBoacripCtom of Uach. KuhUv, tie., tor PP. lolo and 

Poor • Hcitsrv Lled«r/ 

Pour PF. BtudlM for tlie left baud alone. 

Fire PF. 8tiidi«a (amnffeuiente of Chopin's worka). 


PlMw Tnuuetlptloni of aoiVi ty Hofo Wotf and Richard 

Dar Evangdfaefae Ktrdienehor. conaiatlng of — 
Book L For (7 CMiy acred aonga (8. A.T.B.) tor aU fMUvala, 

In four Mrlca. 
fiook IL Cantatn 'O «i« •ells' tor mixed choir and con- 

gnfatlon, with aooomi»niinent of strinn and organ. 
Book IIL OantaU for Oood Friday. 'O Hanpt voU Blut 
nod Wundea,' for alto and tenor (or aopr.) aoloa, mixed 
^fiir. TloUn aolo. oboe solo, and organ. 
For male ehonia : — 
Kise Tolkdieder. 
Five volkalieder. 
T«^T« nuMlrigala. 
For mtxiod choir :— 
Si^t volkalieder. 
Six volkalieder. 

Twelve Qemiaa eacred aongs (In three hooka). 
' Komm. helHser Qdat.' 

* Ba Oel cin Thau,' for ft-part oholr. 

* VocB Himmel hoeh.' for 4-part choros. two aolo violina, 

choir, and ooocrecatlon. with organ or harmonium. 
For Orgao :— BdiiiU dee Trioepiela (arrangements of Bach'a 

S-part invratlona. wiUi K. Btranbe). 
Boinanae, also for hftrmoniura. 
Sooss with organ or piano. 
Amogcaienta of fifteen of Bach's clftvier works for orpin. 

Armofements of souga for hanuoniuio. 
FF. and Tioltn :— Pottte Caprice. Bomanao |0 major), and 

For PF. and TiotonoelJo :— Caprloe. 
For Toiee and PP. :— Sixteen aangs. 
PF. aoto :— Perpetaum mobile, Kl^e, Hurooreske, Bomanse. 

Jlaawnt muslcsl. Schenino. Albumblatt, FrfthlinVBlied, 

MAodlc. two Humorwken. Naehtatttck. 
Oaaone In all major and minor k«ya. Book I. in two parts. 

Book II. In three parts. 
Four special studies for left hand stone >-8ehetso, Humoreske, 

Bomamw. and Prdude and Fogoe. 
Regiments- Marseh der ehenutligoi HannoTenohen Armeo 

A new set of orchestcal variations is annonnoed for perform- 
aooe in the winter of 1W7-& 
Utenry work :— ileiCnflfe xur ModulaHonMtn (Contribution to 
the Rnlee of Modnlatlon). g^ y^ ^^ 

REGGIO, PiZTRO, born at Genoa in the first 
quarter of the 17th centuiy, was private musi- 
cian (Intenist and singer) to Queen Christina 
of Sweden after her abdication. After her final 
departnre from Rome, Reggio came to England 
and settled at Oxford, where, in 1677, he pub- 
lished A Treatise to sing well any Song whcUso- 
evir. In 1680 he issued a book of songs dedi- 
cated to the king, and containing the earliest 
setting of * Arise, ye subterranean winds,* from 
Shadweirs 'Tempest,' afterwards set by Purcell. 
(See Sammelbafndc oi the InL Mua. Oes. v. 553.) 
Seven Italian songs are in the British Museum 
in MS., two duets in the Fitzwilliam Museum 
at Oambridge, and a three-part motet in the 
Christ Church Library, Oxford. Reggio died 
in London, July 23, 1685 (Hawkins), and was 
buried in St Giles's in the Fields. M. 

REGIS, Jeai7, a Flemish musician of the 
latter part of the 15 th century, usually reckoned 
along with Busnois, Caroii,Obrecht, and Okeghem 
as bdonging to the transitional school of com- 
poeeiB between Dufay and Binchois on the one 
hand,&nd Josquin Despres on the other. Tinctoris 
mentions him with special distinction. He was 
for a time master of the choir-boys in Antwerp 
Cathedral, and is also supposed to have been in 
personal relation with Dufay. Though he does 
not appear, like Dnfay, to have ever been a 
member of the Papal Choir, two of his masses 
were copied into the great choir-books of the 


Sistine Chapel, which are so far interesting as 
showing the curious custom of the time in 
combining different liturgical texts. Thus, in 
one of them, while the two upper voices sing the 
usual words of the mass the tenor sings the * Ecoe 
ancilla Domini, ' and the Bass ' Ne timeas Maria, ' 
which would seem to show that this mass was 
specially composed for the festival of the 
Annunciation. In the other, the Alto and 
Tenor sing 'Dum sacrum mysterium cemeret 
Joannes,' which would imply the work to be 
intended for the festival of St. John the 
Evangelist Begis is also the author of a masa 
*L'omme arme,' in the Archives of Cambrai, 
and of a few other pieces in the collections of 
Petrucci. The setting of a popular song * S'il 
vous plaisait ' a 4, transcribed by Kiesewetter in 
his Schickmle und BeschafferiheU des welUichen 
Oesanges, serves to show the skill of Regis as a 
contrapuntal harmonist of the time in a very 
favourable light. J. R. M. 

REGISTER, of an organ. Literally, a set 
of pipes as recorded or described by the name 
written on the draw-stop ; hence, in general, an 
organ-stop. The word * register ' is, however, 
not quite synonymous with *stop,' for we do 
not say 'pull out, or put in, a register,' but, 
'a stop,' although we can say indifferently 'a 
large number of registers' or * of stops.' The 
word is also used as a verb ; for example, the 
expression * skill in registering ' or 'registration ' 
means skill in selecting various combinations 
of stops for use. The word * stop ' is, however, 
never used as a verb in this sense. j. s. 

REGISTER is now employed to denote a 
portion of the scale. The 'soprano register,' 
the 'tenor register,' denote that part of the 
scale which forms the usual compass of those 
voices ; the * head register ' means the notes 
which are sung with the head voice ; the 'chest 
register ' those which are sung from the chest ; 
the 'upper register' is the higher portion of 
the compass of an instrument or voice, and so 
on. How it came to have this meaning, the 
writer has not been able to discover. o. 

the art of selecting and combining the stops 
or * registers ' of the organ so as to produce the 
best effect See Oroan-Playixo, vol. iii. pp. 

REGNART, surname of a family of Flemish 
musicians who flourished towards the end of 
the 16th century. There were five brothers, 
one of whom, Augustiu (not August, as given 
by Eitner, which would corresjx)nd to Augustus 
in Latin but not to Augustinus) was a canon of 
the Church of St. Peter's, Lille (not Douai, as 
Eitner suggests in the QuellenrLexikon, forget- 
ting the words of the dedication partly quoted 
by himself in his Bibliographies p. 216),i and 
in 1590 edited and published at Douai a 

1 Bee also Goovaert's BiUioffmphie. p. 908 ; but ho contradicts 
himself by elsewhere (p. S3) deerrlliing Angostlu Begnart as Canon 
of St. Peter's. Louvain. 




Collection of thirty -nine Motets, a 4-6, oomposed 
by his four brothers Francis, Jacob, Paschasius, 
and Charles Regnart. The work appropriately 
bears on its title-page the motto, * £cce quam 
bonam et quam jucundum fratres habitare in 
unum,' Psal. 132. The full title is * Novae 
Cantiones Sacrae, 4, 5, et 6 vocum turn in- 
strumentorum cuivis generi turn vivae voci 
aptissimae, authoribus Francisco, Jacobo, Pas- 
casio, Carolo Regnart, fratribus germanis ' (an- 
other incidental mistake of Eitner is that of 
taking the word 'germanis' as indicative of 
nationality, and explaining it on the ground 
that Flanders was then part of Germany, while 
all that the word really implies is that the 
brothers were full brothers). Of the four 
brothers only two attained any real position or 
eminence as composers, Francis and Jacob. The 
other two are only represented by three motets 
a piece in this Collection, and of their careers 
nothing is known with any certainty. Of 
Francis, Augustin tells us that he had pursued 
his studies at the University of Douai and the 
Cathedral of Toumai. Besides the twenty-four 
motets in the Collection above mentioned, 
Francis Regnart is chiefly known by a book of 
fifty Chansons a 4-5, 'Ponies de Ronsard et 
autres,' originally published at Douai by Jean 
Bogaerd in 1575, and afterwards at Paris by 
Le Roy and Ballard in 1579. These Chansons 
have now been republished in modem score by 
H. Expert in his collection 'Les Maitres 
Musiciens de la renaissance Fran^aise.' F^tis 
mentions a book of Missae tres a 4-5, by 
Francis Regnart, published by Plan tin in 1582, 
but there is no trace of such a publication in 
Goovaert's Bibliographiey and Eitner knows 
nothing of it. 

Of the life and works of Jacob Regnart 
we have fuller information. He was early 
received as an Alumnus of the Imperial Chapel 
at Vienna and Prague. In 1 564 he is desig- 
nated as tenor singer in the chapel ; and as a 
member of the chapel accompanied the Emperor 
to the Augsburg Diet of 1566. In 1573 he is 
mentioned as musical preceptor to the boys of 
the choir, and before 1579 became the vice- 
capellmeister. In 1580 he was offered by the 
Elector of Saxony the post of capellmeister at 
Dresden vacant by the death of Scandelli, but 
declined. In 1582, however, he left the 
imperial service to enter that of the Archduke 
Ferdinand at Innsbruck, where he remained as 
capellmeister till 1595. He then returned to 
Prague, where he died in 1600. Shortly before 
his death, in the dedication of a book of Masses 
to the Emperor, Rudolf II., which, however, 
was not published till afterwards, he recom- 
mended to the care of the Emperor his wife 
and six children. The widow, a daughter of 
Hans Vischer, the famous bass singer in the 
Electoral Chapel at Munich under Orlando 
Lassus, returned to Munich, where she occupied 

herself in preparing for publication in 1602-3 
three volumes of her husband's Masses, con- 
taining altogether 29 a 5, 6, 8, and 10, also a 
book of Sacrae Cantiones, a 4-12, 35 Nos. 
The other sacred works of Regnart which ap- 
peared during his lifetime wore a book of 
Sacrae Cantiones, a 5-6, 1575, and one a 4, 
1577 ; also one entitled MaricdCy 1588, Marian 
Motets composed by way of thanksgiving for 
recovery from severe illness. He was, however, 
even more widely known by his secular works, 
which consist of (1) two books of Canzone 
Italiane, a 5 (1574-81), (2) two books entitled 
Threni Amorum, German secular songs, a 5 
(1595), and (3) several collections, a 3, 4, 5, 
entitled ' Eurtzweilige teutsche Lieder nach Art 
der Neapolitanen oder welschen Villanellen' 
(1676-91). Of the Utter, the collection of 
67 a 3 was republished by Eitner in modem 
score in 1895. They are written in the simple 
melodious Italian canzonet style, without any 
artificiality of counterpoint. In some intro- 
ductory lines of verse the composer apologises 
for his frequent intentional employment of 
consecutive fifths in the harmony as being in 
accordance with the simple popular character he 
wished to give these songs. The melody of 
one of them, ' Venus du und dein Kind,' has 
become, with a slight alteration in the first line, 
the chorale tune well-known later, ' Auf meinen 
lieben Gott.' Two of Regnart's other songs, 
a 5, which have something more of imitative 
counterpoint, have been reprinted in Commer's 
selection of 'Geistliche und weltliche Lioder 
aus der xvi-xvii Jahrh.' None of his Latin 
motets have been reprinted, with the exception 
of one which found admission into the Evan- 
gelical Ooika CanticmcU of 1655, whence it has 
been reproduced in Schoberlein's Sehatz, His 
Masses, several of them based on the themes of 
German popular songs, must have been popular 
in their day, judging from the MS. copies of 
them enumerated in Eitner as surviving in 
various church archives. A Passion according 
to St. Matthew, a 8, by Regnart survives only 
in MS., of which some account is given in 
Eade, DU aelUre PassionakomposUumen, pp. 
60-62. J. R. u. 

REGONDI, GiULio, of doubtful parentage, 
bom at Geneva in 1822. His reputed father 
was a teacher in the Gymnasium of Milan. The 
child appeara to have been an infant pheno- 
menon on the guitar, and to have been sacrificed 
by his father, who took him to every court of 
Europe, excepting Madrid, before he was nine 
years old. They arrived in England in June 
1831 ; and Giulio seems never to have left the 
United Kingdom again except for two concert 
tours in Germany, one with Lidel, the violon- 
cellist, in 1841, the other with Mme. Dulcken 
in 1 8 4 6. On the former of these tours he played 
both the guitar and the melophone (whatever 
that may have been), and evoked enthusiastic 




praises from the correspondents of the A, M, 
Zeilung in Prague and Vienna for his extraordi- 
nary execution on both instniments, the very 
artistic and individual character of his perform- 
ance, and the sweetness of his caniabile. The 
concertina was patented by Sir Charles Wheat- 
stone in 1829 [see Ck)NCBRTiNA], but did not come 
into use till Begondi took it up. He wrote two 
concertos for it, and a very large number of 
arrangements and original compositions. He also 
taught it largely, and at one time his name was 
to be seen in almost all concert programmes. He 
was a great friend of Molique's, who wrote for 
him a CSoncerto for the Concertina (in G) which 
he played with great success at the concert of 
the Musical Society of London, April 20, 1864. 
When he went abroad for his second tour, his 
]jerformance and the effect which he got out of 
so unpromising and inartistic an instrument 
astonished the German critics. (See the A. M. 
Zeitung for 1846, p. 853.) Begondi appears to 
have been badly treated by his father, and to 
have had wretched health, which carried him 
off on May 6, 1872. o. 

REHEARSAL (Fr. Ji^Uwr^ Ger. Frobe), 
In the case of concerts, a trial performance pre- 
liminary to the public one, at which each piece 
included in the programme is played through 
at least once, if in MS. to detect the errors in- 
evitable in the parts, and in any case to study 
the work and discover how best to bring out 
the intentions of the composer, and to ensure 
a perfect eiuemble on the part of the performers. 
In England, owing to many reasons, but princi- 
pally to the oYer-occupation of the players, suffi- 
cient rehearsals are seldom given to orchestral 
works. The old rule of the Philharmonic Society 
(now happily altered) was to have one rehearsal 
on Saturday moniing for the performance on 
Monday evening, and the Saturday Popular Con- 
certs were originally, in like manner, rehearsals 
for the Monday evening concertSw No new works 
can be efficiently performed with less than two 
rehearsals ; and in the case of large, intricate, 
and vocal works, many more are requisite. We 
have it on record that Beethoven's £b Quartet, 
op. 127, was rehearsed seventeen times before 
its first performance ; the players therefore must 
have arrived at that state of familiarity and 
certainty which a solo player attains with a 
concerto or sonata. 

In the case of Operas, every practice of either 
chorus, principals, or orchestra, separately or 
together, is termed a rehearsal. These will some- 
times continue every day for six weeks or two 
months, as the whole of the voice-music, dialogue, 
and action has to be learnt by heart. Whilst 
the chorus is learning the music in one part of 
the theatre, the principals are probably at work 
with the composer at a piano in the green-room, 
and the ballet is being rehearsed on the stage. 
It isonly when the musicand dialogue are known 
by heart that the rehearsals on the stage with 

action and business begin. The orchestra is 
never used until the last two or three rehearsals, 
and these are termed Full Band Behearsals 
(Germ. GetiercU-probe). Last of all, before the 
public production of the work, comes the Full 
Dress Behearsal, exactly as it will appear in 
performance. g. 

BEICHA, Anton Joseph, born at Prague, 
Feb. 27, 1770, lost his father before he was a 
year old ; his mother not providing properly 
for his education, he left home, and took refuge 
with his grandfather at Glattow, in Bohemia. 
The means of instruction in this small town 
being too limited, he went on to his uncle 
Joseph Beicha (bom in Prague, 1746, died at 
Bonn, 1795), a violoncellist, conductor, and 
composer, who lived at Wallerstein in Bavaria. 
His wife, a native of Lorraine, speaking nothing 
bat French, had no children, so they adopted 
the nephew, who thus learned to speak French 
and German besides his native Bohemian. He 
now began to study the violin, pianoforte, and 
flute in earnest. On his uncle's appointment, 
in 1788, as musical director to the Elector of 
Cologne, he followed him to Bonn, and entered 
the band of Maximilian of Austria as second 
flute. The daily intercourse with good music 
roused the desire to compose, and to become 
something more than an ordinary musician, 
but his uncle refused to teach him harmony. 
He managed, however, to study the works of 
Kimberger and Marpurg in secret, gained much 
practical knowledge by hearing the works of 
Handel, Mozart, and Haydn, and must have 
learned much from his constant intercourse witli 
Beethoven, who played the viola in the same 
band with himself and was much attached to 
him. At length his perseverance and his success 
in composition conquered his uncle's dislike. He 
composed without restraint, and his symphonies 
and other works were played by his uncle's 

On the dispersion of the Elector's Court in 
1794, Beicha went to Hamburg, where he re- 
mained till 1799. There the subject of instruc- 
tion in composition began to occupy him, and 
there he composed his first operas, 'Godefroid 
de Montfort,' and ' Oubaldi, on les Franfais en 
%ypte' (two acts). Though not performed, 
some numbers of the latter were well received, 
and on the advice of a French ^mlgr6, he started 
for Paris towards the close of 1799, in the hopi> 
of producing it at the Thd&tre Feydeau. In this 
he failed, but two of his symphonies, an over- 
ture, and some 'Scenes Italiennes,' were played 
at concerts. After the successive closing of the 
Theatre Feydeau and the Salle Favart, he went 
to Vienna, and passed six years (1802-8), in 
renewed intimacy with Beethoven, and making 
friends with Haydn, Albrechtsberger, Salieri, 
and others. The patronage of the Empress Maria 

1 Bee an tnt«rMtlDg notice by Kutoer, quoted by Thayer, 
BftthoMH, i. 188. 




Theresa was of great aervioe to him, aiid at her 
request he composed an Italian opera, ' Argina, 
regina di Granata. ' During this happy period 
of his life he published symphonies, oratorios, 
a requiem, six string quintets, and many solos 
for PF. and other instruments. He himself 
attached great importance to his '36 Fugues 
pour le piano,' dedicated to Haydn, but they 
are not the innovations which he believed them 
to be ; in placing the answers on any and every 
note of the scale he merely reverted to the 
Ricercari of the I7th century, and the only 
effect of this abandonment of the classic laws of 
Real fugue was to banish tonality. 

The prospect of another war induced Reicha 
to leave Vienna, and he settled finally in Paris 
in 1808. He now realised the dream of his 
youth, producing first 'Caglioetro* (Nov. 27, 
1 8 1 ), an opera-comique composed with Dourlen ; 
and at the Academic, * Natalie ' (three acts, July 
30, 1816), and * Sapho ' (Dec. 16, 1822). Each 
of these works contains music worthy of respect, 
but they had not sufficient dramatic effect to 
take with the public. 

Reicha's reputation rests on his chamber- 
music, and on his theoretical works. Of the 
former the following deserve mention : a diecetto 
for five strings and five wind instruments ; an 
octet for four strings and four wind instruments ; 
twenty-four quintets for flute, oboe, clarinet, 
horn and bassoon ; six quintets and twenty 
quartets for strings ; one quintet for clarinet 
and strings ; one quartet for PF., flute, violon- 
cello, and bassoon ; one do. for four flutes ; six 
do. for flute, violin, tenor, and violoncello ; six 
string trios ; one trio for three violoncellos ; 
twenty- four do. for three horns ; six duets for 
two violins; twenty -two do. for two flutes; 
twelve sonatas for PF. and violin, and a number 
of sonatas and pieces for PF. solo. He also 
composed symphonies and overtures. These 
works are more remarkable for novelty of com- 
bination and striking harmonies, than for 
abundance and charm of ideas. Reicha's faculty 
for solving musical problems brought him into 
notice among musicians when he first settled in 
Paris, and in 1818 he was oflerod the professor- 
ship of counterpoint and fugue at the Conser- 
vatoire. Among his pupils there were Boilly, 
Jelenspei^r, Bienaim^, Millaut, Lefebvre, 
Elwart, Pollet, Lecarpentier, Dancla, and 

His didactic works, all published in Paris, 
are : TraiU de Melodic, etc. (4 to, 1814) ; Cours 
de composiHon mimecUe, etc (1816) ; TraiU de 
hauU compo8Uian mtuicale (first part 1824, 
second 1826), a sequel to the other two ; and 
Art du compositeur dramalique^ etc. (4to, 1833). 

F^tis has criticised his theories severely, and 
though highly successful in their day, they are 
now abandoned, but nothing can surpass the 
clearness and method of his analysis, and those 
who use his works will alwi^ys find much to 

be grateful for. Czerny published a German 
translation of the Traits de Jutute composUion 
(Vienna, 1834, four vols, folio), and in his Art 
(fimproviser obviously made use of Reicha's 
Art de varier — fifty -seven variations on an 
original theme. 

Reicha married a Parisian, was naturalised in 
1829, and received the L^on of Honour in 
1831. He presented himself several times for 
election to the Institut before his nomination 
as Boieldieu's successor in 1835. He only 
enjoyed his honours a short time, being carried 
off by inflammation of the lungs. May 28, 1836. 
His death was deplored by the many friends 
whom his trustworthy and honourable character 
had attached to Mm. A life-like portrait, 
somewhat spoiled by excessive laudation, is 
contained in the Notice sur Iteicha (Taris^ 1837, 
8vo), by his pupil Delaire. o. c. 

REICHARDT, Alexander, a tenor singer, 
was bom at Packs, Hungary, Apri] 17, 1825. 
He received his early instruction in music from 
an uncle, and made his first appearance at the 
age of eighteen at the Lemberg theatre as Rodrigo 
in Rossini's * Otello.* His success there led him 
to Vienna, where he was engaged at the Court 
Opera, and completed his education under 
Gentiluomo, Catalani, etc. At this time he 
was much renowned for his singing of the 
Lieder of Beethoven and Schubert, and was in 
request at all the soirees ; Prince Esterhazy 
mskde him his Kammersanger. In 1846 he 
made a towm^e through Berlin, Hanover, eta, 
to Paris, returning to Vienna. In 1851 he 
made his first ap])earance in England, singing 
at the Musical Union, May 6, and at the Phil- 
harmonic, May 12, at many other concerts, and 
before Queen Victoria. In the following season 
he returned and sang in Berlioz's * Romeo and 
Juliet,' at the new Philharmonic Concert of 
April 14, also in the Choral Symphony, Berlioz's 
* Faust,' and the * Walpurgisnight,' and enjoye<I 
a very great popularity. From this time until 
1857 he passed each season in England, singing 
at concerts, and at the Royal Opera, Drury 
Lane, and Her Majesty's Theatre, where lie 
filled the parts of the Count in ' The Barber of 
Seville,' Raoul in ' The Huguenots,' Belmont in 
the * Seraglio,' Don Ottavio in * Don Juan,' 
and Florestan in 'Fidelio.' Tlie last was a 
very successful impersonation, and in this part 
he was said * to have laid the foundation of the 
popularity which he has so honourably earned 
and maintained in London.' He also appeared 
with much success in oratorio. In 1857 he 
gave his first concert in Paris, in the Salle 
Erard, and the following sentence from Berlioz's 
report of the performance will give an idea of 
his style and voice. ' M. Reichardt is a tenor 
of the first water — sweet, tender, sympathetic 
and charming. Almost all his pieces were re- 
demanded, and he sang them again without a 
sign of fatigue. ' In 1 860 he settled in Boulogne, 




where he died March 14, 1885. After he retired 
from the active exerciae of his profession he 
was not idle. He organised a Philharmonic 
Society at Boulogne ; he was President of the 
Academie Commnnale de Musique, and his 
oecasional concerts for the benefit of the hospital 
— where one ward is entitled 'Fondation 
Beichardt* — were among the chief musical 
events of the town. Beichardt was a composer 
as well as a singer. Several of his songs were 
very popular in their day. o. 

REICHARDT, Johaxn Friedrioh, composer 
and writer on music ; son of a musician ; born 
Not. 25, 1752, at Konigsberg, Prussia. From 
childhood he showed a great disposition for 
mnsio, and such intelligence as to interest in- 
flnential persons, under whose care he was 
educated and introduced into good society, and 
thus formed an ideal both of art and of life 
which he could scarcely have gained had he 
been brought up among the petty privations of 
his original position. Unfortunately, the very 
gifla which enabled him to adopt these high 
aims, fostered an amount of conceit which often 
led him into difficulties. His education was 
more various than precise, music he learned by 
practioe rather than by any real study. His 
liest instrument was the violin, on which he 
attained considerable proficiency under Yeicht- 
ner, a pupil of Benda's ; but he was also a 
good pianist. Theory he learned from the 
organist Richter. On leaving the university of 
Kbnigsberg he started on a long tour, ostensibly 
to see the world before choosing a profession, 
though he had virtually resolved on becoming 
a musician. Between 1771 and 1774 he visited 
Berlin, Leipzig, Dresden, Vienna, Prague, 
Brunswick, and Hamburg, made the acquaint- 
ance of the chief notabilities — ^musical, literary, 
and political — in each place, and became himself 
in some sort a celebrity, after the publication 
of his impressions in a series of Vertraute 
Brirfen etnea aufmerksamen Jteisendeiif in two 
parts (1774 and 1776). On his return to KonigS' 
berg he went into a government office, but 
hearing of the death of Agricola of Berlin, he 
applied in person to Frederick the Great for 
the vacant post of Capellraeister and Court- 
composer, [sending him his opera * Le feste 
galanti,'] and though barely twenty -four 
obtained it in 1776. He at once began to 
introduce reforms, both in the Italian opera 
and the court orchestra, and thus excited much 
opposition from those who were more conserva- 
tive than himself. While thus occupied he 
was indefatigable as a composer, writer, and 
condactor. In 1783 he founded the 'Concerts 
Spirituels' for the performance of unknown 
works, vocal and instrumental, which speedily 
gained a high reputation. He published col- 
lections of little -known music, with critical 
observations, edited newspapers, wrote articles 
and critiques in other periodicals, and produced 

independent works. But enemies, who were 
many, contrived to annoy him so much in the 
exercise of his duties, that in 1785 he obtained 
a long leave of absence, during which he visited 
London and Paris, and heard Handel's oratorios 
and Gluck's operas, both of which he heartily 
admired. In both places he met with great 
success as composer and conductor, and was 
popular for his social qualities ; but neither of 
his two French operas 'Tamerlan' and 'Panth^e,' 
composed for the Academie, was performed. 
On the death of Frederick the Great (1786) 
his successor confirmed Reichardt in his office, 
and he produced several new operas, but his 
position became more and more disagreeable. 
His vanity was of a peculiarly offensive kind, 
aud his enemies found a weapon ready to their 
hand in his avowed sympathy with the doctrines 
of the French Revolution. The attraction of 
these views for a buoyant, liberal mind like 
Reichardf s, always in pursuit of high ideals, 
and eager for novelty, is obvious enough ; but 
such ideas are dangerous at court, and after 
further absence (from 1791) which he spent in 
Italy, Hamburg, Paris, and elsewhere, he 
received his dismissal from the Capellmeistership 
in 1794.* He retired to his estate, Giebichen- 
stein, near Halle, and occupied himself with 
literature and composition, and occasional tours. 
In 1796 he became inspector of the salt works 
at Halle. After the death of Frederick William 
II. he produced a few more operas in Berlin, 
but made a greater mark with his Singspiele, 
which are of real importance in the history of 
German opera. In 1808 he accepted the post 
of Capellmeister at Cassel to Jerome Bonaparte, 
refused by Beethoven, but did not occupy it 
long, as in the same year we find him making 
a long visit to Vienna. On his return to 
Giebichenstein he gathered round him a pleasant 
and cultivated society, and there, in the midst 
of his friends, he died, June 17, 1814. 

Reichardt has been, as a rule, harshly judged ; 
he was not a mere musician, but rather a com- 
bination of musician, litterateur, and man of the 
world. His overweening personality led him into 
many difficulties, but as a compensation he was 
endued with great intelligence, and with an ardent 
and genuine desire for progress in everything — 
music, literature, and politics. As a composer his 
works show cultivation, thought, and honesty : 
but have not lived, because they want the neces- 
sary originality. This is specially true of his 
instrumental music, which is entirely forgotten. 
His vocal music, however, is more important, and 
a good deal of it might well be revived, especially 
his Singspiele and his Lieder. Mendelssohn 
was no indulgent critic, but on more than one 
occasion he speaks of Reichardt with a warmth 

1 Tlwre wu appftnntljr some dla»UatMUon with Beichvrdt'a 
effloiency as » mnaidftn m well m with hU political opintonx, for 
Moiart't remark that * the Kin^'t hand oniitalM freat ▼irtuo«l, hut 
the eOtect would be better if the gentlemen played together,' oertiii nly 
Implied a reflection on the conductor. Neither does Reichardt aeeiu 
to hitve apprecUted MoMrt (Jahn'a Jloaart, ii. 410;. 



which he seldom manifests even towards the 
greatest masters. He never rested until he had 
arranged for the performance of Beichardt's 
Morning Hymn, after Milton, at the Diisseldorf 
Festival of 1835 ; and his enthnsiasm for the 
composer, and his wrath at those who criticised 
him, are delightful to read.^ Years afterwards, 
when his mind had lost the ardour of youth, 
and much experience had sobered him, he still 
retained his fondness for this composer, and few 
things are more charming than the genial appre- 
ciation with which he tells Beichardt's daughter 
of the effect which her father's songs had had, 
even when placed in such a dangerous posi- 
tion as between works of Haydn and Mozart, 
at the Historical Concert at the Gewandhaus 
in Feb. 1847. It is the simplicity, the naivete, 
the national feeling of this true German music 
that he praises, and the applause with which it 
was received shows that he was not alone in his 
appreciation. Amongst Beichardt's numerous 
works are eight operas ; eight Singspiele, includ- 
ing four to Goethe's poems, ' Jery und Bately,' 
(1789), 'Erwin und Elmire,' ^Claudine von 
Villabella,' and ' Lilla ' ; five large vocal works, 
including Milton's ' Morning Hymn,' translated 
by Herder, hiis most important work, in 1835 ; 
a large number of songs, many of which have 
passed through several editions, and been pub- 
lished in various collections. 

Reichardt's writings show critical acumen, 
observation, and judgment. Besides the letters 
previously mentioned, he published — Das Knnst- 
magazin, eight numbers in two vols. (Berlin, 
1782 and 1791) ; StudienfUr Tonkunstler und 
Musik/retmde, a critical and historical periodical 
with thirty-nine examples (1792^ ; FerlratUe 
Briefe aus PariSf three parts (1804) ; Vertravte 
BrUfe auf eintr Reiae ruteh Wieny etc (1810) ; 
fragments of autobiography in various news- 
])ai)er8 ; and innumerable articles, critiques, etc. 
The Briefe are specially interesting from the 
copious details they give, not only on the music, 
but on the politics, literature, and society of the 
various places he visited. A biography, J, F. 
Beichardi, sein Leben und seine musikaZische 
Thdiigkeit, by Herr Schletterer, Capellmeister 
of the cathedral of Augsburg, is unfinished, two 
volumes only having been published at Augs- 
burg in 1865. [For list of compositions and 
writings, see the Quellen-LexihrnA A. M. 

daughter of the celebrated baritone, Kindermann 
(g. V. ), was bom, July 15, 1 8 5 8, at Munich. She 
was taught the piano first by her mother, and at 
the School of Music, but abandoned the same 
in favour of singing, on the advice of Franz 
Wtillner. She received her vocal instruction 
from her father, and made her d^but at the 
Munich Opera as one of the boys in the * Meis- 
tersinger,' and next played small parts in the 
opera, drama, and ballet, besides singing in 

I Letten, Dec. 98, 103; Aprils, 1838. 

the chorus, in order to gain experience. She 
sang the alto part in Franz Lachner's Requiem 
at Leipzig in 1871 with such success that she 
became engaged at Carlsruhe. She played ' as 
guest ' at Berlin as Pamina, June 5, and Agathe, 
June 9, 1874 ; she then returned to Munich, 
and sang Daniel in Handel's 'Belshazzar,' 
April 14, 1875. Soon after she married 
Emanuel Reicher, an actor at the Gartnerplatz 
theatre, and for a time sang there in op<^ra 
bouffe, but returned to opera and played Grim- 
gerde in the Ist Cycle, and Erda in the 2nd 
Cycle, at Bayreuth in 1876. She next played 
at Hamburg, Vienna (where she appeared as 
Leah on the production of Rubinstein's ' Mac- 
cabees '), and again at Munich. Having re- 
ceived instruction for the puq^ose from Faure 
and Jules Cohen at Paris, she sang in French 
at Monte Carlo in 1880 with such success that 
she received an oifer to sing at La Soala, Milan, 
but declined it in favour of an engagement under 
Neumann at Leipzig, where she made her debut 
as Fidelio, May 12, 1880. She became a great 
favourite, and remained there until 1 882. She 
played in Neumann's company in the Trilogy at 
Berlin and other German towns, in London, and 
lastly at Trieste, where she died June 2, 1883. 
[See Neumann's Erinneruiigen, etc., 1907.] 

She made a great impression at Her Majesty's 
Theatre as Frioka on the production of ' Rhein- 
gold,' May 5, and of * Walkiire,' May 6, 1882, 
and still more as Briinnhilde in the 2nd Cycle ; 
* not only was her magnificent voice equal to all 
the demands upon it, but her presentation of 
the character was full of force and of pathos. 
While no less touching than Fran Yogi in the 
truthfulness of her expression, she was more 
heroic and dignified ; the supernatural element 
was brought into stronger relief ... in the 
grand awakening scene her manner was perhaps 
too coldly dignified and wanting in the impuK 
siveness which characterises the heroine when 
she has finally abandoned her supernatural 
attributes and become a true woman.' ' A. c. 

REICHMANN, Theodor, was bom at Ros- 
tock, March 15, 1849, was taught to sing at 
first by Mantius, and subsequently by Lamperti 
in Milan ; he made his d^but as a baritone at 
Magdeburg in 1869, and sang at Berlin, Rot- 
terdam, Strasburg (1872), Hambuig (1878), 
Munich (1875), and was a member of the 
Court Opera at Vienna in 1882-89. In 1882 
he sang the part of Amfortas at Bayreuth for 
the first time, and was identified with it for 
some ten years, after which differences with 
the authorities resulted in his non-appearance 
there until 1902. In the seasons between 
1889 and 1891 he sang in New York, and in 
the latter year returned to Vienna, becoming 
once more a member of the Opera Company in 
1893. In that year he sang the part of Creon 
in 'Medea' at an operatic festival at Gotha. 

* Athnnmrn, M»7 90, 188L 


He appeared in Loudon at Oovent Garden in 
18S4, and at Dniiy Lane and Coyent Garden 
in 1892, singing the parts of Wo tan, Hana 
Sachs, Flying Dutchman, Pizarro, and the 
Trompeter Ton Sakkingen. He was far more 
popular in Germany than in England, where 
he had to stand comparisons with voices of far 
more beautifal quality than his. He died at 
Marbach, on the Lake of Constance, May 22, 
1903. M. 

REED, GXMSRAL JoHir, [bom Feb. 18, 1721, 
was the son of Alexander Bobertaon of Straloch, 
Perthshire, was educated at Edinburgh Uni- 
Yendty, and entered Lord Loudoun's regiment 
of H^hlanders in 1745. He subsequently 
adopted the surname by which he is known. 
After the quelling of the Jacobite rebellion, he 
saw active service in Flanders, Martinique, 
Havanna, and North America. He was in the 
42nd Highlanders in 1751-70, was promoted 
colonel in 1777 and nu^or-general in 1781. 
In 1794 he became colonel of the 88th foot, 
and general in 1798, dying in London, Feb. 6, 
1807, possessed of a fortune of £50,000.] By 
his will, made in 1803, he directed his trustees, 
in the event of his daughter dying without 
issue, to found a Professorship of Music in the 
University of Edinburgh, * for the purpose also, 
after completing such endowment as hereinafter 
is mentioned, of making additions to the library 
of the said University, or otherwise promoting 
the general interest and advantage of the 
University in such . . . manner as the Principal 
and Professors . . . shall . . . think most JUt 
and proper.' In a codicil, dated 1806, he adds 
— * Afiar the decease of my daughter ... I 
have left all my property ... to the College 
of EkiinbuTgh where I had my education . . . 
and as I leave all my music books to the Pro- 
fessor of Music in that College, it is my wish 
that in every year after his appointment he 
will cause a concert of music to be performed 
on the 13th of February, being my birthday.' 
He also directed that at this annual ' Reid 
Concert' some pieces of his own composition 
should be performed * by a select baud. ' 

When by the death of General Reid's daughter 
in 1838 some £70,000 became available, it seems 
to have been handed over to the University 
authorities without sufficient attention to the 
italicised portion of the following instruction 
in the will : ' that . . . my said Trustees . . . 
shall and do, by such instrumeni or inarumerUs 
as may be required by the law of SeoUamd make 
over the residue of my . . . personal estate to 
the Principal and Professors of the said Uni- 
versity.' And as no particular sum was speci- 
fied for foundation and maintenance of the 
Chair of Music, considerable latitude being 
allowed to the discretion of the University 
authorities, the secondary object of the bequest 
received far greater care and attention than 
the primary one, and for years the Chair was 



starved. [On the history of the professorship, 
see vol iii p. 816.] In 1851, anticipating 
Professor Donaldson's intention of petitioning 
Parliament, the Edinburgh Town Council, as 
* Patrons ' of the University, raised an action 
against the Principal and Professors for alleged 
mismanagement and misappropriation of the 
Reid Fund. A long litigation followed, and 
by decree of the Court of Session in 1855 the 
University authorities were ordered to devote 
certain sums to the purchase of a site, and the 
erection of a building for the Class of music. 
The class-room and its organ were built in 1861, 
and the Professor's salary — which had been 
fixed at the very lowest sum suggested by the 
founder, viz. £300 — as well as the grant for 
the concert, were slightly raised, and a sum set 
apart, by order of Sie Court, for expenses of 
class-room, assistants, instruments, etc. H. s. 0. ; 
with additions from Diet, Nat, Biog. 

REID CONCERTS. These concerts passed 
through vicissitudes almost as unfortunate as 
those to which the Reid Professorship was 
subjected. The earliest concerts under Pro- 
fessors Thomson and Bishop, considering the 
then musical taste of Scotland, were not un- 
worthy of General Reid's munificent bequest 
The £200 allowed out of the Reid Fund was 
wholly inadequate to the cost of a grand concert 
400 miles from London. The Senate therefore 
decided that, besides this grant, all the tickets 
should be sold, and that the proceeds should 
assist Professor Thomson in giving a fine concert ; 
and the following note was printed in tlie first 
Reid Concert Book J in 1841 :--*The Professors 
desire it to be understood that the whole of 
these sums ' — i.e. the grant and the proceeds — 
< is to be expended on the concert ; and that in 
order to apply as large a fund as possible for 
the purpose, they have not reserved any right 
of entry for their families or friends.' 

This system was continued by Sir H. R. 
Bishop, and in 1842 and 1843 the sale of tickets 
enabled him to give concerts which were at least 
creditable for the time and place. 

Upon Professor Donaldson's accession a plan 
was initiated by him which proved most un- 
fortunate. He altered the system of admission 
by payment to that of invitation to the whole 
audience ; and in consequence the Reid Concerts 
began to decline, and became an annual source 
of vexation to the University, public, and Pro- 
fessor. The grant, which under legal pressure 
afterwards seems to have been raised to £300, 
was then only £200, and therefore not only 
was it impossible to give an adequate concert 
without loss, but the distribution of free tickets 
naturally caused jealousies and heartburnings to 
'town and gown,' and the Reid Concert became 
a byword and the hall in which it was held a 
bear-garden. Matters seem to have culminated 

1 Beaiark»bl« u the Ant programme iaracd in Grc»t BrIUla with 
aoAlybloal notw. 




in 1865, when a large number of students, who 
thought that they had a right of entry, broke 
into the ooncert-hall. 

Such was the state of things on Professor 
Oakeley's appointment in 1865. Finding it 
impossible, after twenty years, to return to the 
original system of Thomson and Bishop, he 
made a compromise, by giving free admissions 
to the Professors, the University Court, the 
students in their fourth year at college, and a 
few leading musicians in the city, and admitting 
the rest of the audience by payment. From 
this date a new era dawned on the Reid Concerts ; 
the university and the city were satisfied, and 
the standard of performance at once rose. 

In 1867 the engagement of Manns and of 
a few of the Crystal Palace orchestra produced 
very good results. 

In 1869 Hall^ and his band were engaged, 
and the demand for tickets soon became so 
great that the Professor organised two supple- 
mentary performances on the same scale as the 
' Reid,' and thus, from concerts which on some 
occasions seem to have been a mere performance 
of ballads and operatic music by a starring party, 
the Reid Concert grew into the 'Edinburgh 
Orchestral,' or *Reid Festival,' which in turn 
was converted into the series of historical con- 
certs described in vol. iii. p. 816. The Scottish 
Universities Commission abolished the 'Reid 
Concert' itself about 1893. 6. 

REIMANN, loNAZ (bom Dec. 27, 1820, at 
Albendorf in the district of Glatz, died June 17, 
1885), became principal teacher and choir- 
master at Rengersdorf in Silesia, having been 
4k pupil of the Breslau Seminary. He was an 
'Excessively diligent and fluent composer of 
church music, and wrote no fewer than 74 
masses, of which only 18 were published, 24 
Requiems (4 published), 4 Te Deums (8 pub- 
lished), 37 Litanies, 4 Oratorios, 88 Offertories 
^48 published), 50 Gradualien (40 published), 
besides many burial -songs, wedding cantatas. 
Salves, Aves, etc., and 9 overtures, and other 
instrumental works. 

Heinkich (son of the above) was bom March 
14, 1850, at Rengersdorf; and received musical 
instmction from his father. He passed the 
Gymnasium at Glatz, and studied pliilology at 
Breslau from 1870 to 1874, graduated the fol- 
lowing year, and taught at the gymnasia of 
Strehlen, Wohlau, Berlin, Ratibor, and Glatz, 
for a year in each place successively, till in 
1885 he became director of that at Gleiwitz, in 
Upper Silesia. There he quarrelled with the 
authorities, threw up his post, embraced the 
Protestant faith, and thenceforth devoted him- 
self entirely to music. As a schoolboy (Gym- 
nasiast) he had already conducted an orchestral 
and choral society, and had composed church 
and chamber music, and as a student had led 
the academical singing -club (Gesangverein), 
* Leopoldina,' studying incidentally with Moritz 

Brosig; had founded and directed a musical 
society at Ratibor, which performed oratorios, 
etc., under him, and had become known during 
1879 and 1880 as musical reporter to the 
Schlesicher ZeUung, and by other literary works 
(Nmnos, 1882 ; Proaodies, 1885-86). After he 
definitely took to music, he published some 
vocal and organ compositions (sonatas, studies, 
etc), and a biography of Schumann, which was 
published by Peters in 1887, and in that year 
he moved to Berlin to act as musical critic for 
the Allgemeine MusikcUische Zeiiung. For 
a time he was occupied at the Royal Library, 
besides being teacher of organ -playing and 
theory at the Scharwenka-Klindworth Conser- 
vatorium till 1894, and organist of the Phil- 
harmonic till 1895, in which year the Kaiser 
appointed him to the great church in the 
Augusta- Victoriaplatz, erected to the memory 
of the Emperor William I., where he enjoyed 
a great reputation as an organ virtuoso, and 
directed some of the most magnificent and im- 
pressive performances of oratorios, masses, and 
church music generally, given in any churcli 
in Germany. In 1897 he received the title 
of Professor, and in 1898 founded a Bach 
Society. He died at Charlottenburg, May 24, 

His compositions include duets for female 
voices ; love scenes in Waltz form for four voices ; 
a chorus for four male voices ; an album of 
children's songs for solo voice ; toccata for organ 
in £ minor (op. 23) ; piano duets ; two wed(Hng 
songs for bass voice ; arrangements of twenty- 
five German songs, * Das deutsche Lied,' of the 
14 th to the 19 th centuries, also for bass voice ; 
a prelude and triple fugue in D minor for the 
organ ; and ciacona for organ in F minor. His 
writings are numerous, and include a contribu- 
tion on the theory and history of Byzantine 
music (1889) ; two volumes of musical retro- 
spects, JVagiieriana-Lisztiana; an opening 
volume to his own collection of lives of cele- 
brated musicians, being the biography of Schu- 
mann already mentioned, to which he added 
those of Billow and J. S. Bach. H. v. h. 

REIMANN, Matthieu (Matthias Reymau- 
nus), (bom 1544 at Lowenberg, died Oct. 21, 
1597, at Prague), was a Doctor of Law and 
Imperial Councillor under Rudolf II., and wrote 
two works for the lute j the one entitled * Noctes 
musicae' appeared in 1598, and the other, 
'Cithara sacra pealmodiae Davidis ad usum 
testudinis,' in 1608. H. v. h. 

REINACH, Saloman (TntoDORE), Iwrn 
June 3, 1860, at St. Germain-en-Laye, was at 
firat educated at the j^le Normal in that place. 
His bent was always for languages, and especi- 
ally for Archaeology. His occupation of the 
post of Conservator (curator) of the Museum 
of Antiquities at St. Germain — which was both 
the reward of, and the ever -fresh inoentive 
to, his taste for original research —afforded 




him ample opportunities for carrying out his 
natural procliyities to investigation and critical 
inquiry into the methods of the past. His 
works include a Latin Grammar, a Greek £pi- 
grainy, a Manual of Classical Philology (2nd 
€d., Paris, 1883-84, 2 vols.) and Archaeological 
researches in Tunis. His editorship of the 
Jievtie des Andes Grecqwa (1888 and following 
yean) was marked by valuable researches into 
the music of ancient Greece, and his translation 
•of the hymns discovered at Delphi gave rise 
to much discussion. d. h. 

REINAGLE, Joseph, senior, said to have been 
bom near Vienna, and to have served in the 
Hungarian army. In 1762 he was at Ports- 
mouth, where his sons were bom. By the 
influence of the Earl of Kelly, he was appointed 
in 1762 trumpeter to the king, presumably in 
Scotland, as he appears to have at that time 
removed to Edinbuigh. See Schetky. 

Alexander Reinaols was probably his 
eldest son ; he was bom in 1756 at Portsmouth. 
He accompanied his younger brother, Hugh, 
to Lisbon, and after his death, went to America 
about 1786, dying at Baltimore, Ind., Sept 21, 
1809. His name is attached to 'A Collection 
of the mostFavouriteScots tunes with Variations 
for the Harpsichord by A. Reinagle, London, 
printed for and sold by the author, ' folio. This 
scarce and rudely printed volume is advertised 
in Aird*s * Selection,' vol. it. 1782, and though 
bearing ' London ' as an imprint was most likely 
issued from Glasgow. 

The second son, Joseph Rbinaole, junior, 
was bom at Portsmouth in 1762, and was first 
intended for the navy, and next apprenticed to 
a working jeweller in Edinburgh. He took up 
music as a profession, and studied the French 
hom and the trumpet under his father and 
subsequently the violoncello under J. G. C. 
Schetky, who had married his sister. He 
became a noted player at the Edinburgh 
concerts, but abandoned the instrument as a 
conaeqnence of his brother's superior skill on it, 
resuming it after Hugh's death. He became 
violin and viola player and leader of the orchestra 
at St. Cecilia's Hall, Edinbuigh. He came to 
London, and was one of the second violins at 
the Handel Commemoration in 1784. In the 
following year he became associated with Haydn 
and Salomon and played at their concerts. Early 
in the 19th century he removed to Oxford, and 
died there in 1836. His published works 
include ' Twenty-four progressive lessons for the 
pianoforte ' 1796. ' Duets for the Violoncello ' 
ijiiartets for strings, besides an iTUroduetion to the 
AH cf Playing the VioloncellOy which ran through 
several editions. In Gow's 'Fifth Collection 
of Strathspey Reels' are some airs by Mr. 
Joseph Reinagle ; one, * Dumfries Races,' became 
well known. 

The third son, Hitob, became a proficient 
violoncellist, and went to Lisbon for the benefit 

of his health in 1784 ; he died there of consump- 
tion, March 19, 1786. 

Alexander Robert Reinagle, the sou of 
the younger Joseph, was bom at Brighton, 
August 21, 1799, and settled with his father in 
Oxford, where he became teacher, organist, and a 
well-known figure in musical circles. He was 
organist of the church of St. Peter in the East. 
He composed a number of sacred pieces, includ- 
ing the well-known 'St. Peter' psalm-tunc 
He also wrote and compiled many books of 
instruction for the violin and violoncello. He 
died at Kidlington near Oxford, April 6, 1877. 

His wife, Caroline Reinagle (n4e Orgkr) 
was bom in London in 1818, and married 
Reinagle in 1846. She was associated with 
her husband as a teacher, and wrote some 
technical works for the pianoforte, besides a 
concerto, and several chamber compositions. 
She also attained some success as a pianist. 
She died March 11, 1892. f. k. ; with addi- 
tions from MusiccU Times^ 1906, pp. 541, 617, 
and 688. 

REINE DE SABA, LA. See Queen of 

REINE TOPAZE, LA. Op^ra-comique in 
three acts ; words by Lockroy and Battes, nmsic 
by Victor Mass^. Produced at the The&tre 
Lyrique, Dec. 27, 1866. In English, as ' Qneen 
Topa«e,' at Her Majesty's Theatre, Dec. 24, 
1860. G. 

REINECEE, Carl Heinrich Carsten, com- 
poser, conductor, and performer, director of the 
Gewandhaus concerts at Leipzig, the son of a 
musician, bom June 23, 1824, at Altona, was 
from an early age trained by his father, and at 
eleven performed in public' As a youth he was 
a first-rate orchestral violin-player. At eighteen 
he made a concert tour through Sweden and 
Denmark, with especial success at Copenhagen. 
In 1843 he settled in Leipzig, where he studied 
diligently, and eagerly embraced the oppor- 
tunities for cultivation afforded by the society 
of Mendelssohn and Schumann, with a success 
which amply shows itself in his music. In 
1844 he made a professional tour with 
Wasielewski to Riga, returning by Hanover and 
Bremen. He was already in the pay of Christian 
VIII. of Denmark, and in 1846 he again visited 
Copenhagen, remaining there for two years. 
On both occasions he was appointed court- pianist'. 
In 1851 he went with the violinist Otto von 
Kbnigslow to Italy and Paris ; and on his 
return Hiller secured him for tlie professorship 
of the piano and counterpoint in the Conscrva- 
torium of Cologne. In 1 854 he became conductor 
of the Concertgesellschaft at Barmen, and iu 
1 859 Musikdirector to the University of Breslau. 
On Julius Rietz's departure from Leipzig to 
Dresden in 1860 Reinecke succeeded him as 
conductor at the Gewandhaus, and became at 
the same time ]>rofes8or of composition in the 
Conservator ium. Between the years 1867 and 




1872 he made extensive tours ; in England 
he played at the Musical Union, Crystal Palace, 
and Philharmonic, on the 6th, 17th, and 19th 
of April, 1869, respectively, and met with great 
success both as a virtuoso and a composer. He 
reappeared in this country in 1872, and was 
equally well received. [In 1895 he resigned 
the post of conductor of the Gewandhaua 
concerts, but kept his position in the Gonserva- 
torium, being appointed in 1897 director of 
musical studies until 1902, when he retired 

Reinecke's industry in composition is great, 
his best works, as might be expected, being those 
for piano ; his three PF. sonatas indeed are ex- 
cellent compositions, carrying out Mendelssohn's 
technique without indulging the eccentricities of 
modem virtuosi ; his pieces for two PFs. are also 
good ; his PF. Concerto in ¥% minor, a well- 
established favourite both with musicians and 
the public, was followed by two others in E 
minor and C respectively. Besides other instru- 
mental music — a wind octet, quintets, four string 
quartets, seven trios, concertos for violin and 
violoncello, etc. — he has composed an opera in 
five acts, * Konig Manfred,* and two in one act 
each, * Der vierjahrigen Posten * (after Komer) 
and * Bin Abenteuer Handers ' ; * Auf hohen 
Befehr (1886), and * Der Gouvemeur von Tours' 
(1891); incidental music to Schiller's 'Tell'; 
an oratorio, ' Belsazar ' ; cantatas for men's voices 
' Hakon Jarl ' and ' Die Flucht nach Aegypten ' ; 
overtures, 'DameKobold,' 'Aladdin,' 'Friedens- 
feier, ' an overture, ' Zenobia, ' and a funeral march 
for the Emperor Frederick (op. 200) ; two 
masses, and three symphonies, (op. 79 in A, 
op. 134 in C minor, and op. 227 in G minor) ; 
and a large number of songs and of pianoforte 
pieces in all styles, including valuable studies 
and educational works. Of his settings of fairy 
tales as cantatas for female voices, 'Schnee- 
wittchen,' ' Dornroschen,' ' Aschenbrbdel,' and 
several others are very popular. His style 
is refined, his mastery over counterpoint and 
form is absolute, and he writes with peculiar 
clearness and correctness. He has also done 
much editing for Breitkopfs house. His 
position at Leipzig speaks for his ability as a 
conductor ; as a pianist (especially in Mozart) 
he kept up a high position for many years ; as 
an accompanist he is first-rate ; and as an 
arranger for the pianoforte he is recognised as 
one of the first of the day. Various contribu- 
tions to musical literature will be found 
enumerated in Riemann's Lexikon, [See also 
E. Segnitz, Carl Reinecke,'] f. o. 

REINER, Jacob, bom about 1559 or 1560 
at Altdorf in Wiirtembei|;, was brought up at 
the Benedictine Monastery of Weingarten, where 
he also received his first musical training. We 
have it on his own authority that he was after- 
wards a pupil of Orlando Lassus at Munich, 
where also his first publication, a volume of 

Motets a 5-6, appeared in 1579. Incidentally 
it may be mentioned that in 1589 Lassus dedi- 
cated a book of six masses, the eighth volume 
of the P(Urocinium Miisiceay to the Abbot of 
Weingarten. Reiner himself returned to Wein- 
garten, and from at least 1586 to his death on 
August 12, 1606, was engaged as lay singer and 
choir-master to the monastery. His publica- 
tions are fairly numerous, and consist of several 
volumes of motets, masses, andmagnifioats, which 
need not here be specified in detail, especially 
since part -books are frequently missing, also 
two volumes of German songs a 3-5. Three 
settings a 5 of the Passion exist in MS. , of a 
similflur character to those by Lassus. The first 
volume of Reiner's Motets was reproduced in 
lithograph score by Ottomar Dresel in 1872, 
and one of the numbers also appears in the 
supplement to Proske's ' Musica Divina,' edited 
by F. X. Haberl in 1876. J. K. M. 

REINHOLD, Hugo, bom March 8, 1854, in 
Vienna, was a choir-boy of the Hofkapelle of his 
native city and a pupil of the Oonservatorium 
der Musikfreunde till 1874, where he worked 
with Brackner, Dessofi', and E|)stein under the 
endowment of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and 
Gotha, and obtained a silver medal. He has 
presented various compositions, numbering up 
to op. 59, to the public, including piano 
music and songs, a string quartet (op. 18 in A 
major), a suite in five movements for piano and 
strings, and a Prelude, Minuet, and Fugue for 
stringed orchestra. The two latter were per- 
formed at the Vienna Philharmonic Concerts of 
Dec 9, 1877, and Nov. 17, 1878, respectively, 
and were praised by the Vienna critic of the 
Monthly Musical ^Record for their delicate char- 
acter and absence of undue pretension. The 
quartet was executed by Hellmesberger. H. v. h . 

REINHOLD, TuEODOR Christlibb, bom in 
1682, died in 1755, was the teacher of Johann 
Adolf Hiller (Hiiller), the composer of numerous 
motets, and can tor of the Krouzkirche at Dresden 
from 1720 till his death. h. v. h. 

REINHOLD, Thomas, bom at Dresden about 
1 690, was the reputed nephew, or, as some said, 
son, of the Archbishop of that city. He had an 
early passion for music, and having met Handel 
at the Archbishop's residence conceived so 
strong a liking for him that after a time he 
quitted his abode and sought out the great com- 
poser in London, where he appeared in varioun 
works of Handel's, after making his first appear- 
ance in July 1731 at the Haymarket Theatre 
as a singer in *The Grub Street Opera,' He 
died in Chapel Street, Soho, in 1751. 

His son, Charles Frederick, bom in 1787, 
received his musical education first in St. Paul's 
and afterwards in the Chapel RoyaL On Feb. 3, 
1755, he made his first appearance on the stage 
at Drury Lane as Oberen in J. C. Smith's opera, 
'The Fairies,' being announced as 'Master 
Reinhold.' He afterwards became organist of 




St George the Martyr, Bloomsbury. In 1759 
he appeared as a hass singer at Marylebone 
Gardens, vhere he continued to sing for many 
seaaona. He afterwards performed in English 
operas, and sang in oratorios, and at provincial 
festivals, etc He was especially famed for 
his singing of HandeUs song, ' ruddier than 
the cheny.' He was one of the principal 
baas singers at the Commemoration of Handel 
in 1784. He retired in 1797, and died in 
Somers Town, Sept. 29, 1815. See Mttsical 
Times, 1877, p. 273. w. H. H. 

REINKEN, JoHANN Adam, or Jan Adams 
Reincken, eminent organist, bom at WUs- 
hauaen in Lower Alsace, April 27, 1623, a 
pupil of Heinrich Scheidemann, became in 
1654 OTganist of the church of St. Catherine at 
Hambuig; and retained the post till his death, 
Nov. 24, 1722, at the age of ninety-nine. He 
was a person of some consideration at Hamburg, 
both on account of his fine playing, and of his 
beneficial influence on musio in general, and 
the Hambni^ opera in particular, but his vanity 
and jealousy of his brother artists are severely 
commented on by his contemporaries. So great 
and so widespread was his reputation that Sebas- 
tian Bach frequently walked to Hambuig from 
Liineburg (1700 to 1703), and Cothen (1720), 
to hear him play. Reinken may be considered 
the best representative of the North-German 
school of organists of the 17 th century, whose 
strong points were, not the classic placidity of 
the South-German school, but great dexterity 
of foot and finger, and ingenious combinations 
of the stops. His compositions are loaded with 
passages for display, and are defective in form, 
both in individual melodies and general construc- 
tion. His works are very scarce ; ' Hortus 
MusicoB,' for two violins, viol da gamba and 
bass (Hambuig, 1704) is reprinted as No. 
XIII. of the publications of the Maatschappg 
tot bevordering der Toonkunst (Amsterdam, 
1887). No. XIV. of the same publication con- 
sists of Reinken's 'Partite Diverse' (variations), 
but even in MS. only very few pieces are 
known — two on Chorales, one Toccata, and 
two sets of Variations (for Clavier).^ Of the 
first of these, one — on the chorale * An Wasser- 
fliissen Babylons' — is specially interesting, 
becaoae it was by an extempore performance on 
that chorale at Hamburg in 1722 that Bach 
extorted from the venerable Reinken the words, 
' I thought that this art was dead, but I see 
that it still lives in you.' Two organ fugues, 
a toccata in G, Variations on chorales and on a 
'ballet, 'etc. are in MSS. at Dresden, Leipzig, and 
Darmstadt (See the Tijdschrifl of the Vereenig- 
iog voorN.-Nederlands Muziekgeschiedenis, vi. 
pp. 151-8, the Quellen-Lexikon, etc.) a. m. 

REINTHALER, Karl Martin, conductor 
of the Private Concerts at Bremen, bom Oct. 
13, 1822, at Erfurt, was early trained in music 

> Spltte's Audb. EngL tnuid. 1. 197-9. I 

by G. A. Ritter, then studied theology in 
Berlin, but after passing his examination, de- 
voted himself entirely to music, and studied 
with A. B. Marx. His first attempts at 
composition, some psalms sung by the Cathedral 
choir, attracted the attention of King Frederick 
William IV., and procured him a travelling 
grant. He visited Paris, Milan, Rome, and 
Naples, taking lessons in singing from Geraldi 
and Bordogni On his return in 1853 he 
obtained a post in the Conservatorium of 
Cologne, and in 1858 became organist in the 
Cathedral of Bremen, and conductor of the 
Singakademie. He had already composed an 
oratorio, * Jephta ' (performed in London by 
HuUah, April 16, 1856, and published with 
English text by Novellos), and in 1875 his 
opera *£dda' was played with success at 
Bremen, Hanover, and elsewhere. His 
'Bismarck-hymn' obtained the prize at Dort- 
mund, and he composed a symphony, and 
a large number of part-songs. [He was a 
member of the Berlin Academy from 1882, 
and had the title of Royal Professor in 1888. 
His cantata ' In der Wiiste ' had a great success, 
and his opera * Kathchen von Heilbronn ' re- 
ceived a prize at Frankfort He retired from 
the Singakademie in 1890, and died at Bremen, 
Fob. 13, 1896.] F. o. 

REISSIGER, Karl Gottlieb, son of Chris- 
tian Gottlieb Reissiger, who published three 
symphonies for full orchestra in 1790. Bom 
Jan. 81, 1798, at Belzig near Wittenberg, 
where his father was Cantor, he became in 
1811 a pupil of Schicht at the Thomas- 
schule, Leipzig. In 1818 he removed to the 
University with the intention of studying 
theology, but some motets composed in 1815 
and 1816 had already attracted attention, and 
the success of his fine baritone voice made him 
determine to devote himself to music. In 
1821 he went to Vienna and studied opera 
thoroughly. Here also he composed 'Das 
Rockenweibchen.' In 1822 he sang an aria of 
Handel's, and played a PF. concerto of his own 
composition at a concert in the Kamthnerthor 
theatre. Soon after he went to Munich, where 
he studied with Peter Winter, and composed 
an opera, ' Dido,' which was performed several 
times at Dresden under Weber's condiictorship. 
At the joint expense of the Prussian government 
and of his patron von Altenstein, a musician, 
he undertook a tour in 1824 through Holland, 
France, and Italy, in order to report on the 
condition of music in those countries. On his 
return he was commissioned to draw up a 
scheme for a Prussian national Conservatorium, 
but at the same time was offered posts at the 
Hague and at Dresden. The latter he accepted, 
replacing Marschner at the opera, where he 
laboured hard, producing both German and 
Italian operas. In 1827 he succeeded C. M. 
von Weber as conductor of the German Opera 




at Dresden. Among his operas, ' Ahnenschatz ' 
(1824), *Libella,' *Tupandot,' * Adele de Foix,* 
and ' Der Sohiffbruch von Mednsa/ had great 
success in their day, but the term ' Capellmeis* 
termusik' eminently describes them, and they 
have almost entirely disappeared. The overture 
to the * Felsenmiihle,' a spirited and not un- 
interesting piece, was occasionally played. 
Masses and church music [an oratorio, * David '], 
a few Lieder, numerous chamber compositions, 
particularly some graceful and easy trios for 
PF. violin and violoncello, made his name very 
popular for a period. He is generally supposed 
to liave been the composer of the piece known 
as * Weber's Last Waltz.' Eeissiger died Nov. 
7, 1859, and was succeeded at Dresden by 
Julius Rietz. f. g. 

REISSMANN, August, musician and writer 
on music, bom Nov. 14, 1825, at Frankenstein, 
Silesia, was grounded in music by Jung, the 
Cantor of his native town. In 1 84 3 he removed 
to Breslau, and there had instruction from 
Moscwius, Baumgart, Ernst Richter, Liistner, 
and Kahl, in various branches, including piano- 
forte, organ, violin, and violoncello. He at 
first proposed to become a composer, but a 
residence in 1850-52 at Weimar, where he came 
in contact with the new school of music, changed 
his plans and drove him to literature. His first 
book was Von Bach bis JVagrier (Berlin, 1861) ; 
rapidly followed by a historical work on the 
German song. Das deutsche Lied, etc. (1861), 
rewritten as Geschichte des DevUschen Liedes 
(1874). This again was succeeded by his 
General History of Music — Allg, Geschichte der 
Musik (3 vols. 1864, Leipzig), with a great 
number of interesting examples ; Allg, Musik- 
lehre (1864) ; and Lehrbuch der musik, Koni- 
posUioyien (3 vols. Berlin, 1866-71). His later 
works were of a biographical nature, attempts 
to show the gradual development of the life 
and genius of the chief musicians — Schumann 
(1865), Mendelssohn (1867), Schubert (1873), 
Haydn (1879), Bach (1881), Handel (1882), 
Oluck (1882), Weber (1883). In 1877 he 
published a volume of lectures on the history 
of music, delivered in the Conservatorium of 
Berlin, where he resided from 1863. His chief 
employment from 1871 was the completion of 
the Musik Conversationslexikonj in which he 
succeeded Mendel as editor, after the death of 
the latter. The 11th volume, completing the 
work, appeared in 1879, and it will long remain 
as the most comprehensive lexicon of music. 
Dr. Reissmann unfortunately thought it neces- 
sary to op|)ose the establishment of the Hoch- 
schule in 1875, and to enforce his opposition 
by a bitter pamphlet, which, however, has long 
since been forgotten. Many treatises on musical 
education were written in the later part of his 
life. As a practical musician Dr. Reissmann was 
almost as industrious as he was in literature. 
The operas, 'Gudrun* (Leipzig, 1871), 'Die Biir- 

germeisterin von Schomdorf (Leipzig, 1880), 
and 'Das Gralspiel ' (Diisseldorf, 1895), a ballet, 
* Der Blumen Bache ' (1887), a work for singing 
and speaking soloists, with choir and piano, 
'Konig Drosselbart' (1886), dramatic scenas, 
an oratorio, 'Wittekind' (1888), a concerto 
and a suite for solo violin and orchestra ; two 
sonatas for pianoforte and violin ; and a great 
quantity of miscellaneous pieces for piano solo 
and for the voice are mentioned. In 1881 he 
edited an Illustrated History of German music 
[He died in Berlin, Dec. 1, 1903.] c;. 

RELATION is a general term implying con- 
nection between two or more objects of con- 
sideration, through points of similarity and 
contrast. In other words, it is the position 
which such objects appear to occupy when 
considered with reference to one another. It 
is defined by its context. 

The relations of individual notes to one 
another may be described in various ways. For 
instance, they may be connected by belonging 
to or being prominent members of the diatonic 
series of any one key, and contrasted in various 
degrees by the relative positions they occupy 
in that series. A further simple relation is 
established by mere proximity, such as may 
be observed in the relations of grace -notes, 
appoggiaturas, turns, and shakes to the essential 
notes which they adorn ; and this is earned so 
far that notes idien to the harmony and even 
to the key are freely introduced, and are jjer- 
fectly intelligible when in close connection with 
characteristic diatonic notes. The relations of 
disjunct notes may be found, among other ways, 
by their belonging to a chord which is easily 
called to mind ; whence the successive sounding 
of the constituents of familiar combinations is 
easily realised as melody ; while melody which 
is founded upon less obvious relations is not so 
readily appreciated. 

The relations of chords may be either direct or 
indirect. Thus they may have several notes in 
common, as in Ex. 1, or only one, as in Ex. 2, 
Ex. 1. Ex. 2. Ex. 3. 

to make simple direct connection, while the 
diversity of their derivations, or their respective 
degrees of consonance and dissonance, afford an 
immediate sense of contrast. Or they may be 
indirectly connected through an implied chord 
or note upon which they might both converge ; 
as the common chord of D to that of C through 
G, to which D is Dominant^ while G in its turn 
is Dominant to C (Ex. 3). The rektion thus 
established is sufficiently clear to allow the 
major chotd of the supertonic and its minor 
seventh and major and minor ninth to l>e 
systematically affiliated in the key, though iU 




third and minor ninth are not in the diatonic 

A further illustration of the relations of 
chords is afforded by those of the Dominant and 
Tonic. They are connected by their roots being 
a fifth a^iart, which is the simplest interval, 
except the octave, in music ; but their other 
components are entirely distinct, as is the coro- 
poand tone of the roots, since none of their 
lower and more characteristic harmonics are 
coincident. They thus represent the strongest 
contrast in the diatonic series of a key, and 
when taken together define the tonality more 
clearly than any other pair of chords in its 

The relations of keys are traced in a similar 
manner ; as, for instance, by the tonic and per- 
fect fifth of one being in the diatonic series of 
another, or by the number of notes which are 
common to both. The relations of the keys of 
the minor third and minor sixth to the major 
mode (as of £b and Ab with reference to C) are 
rendered intelligible through the minor mode ; 
but the conyerse does not hold good, for the 
relations of keys of the major mediant or sub- 
mediant to the minor mode (as of E minor and 
A minor with reference to C minor) are decidedly 
remote, and direct transition to them is not 
easy to follow. In fact the modulatory tendency 
of the minor mode is towards the connections 
of its relative major rather than to those of its 
actual miyor, while the outlook of the major 
mode is free on both sides. The relation of the 
key of the Dominant to an original Tonic is 
explicable on much the same grounds as that 
of the chords of those notes. The Dominant 
key is generally held to be a very satisfieu^tory 
complementary or contrast in the construction 
of a piece of music of any sort, but it is not of 
universal cogency. For instance, at the very 
outset of any movement it is almost inevitable 
that the Dominant harmony should early and 
emphatically present itself ; hence when a fresh 
section is reached it is sometimes desirable to 
find another contrast to avoid tautology. With 
some such purpose the keys of the mediant or 
snbmediant have at times been chosen, both of 
which afford interesting phases of contrast and 
connection ; the connection being mainly the 
characteristic major third of the original tonic, 
and the contrast being emphasised by the 
sharpening of the Dominant in the first case, 
and of the Tonic in the second. The key of 
the subdominant is avoided in such cases because 
the contrast afforded by it is not sufficiently 
strong to have force in the total impression of 
the movement 

The relations of the parts of any artistic 
work are in a similar manner those of contrast 
within limits of proportion and tonality. For 
instance, those of the first and second section 
in wliat is called ' first movement ' or ' sonata ' 
form are baaed on the contrast of complementary 

tonalities as pai-t of the musical structure, on 
the one hand ; and on contrast of character and 
style in the idea on the other ; which between 
them establish the balance of proportion. The 
relation of the second main division — the * work- 
ing-out ' section — to the first jmrt of the move- 
ment is that of greater complexity and freedom 
in contrast to regularity and definiteness of 
musical structure, and fanciful discussion of 
characteristic portions of the main subjects in 
contrast to formal exposition of complete ideas ; 
and the final section completes the cycle by 
returning to regularity in the recapitulation. 

The relations of the various movements of a 
large work to one another are of similar nature. 
The earliest masters who wrote Suites and Senate 
da Camei-a or da Chiesa had but a rudimentary 
and undeveloped sense of the relative contrasts 
of keys; consequently they contented themselves 
with connecting the movements by putting them 
all in the same key, and obtained their con- 
trasts by alternating quick and slow movements 
or dances, and by varying the degrees of their 
seriousness or liveliness : but the main outlines 
of the distribution of contrasts are in these 
respects curiously similar to the order adopted 
in the average modern Sonata or Symphony. 
Thus they placed an allegro of a serious or solid 
character at or near the beginning of the work, 
as typified by the Allemande ; the slow or 
solemn movement came in the middle, as typified 
by the Sarabande ; and the conclusion was a 
light and gay quick movement, as typified by 
the Gigue. And further, the manner in which 
a Courante usually followed the Allemande, and 
a Gavotte or Bourr^e or Passepied, or some such 
dance, preceded the final Gigue, has its counter- 
part in the Minuet or Scherzo of a modern 
work, which occupies an analogous position 
with respect either to the slow or last movement. 
In modem works the force of additional contrast 
is obtained by putting central movements in 
different but allied keys to that of the first 
and last movements ; the slow movement most 
frequently being in the key of the Subdominant. 
At the same time additional bonds of connec- 
tion are sometimes obtained, both by making 
the movements pass without complete break 
from one to another, and in some cases (illus- 
trated by Beethoven and Schumann esimcially) 
by using the same characteristic features or 
figures in difierent movements. 

The more subtle relations of proportion, both 
in the matter of the actual length of the various 
movements and their several sections, and in 
the breadth of their style ; in the congruity of 
their forms of expression and of the quality of 
the emotions they appeal to ; in the distribution 
of the qualities of tone, and even of the groups 
of harmony and rhythm, are all of equal im- 
portance, Uiough less easy either to appreciate 
or to effect, as they demand higher degrees of 
artistic power and perception ; and the proper 




a^yustment of such relations is as vital to 
operas, oratorios, cantatas, and all other forms 
of vocal mnsic, as to the purely instrumental 

The same order of relations appears in all 
parts of the art ; for instance, the alternation 
of discord and concord is the same relation, 
implying contrast and connection, analogous to 
the relation between suspense or expectation 
and its relief ; and, to speak generally, the art 
of the composer is in a sense the discovery 
and exposition of intelligible relations in the 
multifarious material at his command, and a 
complete explanation of the word would amount 
to a complete theory of music. o. H. H. P. 

RELATIVE is the word used to express the 
•connection between a major and a minor key 
which have the same signature ; A minor is the 

* relative ' minor of C, C the * relative ' major 
of A minor. In other words, the relative 
minor of any key is that which has its keynote 
on the submediant of the major key. The term 
is used to distinguish this minor key from the 
other, which is perhaps as closely allied to 
the major, that which has the same keynote 
AS the major, and is consequently called the 

* tonic * minor. The * tonic * minor of C is C 
minor, the * tonic ' major of G minor is ; in 
this case, the key -signature is of course 
changed. M. 

RBLLSTAB, Johann Karl Friedrich, was 
bom in Berlin, Feb. 27, 1759. His father, a 
printer, wished him to succeed to the business, 
but from boyhood his whole thoughts were 
devoted to music. He was on the point of 
starting for Hamburg to complete, with Em- 
manuel Bach, his musical studies begun with 
Agricola and Fasch, when the death of his father 
forced him to take up the business. He added 
a music-printing and publishing branch ; was 
the first to establish a musical lending library 
<(1783) ; founded a Concert -Society, on the 
model of Hiller's at Leipzig, and called it 
'Concerts for connoisseurs and amateurs,* an 
unusually distinctive title for those days. The 
firat concert took place April 16, 1787, at the 
Englisches Haus, and in course of time the 
following works were performed ; Salieri's 
' Armida,'Schulz's * Athalia,' Naumann's 'Cora,' 
Hasse's * Conversione di San Agostino,' Bach's 
' Magnificat,' and Gluck's ' Alceste,' which was 
thus first introduced to Berlin. The Society 
at last merged in the Singakademie. He wrote 
.musical critiques for the Berlin paper, signed 
with his initials ; and had concerts every other 
Sunday during the winter at his own house, at 
which such works as Haydn's ' Seasons ' were 
performed ; but these meetings were stopped 
by the entry of the French in 1806, when he 
frequently had twenty men and a dozen horses 
quartered on him ; lost not only his music but 
all his capital, and had to dose his printing- 
press. In time, he resumed his concerts ; in 

1809 gave lectures on harmony; in 1811 
travelled to Italy. Not long after his return 
he was struck with apoplexy while walking at 
Charlottenburg, August 19, 1813, and was found 
dead on the road some hours afterwards. As 
a composer he left three cantatas, a ' Passion,' 
a Te Deum, and a Mass. Also an opera ; songs 
too numerous to specify ; vocal scores of Graun's 
* Tod Jesu,' and Gluck's ' Iphig^nie ' ; and a 
German libretto of Gluck's * Orph^e ' apparently 
from his own pen. Of instrumental music he 
published — marches for PF., symphonies and 
overtures ; a series of pieces with characteristic 
titles, 'Obstinacy,' 'Sensibility,* etc ; twenty- 
four short pieces for PF., violin and bass, etc. 
Also Versuch uber die Vereinigung der mua, und 
ortUorixhen, DeklanuUion (1785) ; Ueber die 
Bemerkungen einer Reisenvdcn . . . (1789) 
(see Reich ardt) ; and Anleiiungfiir Clavier- 
spieler (1790). These works, for the most 
part bibliographical curiosities, are very in- 

Rellstab had three daughters, of whom 
Caroline, bom April 18, 1794, died Feb. 17, 
1813, was a singer, distinguished for her extra- 
ordinary compass. His son, 

Hbinrioh Friedrich Ludwiq, bom April 
18, 1799, in Berlin, though delicate in healtli, 
and destined for practical music, was compelled 
by the times to join the army, where he became 
ensign and lieutenant. In 1816, after the 
peace, he took lessons on the piano from Ludwig 
Berger, and in 1819 and 1820 studied theory 
with Bemhard Klein. At the same time he 
taught mathematics and history in the Brigade- 
schule till 1821, when he retired from the army 
to devote himself to literature, ultimately settling 
in Berlin (1823). He also composed much 
part-music for the * jungere Liedertafel,* which 
he founded in conjunction with G. Reichardt 
in 1819, wrote a libretto, ' Dido,' for B. Klein, 
and contributed to Marx's Musikzeihing, A 
pamphlet on Madame Sontag (JTenriette, oder die 
schone Sangerin) procured him three months* 
imprisonment in 1826, on account of its satirical 
allusions to a well-known diplomatist. In 
1826 he joined the staff of the Vossisehe Zeitung^ 
and in a short time completely led the public 
opinion on music in Berlin. His first article 
was a report on a performance of ' Euryanthe,' 
Oct. 81, 1826. Two years later he wrote a 
cantata for Humboldt's congress of physicists, 
which Mendelssohn set to music. 

Rellstab was a warm supporter of classical 
music, and strongly condemned all undue at- 
tempts at effect He quarrelled with Spontini 
over his * Agnes von Hohenstauffen ' (Berlin 
Muaikalisehe Zeitung for 1827, Nob. 23, 24, 
26, and 29), and the controversy was maintained 
with much bitterness until Spontini left Berlin, 
when Rellstab, in his pamphlet Ueber mein 
Verhdltniss als KrUiker su Herm Spontini, 
(1827) acknowledged that he had gone too far. 




Bellatab's novels and essays are to be found 
for the most part in his (JesatnmeUe Schriftsny 
24 vols. (Leipzig, Brockhaus). A musical 
periodical. Iris im Gebiet tier Tonkunat, founded 
by him in 1880, sunrived till 1842. His 
recollections of Berger, Schroeder-Devrient, 
Mendelssohn, Klein, Dehn, and Beethoven 
(whom he visited in March 1825) will be found 
in Aus memem Leben (2 vols. Berlin, 1861). 
He was thoroughly eclectic in his taste for 
music, and, though not an unconditional sup- 
porter, was no opponent of the modem school 
of LLsot and Wagner. He died during the 
night of Nov. 27, 1860. F. o. 

&EMBT, JoHiiNK Ernst, was born in 1749 
or 1750 at Suhl, in the Thiiringer-Wald, where 
in 1773 he was abo appointed organist, and 
remained till his death on Feb. 26, 1810. He 
was distinguished as a performer, and, devoting 
himself to the study of the works of Sebastian 
Bach, he worthily upheld the more solid tradi- 
tions of the Bach school of organ-playing against 
the prevailing shallowness of his time. Messrs. 
Breitkopf ft Hartel still retain in their cata- 
logue some of his works originally published by 
them, such as his six Fugued Chorale-preludes, 
six Organ Trios, and various Chorale-preludes in 
Trio-form. Various Fughettas for the Organ also 
appear in Volkmar's 'Orgel- Album.' j. B. M. 

REM£NYI, Eduard (real name Hoffmann), 
a famous violhiist^ wss bom in 1830 at Heves 
(according to another account at Miskolc) in 
Hungary, and received his musical education 
at the Vienna Conservatorium during the years 
1842-45, where his master on the violin was 
Joseph Bbhm, the famous teacher of Joachim. 
In 1848 he took an active part in the insurrec- 
tion, and became adjutant to the famous general 
Gorgey, under whom he took part in the cam- 
]iaign against Austria. After the revolution 
luid been crushed he had to fly the country, 
and went to America, where he resumed his 
i-areer as a virtuoso. [The details of his Ger- 
man tour in 1852-53, which indirectly had so 
great an influence on the career of Brahms, may 
be read in Florence May's Life of BrahmSj vol. 
i. pp. 92-104.] In 1853 he went to Liszt in 
Weimar, who at once recognised his genius 
and became his artistic guide and friend. In 
the following year he came to London and was 
appointed solo violinist to Queen Victoria. In 
1855 he was in America, and in 1860 he ob- 
tained his amnesty and returned to Hungary, 
where some time afterwards he received from 
the Emperor of Austria a similar distinction 
to that granted him in England. After his 
return home he seems to have retired for a 
time from public Ufe, living chiefly on an 
estate he owned in Hungary. In 1865 he 
appeared for the first time in Paris, where he 
created a perfect furore. Repeated tours in 
Germany, Holland, and Belgium further spread 
his fame. In 1875 he settled temporarily in 

Paris, and in the summer of 1877 came to 
London, where also he produced a sensational 
efiect in private circles. The season being far 
advanced he appeared in public only once, at 
Mapleson's benefit concert at the Crystal Palace, 
where he played a fantasia on themes from the 
* Huguenots.' In the autumn of 1878 he again 
visited London, and played at the Promenade 
Concerts. He was on his way to America, where 
he gave concerts and took up his residence. In 
1887 he undertook a tour of the world, in the 
course of which he appeared in private in 
London in 1891 and 1893. As an artist he 
combined perfect mastery over the technical 
difficulties of his instrament with a strongly 
pronounced individualixy. His soul was in 
his playing, and his impulse carried him away 
as he warmed to his task, the impression pro- 
duced on the audience being accordingly in 
an ascending scale. Another important feature 
in Rem^nyi's playing was the national element. 
He strongly maintained against Liszt the 
genuineness of Hungarian music, and showed 
himself thoroughly imbued with that spirit by 
writing several 'Hungarian melodies,' which 
have been mistaken for popular tunes and 
adopted as such by other composers. The same 
half-Eastem spixit was observable in the strong 
rhythmical accentuation of Rem^nyi's style, so 
rarely attained by artists of Teutonic origin. 
Eem^nyi's compositions are of no importance, 
being mostly confined to arrangements for his 
instrument, and other pieces written for his own 
immediate use. [His name is known to music- 
lovers in the present day by the circumstance 
that Brahms went on a tour with him as his 
accompanist, and was ' discovered ' by Joachim 
in this capacity. Rem^nyi died during a con- 
cert at which he was playing at San Francisco, 
May 15, 1898.] e. h-a. 

REMOTE is a term used in speaking of 
modulation from one key to another, or in 
regard to the succession of keys in a work in 
several movements. A remote key has little in 
common with the key which may be called the 
starting-point. Thus a key with many sharps 
or flats in the signature will probably be very 
' remote ' from the key of C. In the early days 
of the harmonic period, the nearest keys to a 
major key were considered to be its dominant, 
subdominant, relative and tonic minors ; and 
the nearest to a minor key were its relative and 
tonic majors, the dominant major, and the sub- 
dominant minor. As the art progressed, it was 
gradually admitted that keys which stood to 
each other in the relation of a third, whether 
major or minor, were not to be considered 
remote from each other. Beethoven, in the 
piano sonata in C, op. 2, No. 3, puts his slow 
movement into the key of E miyor ; in op. 106, 
in B flat, the slow movement is in F sharp 
minor ; and Schubert, in his sonata in the same 
key, employs C sharp minor for his slow move- 




ment ; the connection, in this last instance, is 
attained by a kind of unconscious mental pro- 
cess, involving a silent modulation thraugh the 
key of the tonic minor, B flat minor, and its re- 
lative major, sharp major. This is an unusual 
succession of keys, even with Schubert ; but 
other examples, quite as strange, are in Beet- 
hoven's 'posthumous' quartets, and elsewhere. 
Of the eleven semitones apart from the keynote, 
six were now accepted as within the scope of 
modulation without a long and complex process ; 
two others, the whole tone above and below the 
keynote, involve a double modulation, the tone 
above being the dominant of the dominant, and 
the tone below being the subdominant of the 
Bubdominant. There remain, therefore, three 
keys which are very remote, the semitone above 
and below the keynote, and the augmented 
fourth of the key. Even these are nowadays 
brought within fairly easy distance, by the fact 
tliat for the semitone above, it is only necessary 
to regard the keynote as the leading -note of 
the new key ; and for the semitone below, a 
' Phrygian cadence ' (such as is figured in the 
last two examples in vol. i p. 436, oolumn a) 
may be imagined. The semitone above the 
keynote is used for the slow movement of 
Brahms's sonata for violoncello and piano, op. 
99, in F, where F sharp major is the key chosen 
for the slow movement. As transition to the 
augmented fourth of the key involves several 
stefts of modulation, this may be considered the 
most remote part of the octave. (It is not quite 
obvious why minor keys should almost always 
be remote from other minor keys, but they 
certainly are, from almost all excepting the key 
of their subdominant minor. See Relation.) 
In relation to any given major keynote, we may 
recognise four degrees of proximity, besides its 
relative and tonic minors. In relation to the key 
of G, the notes F and G stand nearest of all ; 
next come £ flat, £, A flat and A, as standing 
in the relation of thirds, major or minor ; next, 
as requiring a double modulation, D and B flat ; 
and farthest of all, C sharp, B, and F sharp, 
the last being the extreme of remoteness. Before 
equal temperament was a part of practical music, 
the inherent error in the scale was confined by 
tuners to the 'remote' keys, that term being 
used simply of the keys which had many sharps 
or flats, leaving the key of C perfectly in tune, 
and F and G almost perfect M. 

R^MY, W. A., the name by which an eminent 
musician and teacher in Prague preferred to be 
known. His real name was Wilhelm Mayer, 
and he was the son of a lawyer in Prague, where 
he was born, June 10, 1831. A pupil of C. F. 
Pietsch, he appeared at the age of seventeen 
years as the composer of an overture to Sue's 
* Fanatiker in den Cevennen * ; but in obedience 
to the parental desires, he studied law, took the 
degree of Dr. Jur. in 1856, and did not take up 
music as his profession until 1862, when he 

became conductor of the Steiermarkische Musik- 
verein, and earned experience as an orchestral 
director. He kept the post till 1870, composing 
many orchestral works during the period, among 
them an overture to ' Sardanapalus, ' and a sym- 
phonic poem, 'Helena,' as well as his first 
symphony in F. The three works made their 
way as far as Leipzig, where they were received 
with great success. From the date of hia 
resignation he lived as an unofficial teacher, and 
devoted himself to composition, until his death 
at Prague, Jan. 22, 1898. His works include 
two more symphonies (in F and £ flat), a 
' Phantasiestiick ' for orchestra, given at the 
Yienna Philharmonic concerts under Desaoff; 
a ' Slawische Liederspiel ' for solos and chorus^ 
with accompaniment of two pianos, another 
work of the same kind, 'Oestliche Rosen,' a 
oonoert-opera, ' Waldfraulein,' and many songs, 
etc. Among his most eminent pupils may be 
mentioned Busoni, Kienzl, Heubeiger, von 
Rezniczek, and Felix Weingartner. {Neue 
Miisik-Z&Uung, 1890, p. 261.) M. 

R£NAUD, Maurice Arnold, bom 1862, 
at Bordeaux, studied singing at the Conser- 
vatoire, Paris, and subsequently at that of 
Brussels. From 1883 to 1890 he sang at the 
Monnaie, Brussels, in a variety of parts, 
making a great impression ; on Jan. 7, 1884, 
as the High Priest in Reyer's ' Sigurd,' and 
on Feb. 10, 1890, as Hamilcar in Reyers 
' Salammbd,' on production of these operas ; 
he also sang baritone or bass parts in ' Manon,' 
'Lakm4,' etc., and as Eothner in 'Meister- 
singer.' On Oct. 12, 1890, he made his ddbut 
at the Opera-Comique, Paris, as Kamac in ' Le 
Roi d'Ys,' and sang on Dec. 3 as the hero of 
Diaz's new opera ' Benvenuto.' On July 17, 
1891, he made a very successful debut at the 
Opera as Nelusko, and remained there until 
1902. On Feb. 29, 1892, he sang the modest 
part of Leuthold, in 'Tell,' at the Rossini cen- 
tenary ; he added to his repertory the parts of 
Telramund, Wolfram, lago, Beokmesser, Hilperic 
in Guiraud's ' Fr^^gonde,' completed by Saint- 
Saens, the Shepherd in Bruneau's 'Mcssidor,' 
and, on Nov. 15, 1899, Chorebe in Berlioz's 
' Prise de Troie.' On leave of absence, on June 
23, 1897, he made his d6but at Covent Garden 
as Wolfram and De Nevers in selections from 
'Tannhiiuser' and 'Huguenots,' at the State 
performance in honour of the Diamond Jubilee 
of Queen Yictoria ; and in the same season he 
sang the above parts, Don Juan, and Juan in 
D'£rlanger's ' Inez Mendo. ' He fully confirmed 
his Parisian reputation by his fine voice and pre- 
sence, and excellent singing and acting. From 

1898 to 1 905 he has re-appeared here frequently 
at the above theatre, singing the part of Henry 
YIII. in Saint-Saens's opera, July 19, 1898, 
that of Hares in De Liara's 'Messaline,' July 13, 

1899 ; and appearing as Hamlet, Rigoletto, 
Yalentine, £scamillo, etc In 1908 M. Renaud 




sang at the Gaite, in Paris, as Herod in Mas- 
senet's ' H^rodiade,' and both there, and at the 
Opera-Comiqne in 1904 as Don Juan, and the 
Flying Dntchman, always vrith great suocess. 
He sang at Monte Carlo in 1907 in Broneau's 
*Nai8 Mieoulin.' , a. c. 



R£NDANO, Alfonso, bom April 5, 1853, 
at Carolei, near Cosenza, studied first at the 
Conservatorio at Naples, then with Thalberg, 
and lastly at the Leipzig Conservatorinm. He 
played at the Gewandhaus with marked success 
on FeK 8, 1872. He then visited Paris and 
London, performed at the Musical Union (April 
30. 1872), the Philharmonic (March 9, 1873), 
the Crystid Palace, and other concerts, and much 
in society ; and after a lengthened stay returned 
to Italy. He was a graceful and refined player, 
with a delicate touch, and a great command 
over the mechanism of the piano. His playing 
of Bach was especially good. He published 
some piano pieces of no importance. 6. 

iTiedarholung ; Fr. Bipitition., which also means 
' rehearsal '). In the so-called sonata form, there 
are certain sections which are repeated, and 
are either written out in full twice over, or are 

written only once, with the sign :| | at the 

end, which shows that the music is to be repeated 
cither from the beginning or from the previous 
occurrence of the sign. The sections which, ac- 
cording to the strict rule, are repeated, are — the 
first section of the first movement, both sections 
of the minuet or scherzo at their first appear- 
ance, and both sections of the trio, after which 
the minuetorscherzoisgoneoncestraightthroilgh 
without repeats. Thelatterhalf of the firstmove- 
ment, and the first, or even both, of the sections 
in the last movement, may be repeated ; see for 
instance Beethoven's Sonatas, op. 2, No. 2 *; op. 
1 0, No. 2 ; op. 78 ; Schubert's Symphony No. 
9. Also, where there is an air and variations, 
both sections of the air and of all the variations, 
should, strictly speaking, be repeated. This 
nndoabtedly arose from the facility with which 
on a good harpsichord the player could vary the 
qualities of tone, by using different stops ; and 
there was a tradition that, on that instrument, 
a change of ' register ' should be made at every 
repetition. Although it is a regular custom not 
to play the minuet or scherzo, after the trio, with 
rejieats, Beethoven thinks fit to draw attention to 
the fact that it is to be played straight through, 
by putting after the trio the words * Da Capo 
senza repetizione, ' or *senza replica,' in one or 
two instances, as in op. 10, No. 3, where, more- 
over, the trio is not divided into two sections, 
and is not repeated ; in op. 27, No. 2, where 
the All^iretto is marked * La prima parte senza 
repetizione ' (the first part without repeat). In 
his Fourth and Seventh Symphonies he has 


given the trio twice over each time with full 
repeats. m. 

REPETITION. (Fr.) Rehearsal. 

REPETITION (Pianoforte). The rapid 
reiteration of a note is called repetition ; a 
special touch of the player facilitated by me- 
chanical contrivances in the pianoforte action ; 
the earliest and most important of these having 
been the invention of Sebastian Erard. [See 
the diagram and description of Erard's action 
under Pianoforte, vol. iii. p. 730.] By such 
a contrivance the hammer, after the delivery of 
a blow, remains poised, or slightly rises again, 
so as to allow the liopper to fall back and be 
ready to give a second impulse to the hammer 
before the key has nearly recovered its position 
of rest. The particular advantages of repetition 
to grand pianos have been widely acknowledged 
by pianoforte makers, and much ingenuity has 
been spent in inventing or perfecting repetition 
actions for them ; in upright pianos, however, 
the principle has been rarely employed, although 
its influence has been felt and shown by care in 
the position of the 'check ' in all check action in- 
struments. The French have named the mechani- 
cal power to repeat a note rapidly, * double 
echappement' ; the drawbacks to double escape- 
ment — which the repetition really is — are found 
in increased complexity of mechanism and 
liability to derangement. These may be over- 
rated, but there always remains the drawback 
of loss of tone in repeated notes ; the repetition 
blow being given from a small depth of touch 
compared ^ith the normal depth, is not so elastic 
and cannot be delivered with so full a/orte, or 
with a piano or pianissifno of equally telling 
vibration. Hence, in spite of the great vogue 
given to repetition effects by Herz and Thalberg, 
other eminent players have disregarded them, 
or have even been opposed to repetition touches, 
as Chopin and von Biilow were ; see p. 7, § 10 
of the latter's commentary on selected studies 
by Chopin (Aibl, Munich, 1880). where he de- 
signates double escapement as a 'deplorable 
innovation. ' 

A fine example of the best use of repetition 
is in Thalberg's A minor Study, op. 45 — 

where the player, using the first two Gngers 
and thumb in rapid succession on each note, pro- 
duces by these triplets almost the effect of a 
sustained melody with a tremolo. Repetition is 
an old device with stringed instruments, having 
been, according to Bunting, a practice with the 
Irish harpers, as we know it was with the common 
dulcimer, the Italian mandoline, and the Spanish 

A remarkable instance may be quoted of the 





effective use of repetition in the Fugato (piano 
solo) from Liszt's' Tod tentanz*(DanBe Macabre). 

But there need be no difficulty in playing this 
on a well-regulated and checked single escape- 
ment. WiUi a double escapement the nicety of 
checking is not so much required. a. j. h. 

REPORTS (the word seems not to be used 
in the singular), an old English and Scottish 
term for points of imitation. From the eight 
examples in the Scottish Psalter of 1635 (re- 
printed in the Rev. Neil Livingston's edition, 
1864) it would seem that the term was used 
in a more general sense, of a setting of certain 
tunes in which the parts moved in a kind of 
free polyphony, not in strictly imitative style. 
In Pm'cell's revision of the treatise which 
appears in the third part of Playford's Intro- 
duction to the Skill of Musick (twelfth edition, 
1694), the term is mentioned but not explained, 
further than as being synonymous with * imita- 
tion ' : * Tlie second is Imitation or IteportSy 
which needs no Example.' (See Samnulbande 
of the IrU. Mus, Gea. vi. p. 562.) M. 

REPRISE, repetition ; a term which is occa- 
sionally applied to any repetition iu music, but 
is most conveniently confined to the recurrence 
of the first subject of a movement after the 
conclusion of the working out or Durchfuhrunrj, 
[In Couperin, Rameau, and other French com- 
posers, the term is used of a short refrain at 
the end of a movement, which was probably 
intended to be played over more than twice, 
as sometimes it contains the ordinary marks 
of repetition within the passage covered by 
the word.] g. 

REQUIEM (Lat. Misaa pro Deftmctis ; Ital. 
Mesaa per i DefurUi ; Fr. Mease des Morta ; 
Germ. Todtennuaae), A solemn Mass, sung 
annually, in Commemoration of the Faithful 
Departed, on All Souls' Day (Nov. 2) ; and, 
with a less general intention, at funeral services, 
on the anniversaries of the decease of particular 
persons, and on such other occasions as may be 
dictated by feelings of public respect or indi- 
vidual piety. 

The Requiem takes its name ^ from the first 
word of the Introit — ' Requiem aeternani dona 
eis, Domine.' When set to music, it naturally 
arranges itself in nine principal sections : (1) 
The Introit — ' Requiem aeternam ' ; (2) the 
' Kyric' ; (8) the Gradual, and Tract— 'Requiem 
aeternam,' and 'Absolve, Domine'; (4) The 
Sequence or Prose — ' Dies irae ' ; (5) Tlie Offer- 
torium — ' Domine Jesu Christi ' ; (6) the Sanc- 

1 Tb&t U to my. It* name u » ■pecUl Mm*. Th« Mnste of the 
ordlimry Po]jphnti)c Ma« «1 wajn bean the OAine of the Cknto fermo 
OD which it 1« founded. 

tus*; (7) the ' Benedictus ' ; (8) the 'Agnus 
Dei' ; and (9) the Communio — 'Lux aetema.' 
To these are sometimes added (10) the Reapon- 
sorium, 'Libera me,' which, though not an 
integral portion of the Mass, immediately follows 
it, on all solemn occasions ; and (11) the Lectio 
— ' Taedet animam nieam,' of which we possess 
at least one example of gi^eat historical interest. 

The Plain-song Melodies adapted to the nine 
divisions of the mass will be found iu the 
Gradual, together with that proper for the 
Responsorium. The Lectio, which really belongs 
tp a different Service, has no proper Melody, 
but is sung to the ordinary 'Tonus Lectionis.' 
[See Inflexion.] The entire series of Melodies 
is of nu-e beauty, and produces so solemn an 
effect, when simg in unison by a large body 
of grave equal voices, that most of the gi-eat 
polyphonic oomiiosei-s have employed its phrases 
more freely than usual, in their Requiem Masses, 
either as Canti fermi, or in the form of unison- 
ous passages interi)osed between tlie harmonised 
portions of the work. Compositions of this 
kind are not very numerous ; but most of the 
examples we possess must be classed among the 
most i)erfect productions of their i-es|)ective 

Palestrina's ' Missa pro Defunctis,' for five 
voices, first printed at Rome in 1591, iu the 
form of a supplement to the Third Edition of 
his ' First Book of Masses,' was reproduced in 
1841 by Alfieri, in the first volume of his 
* Raccolta di Musica Sacra ' ; again, by Lafage ■* 
in a valuable 8vo volume, entitled ' Cinq Messes 
de Palestrina' ; and by the Prince de la Moskowa 
in the 9th volume of his collection [see vol. iii. 
p. 271], and has since been included by Messrs. 
Br^itkopf & Hartel, of Leipzig, in their complete 
edition. This beautiful work is, unhappily, 
very incomplete, consisting only of the * Kyric,* 
the 'Offertorium,' the 'Sanctus,' the 'liene- 
diotus,' and the 'Agnus Dei.' We must uot^ 
however, suppose that the com|)oser left his 
work imfinished. It was clearly his intention 
that the remaining movements should be sung, 
in accordance witii a custom still common at 
Roman funerals, in unisonous plain-song ; and, 
as a fitting conclusion to the whole, he has left 
us t^vo settings of the ' Libera me,' in botli of 
which the Gregorian melody is treated with an 
indescribable intensity of {iathos.^ One of 
these is preserved in MS. among the archives 
of the Pontifical Chai)el, and the other, among 
those of the Lateran Basilica. After a careful 
com})arison of the two, Baini arrived at the 
conclusion that that belonging to the Sistine 
Chapel must have been com[)08ed very nearly 
at the same time as, and probably as an a4junct 
to, the five printed movements, which are also 
founded, more or less closely, upon the original 
Canti fermi, and so constructed as to bring their 

a Parta. Launer et Cle.: London. HrhiHt k Co. 
* Bee Alflcri. RaixUta di Mutica Sacr^ tuiu. \ii. 




characteristic beauties into the highest possible 
i«]ief — in no case, perhaps, with more touching 
effect than in the ojiening * Kyrie/ the first few 
bars of which will be found at vol. ii. p. 618. 

Next in importance to Palestrina's Requiem 
is a very grand one, for six voices, composed by 
Victoria for the funeral of the Empress Mai'ia, 
widow of Maximilian II. This line work — 
midonbtedly the greatest triumph of Vittoria's 
genius — comprises aU the chief divisions of the 
Mass, except the Sequence, together with the 
Rcasiiousorium and Lectio, and brings the 
plain -song subjects into prominent relief 
throughout. It was first published at Madrid 
in 1605 — the year of its production. In 1869 
the Lectio was reprinted at Ratisbon, by Joseph 
Schrems, in continuation of Proske's 'Musica 
I>i\ina.' A later issue of the same valuable 
collection contains the Mass and Responsorium. 
The original volume contains one more move- 
ment — * Versa est in luctum * — which has never 
been reproduced in modem notation ; but, as 
this has now no ]}lace in the Roman Funeral 
Service, its omission is not so much to be 

Some otiier very fine Masses for the Dead, 
by Francesco Anerio, Orazio Vecchi, and Giov. 
Matt. AsoU, are included in the same collec- 
tion, together witli a somewhat preteutious 
work by Pitoni, which scarcely deserves the 
entliusiastic eulogium bestowed upon it by 
Dr. Proske. A far finer composition, of neai'ly 
similar date, is Colonna's massive Requiem for 
eight voices, first printed at Bologna in 1684 — 
a copy of which is preserved in the libraiy of 
the Royal College of Music 

Sev^:^ modem Requiem Masses have become 
very celebrated. 

(1.) Tlie history of Mozart s last work is 
surrounded by mjrsteries which render it scarcely 
it^ss interesting to the general i*eader than the 
music itself is to the student. (See vol. iii 
p. 308 ff.) 

(2.) For Gossec's * Mease des Morts ' see vol. 
iL p. 203. 

(3.) Next in impmtanoe to Mozart's immortal 
work are the two great Requiem Masses of 
ChembinL The first of these, in C minor, was 
written for the Anniversary of the death of 
King Louis XYI. (Jan. 21, 1793), and first 
sang on that occasion at the Abbey Church 
of Saint -Denis in 1817 ; after which it was 
not again heard until Feb. 14, 1820, when it 
was re^jeated in the same church at the funeral 
of the Due de Bern. Berlioz regarded this as 
Cherubini's greatest work. It is undoubtedly 
full of beauties. Its general tone is one of 
extreme moumfulness, pervaded throughout 
by deep religious feeling. Except in the * Dies 
iiae ' and 'Sanctus' this style is never exchanged 
for a more excited one ; and, even then, the 
treatment can scarcely be called dramatic. 
The deep pathos of the little movement, inter- 

l)08ed after the last ' Osanua,* to fulfil the usual 
oflice of the *Benedictus* — which is here 
incorporated with the ' Sanctus ' — exhibits the 
com|)oser's power of appealing to the feelings in 
its most affecting light. 

The second Reqmcni, in D minor, for three 
male voices is in many respects a greater work 
than the firat; though tlie dramatic element 
jiervades it so fi-eely that its character as a 
religious service is sometimes entirely lost. 
It was completed on Sept. 24, 1836, a few 
days after the composer had entered his seventy- 
seventh year ; and, witli the exception of the 
sixth quartet and the quintet in £ minor, was 
his last important work. The ' Dies irae ' was 
first sung at the concert of the Conservatoire, 
March 19, 1837, and repeated on the 24tli of 
tlie same month. On Mai-ch 25, 1838, the 
work was sung throughout In the January 
of that year Mendelssohn had akeady recom- 
mended it to the notice of the committee of 
the Lower Rhine Festival; and in 1872 and 
1873 it was sung as a funeral service in the 
Roman Catholic Chapel, in Farm Street, London. 
It is doubtful whether Cherubini's genius ever 
shone to greater advantage than in this gigantic 
work. Every movement is full of interest ; 
and the * whirlwind of soimd ' which ushers in 
the * Dies irae * jiroduces an effect which, once 
heard, can never be forgotten. "W. s. n. 

[Schumann's Requiem, op. 148, is of com- 
l)aratively small imi)ortauce ; more beautiful 
com|)ositions of his with the same title are the 
'Requiem for Mignon,' and a song included 
in op. 90. These two have, of course, notliing 
to do with the words of the Mass whicli ai*e 
here imder discussion ; nor has the famous 
* Gemian Requiem ' of Brahms, which has been 
noticed in its own place (see vol. i. p. 384). 
Verdi's Requiem, written in memory of Manzoni, 
startled the purists when it was produced in 
1874, but it gradually won the entliusiastic 
apx)roval even of the most aixlent classicists, 
for it is a masterpiece in its way. Among later 
Requiem Masses may be mentioned Stanfoitl's 
work in memoiy of Loitl Leightou, given at 
the Birmingham Festival of 1897 ; Henschels 
expressive Requiem, wiitten in memory of his 
mfe, in 1902 ; and Sgambati's in memory of 
King Humbert, published 1906.] 

RESIN. See Colophane, and Rosin. 

RESINARIUS, Balthasak, is jmssibly, but 
not certainly, identical with Baltliasar Harzer 
or Hartzer. He was bom at Jessen early in 
the 16th century, took clerical ordei-s and be- 
came Bishop of Leipa in Bohemia about 1543. 
He had been a chorister in the service of the 
£m|)eror Maximilian I. He is said to have been 
a pupil of Isaac, and he published at Witten- 
berg in 1543 'Responsorium nimiiei'o octoginta 
de tempore et festis . . . libri duo.' 

RESOLUTION is the process of relieving 
dissonance by succeeding consonance. All dis- 




sonance is irritant, and cannot be indefinitely 
dwelt upon by the mind, but while it is heard 
the return to consonance is awaited. To conduct 
this return to consonance in such a manner that 
the connection between the chords may be intel- 
ligible to the hearer la the problem of resolution. 
The history of the development of harmonic 
music shows that the separate idea of resolution 
in the absti-act need not have been present to 
the earliest composers who introduced discords 
into their works. They discovered circumstances 
in which the flow of the parts, moving in con- 
sonance with one another, might be diversified 
by retarding one part while the others moved on 
a step, and then waited for that which was left 
behind to catch them up. This process did not 
invariably produce dissonance, but it did conduce 
to variety in the independent motion of the 
parts. The result, in the end, was to establish 
the class of discords we call suspensions, and 
their resolutions were inevitably implied by the 
very principle on which the device is founded. 
Thus when Josquin diversified a simple succes- 
sion of chords in what we call their first position, 
as follows — 


it seems sufficiently certain that no such idea as 
resolving a discord was pi*esent to his mind. The 
motion of D to C and of C to B was predeter- 
mined, and their being retarded was mainly a 
happy way of obtaining variety in the flow of the 
parts, though it must not be ignored that the 
early masters had a full appreciation of the 
actual function and ef!ect of the few discords 
they did employ. 

Some time later the device of overlapping the 
succeeding motions of the parts was discovered, 
by allowing some or all of those which had gone 
on in front to move again while the part which 
had been left behind passed to its destination ; 
as by substituting (b) for (a) in Ex. 2. 


This complicated matters, and gave scope for 
fresh progressions and combinations, but it did 
not necessarily affect the question of resolution, 
pure and simple, because the destination of the 
part causing the dissonance was still predeter- 
mined. However, the gradually increasing fre- 
quency of the use of discords must have habituated 
hearers to their effect and to the consideration 
of the characteristics of different groups, and so 

by degrees to their classification. The first 
marked step in this direction was the use of the 
Dominant seventh without preparation, which 
showed at least a thorough appreciation of the 
fact that some discords might have a more inde- 
pendent individuality than others. This appears 
at first merely in the occasional discarding 
of the formality of delaying the note out of 
a preceding chord in order to introduce the 
dissonance ; but it led also towards the considera- 
tion of resolution in the abstract, and ultimately 
to greater latitude in the process of returning to 
consonance. Both their instinct and the par- 
ticular manner in which the aspects of discords 
presented themselves at first led the earlier oom- 
posers to pass from a discordant note to the 
nearest available note in the scale, wherever the 
nature of the retardation did not obviously imply 
the contrary ; and this came by degrees to be 
accepted as a tolerably general rule. Thus the 
Dominantseventhisgenerally found to resolve on 
the semitone below ; and this, combined with the 
fact that the leading note was already in the chord 
with the seventh, guided them to the relation of 
Dominant and Tonic chords ; although they early 
realised the possibility of resolving on other har- 
mony than that of the Tonic, on special occasions, 
without violating the supposed law of moving the 
seventh down a semitone or tone, according to the 
mode, and raising the leading note to what would 
have been the Tonic on ordinary occasions. How- 
ever, the ordinary succession became by degrees so 
familiar that the Tonic chord grew to be regarded 
as a sort of resolution in a lump of the mass of 
any of the discords which were built on the top 
of a Dominant miy'or concord, as the seventh and 
major or minor ninth, such as are now often 
called Fundamental discords. Thus we find the 
following }Nissage in a Haydn Sonata in D — 

in which the Dominant seventh is not resolved 
by its passing to a near degree of the scale, but 
by the mass of the harmony of the Tonic fol- 
lowing the mass of the harmony of the Dominant 
Ex. 4 is an example of a similar use by him of 
a Dominant major ninth. 

»'*• J. ^ 

A more common way of dealing with the 
resolution of such chords was to make the part 




having the disoordaut note pass to another 
position in the same harmony before changing, 
and allowing another part to supply the con- 
tigaoos note ; as in Ex. 6 from one of Mozart's 
Fantasias in C ndnor. 

Ex. &. Ex. 5a. 

Some theorists hold that the passage of the 
ninth to the third — as Db to E in Ex. 5a (where 
the root C ddes not apjiear) — is sufficient to con- 
lititnte resolution. That such a form of resolu- 
tion is Tery common is obvious from theorists 
having noticed it, but it ought to be understood 
that the mere change of position of the notes of 
a discord is not sufficient to constitute resolu- 
tion unless a real change of harmony is implied 
by the elimination of the discordant note ; or 
unless the change of position leads to fresh 
harmony, and thereby satisfies the conditions 
of intelligible connection with the discord. 

A much more unusual and remarkable resolu- 
tion is such as appears at the end of the first 
movement of Beethoven's F minor Quartet as 
follows — 

Er- ^^ ^ 

where the chord of the Dominant seventh con- 
tracts into the mere single note which it repre- 
sents, and that proceeds to the note only of the 
Tonic ; so that no actual harmony is heard in 
the movementafter the seventh has been sounded. 
An example of treatment of an inversion of the 
major ninth of the Dominant, which is as un- 
usual, is the following from Beethoven's last 
Quartet, in F, op. 135 : — 

There remain to be noted a few typical devices 
by which resolutions are either varied or ela- 

borated. One which was more common in early 
stages of harmonic music than at the present 
day was the use of representative progressions, 
which were, in fact, the outline of chords which 
would have supplied the complete succession of 
parts if they had been filled in. The following 
is a remarkable example from the Sarabande of 
J. S. Bach's Partita in Bb :— 

Ex.8. w 

which might be interpreted as follows : 
Ex. 9. 



Another device which came early into use, and 
was in great favour with Bach and his sons and 
their contemporaries, and is yet an ever-fruitful 
source of variety, is that of interpolating notes 
in the part which has what is called the discor- 
dant note, between its sounding and its final 
resolution, and either i)assing direct to the note 
which relieves the dissonance from the digression, 
or touching the dissonant note slightly again at 
the end of it. The simplest form of this device 
was the leap from a sus()ended note to another 
note belonging to the same harmony, and then 
back to the note which supplies the resolution, 
as in Ex. 10 ; and this form was extremely 
common in quite the early times of polyphonic 

Ex. 10. 

But much more elaborate forms of a similar 
nature were made use of later. An example 
from J. S. Bach will be found in vol. i. p. 31 4& 
of this Dictionary ; the following example, from 
a Fantasia by Emanuel Bach, illustrates the 
same point somewhat remarkably, and serves 
also as an instance of enharmonic resolution : — 




The minor seventh on G in this case is ulti- 
mately resolved as if it had been an augmented 
sixth composed of the same identical notes 
according to our system of temperament, but 
derived from a different source and having con- 
sequently a different context. This manner of 
using the same group of notes in different senses 
is one of the most familiar devices in modem 
music for varying the course of resolutions and 
obtaining fresh aspects of harmonic combina- 
tions. [For further examples see Modulation, 
Change, Enharmonic] 

An inference which follows from the use of 
some forms of Enharmonic resolution is that 
the discordant note need not inevitably move to 
resolution, but may be brought into consonant 
relations by the motion of other parts, which 
relieve it of its characteristic dissonant effect ; 
this is illustrated most familiarly by the freedom 
which is recognised in the resolution of the chord 
of the sixth, fifth, and third on the subdominant, 
called sometimes the added sixth, sometimes 
an inversion of the supertonic seventh, and 
sometimes an inversion of the eleventh of the 
Dominant, or even a double-rooted chord derived 
from Tonic and Dominant together. 

It is necessary to note shortly the use 6{ 
vicarious resolutions — that is, of resolutions in 
which one part supplies the discordant note 
and another the note to which under ordinary 
circumstances it ought to pass. This has been 
alluded to above as common in respect of the 
so-called fundamental discords, but there are 
instances of its occurring with less independent 
combinations. The Gigue of Bach's Partita in 
£ minor is full of remarkable experiments in 
resolution ; the following is an example which 
illustrates especially the point under considera- 
tion : — 

The inference to be drawn from the above ex- 
amples is that the possible resolutions of discords, 
especially of those which have an individual 
status, are varied, but that it takes time to 
discover them, as there can hardly be a severer 
test of a true musical instinct in relation to 
harmony than to make sure of such a matter. 
As a rule, the old easily recognisable resolutions, 
by motion of a single degree, or at least by 
interchange of parts of the chord in supplying 
the subsequent consonant harmony, must pre- 
ponderate, and the more peculiar resolutions 
will be reserved for occasions when greater force 
and intensity are required. But as the paradoxes 
of one generation are often the tniisms of the 
next, so treatment of discords such as is utterly 

incredible to people w^bo do not believe in what 
they are not accustomed to, is felt to be obvious 
to all w^hen it becomes familiar ; and hence the 
peculiarities which are reserved for special 
occasions at first must often in their turn yield 
the palm of special interest to more complex 
instinctive generalisations. Such is the history 
of the development of musical resources in the 
past, and such it must be in the future. The 
laws of art require to be based upon the broadest 
and most universal generalisations ; and in the 
detail under consideration it appears at present 
that the ultimate test is thorough intelligibility 
in the melodic progressions of the parts which 
constitute the chords, or in a few cases the 
response of the harmony representing one root 
to that representing another, between which, 
as in Examples 3 and 4, there is a recognise<i 
connection sufficient for the mind to follow 
^vithout the express connection of the flow of 
the parts. Attempts to catalogue the various 
discords and their various resolutions must be 
futile as long as the injunction is added that 
such formulas only are admissible, for this is to 
insist upon the repetition of what has been said 
before ; but they are of value when they are 
considered with suflScient generality to help us 
to arrive at the ultimate principles which under- 
lie the largest circle of their multifarious 
varieties. The imagination can live and move 
freely within the bounds of comprehensive laws, 
but it is only choked by the accumulation of 
precedents. g. h. h. i*. 

RESPOND (Lat. Respmamiuin) a form of 
ecclesiastical chant which grew out of the 
elaboration of the primitive Responsohial 
Psalmody. Some of the Responds have been 
frequently treated in the Polyphonic Style, with 
very great effect, not only by the Great Mastera 
of the 16th century, but even as late as the time 
of Colonna, whose Responsoria of the Office for 
the Dead, for eight voices, are written with 
intense appreciation of the solemn import of 
the text. 

A large collection of very fine examples, in- 
cluding an exquisitely beantifiil set for Holy 
Week, by Vittoria, will be found in vol. iv, of 
Proske's * Musica Divina. * w. s. r, 

RESPONSE, in English church music, is, in 
its widest sense, any musical sentence sung by 
the choir at the close of something read or 
chanted by the minister. The term thus in- 
cludes the * Amen ' after prayers, the * Kyrie * 
after each commandment in the Communion 
Service, the 'Doxology' to the Gospel, and 
every reply to a Versicle, or to a Petition, or 
Suffrage. In its more limited sense the first 
three of the above divisions would be excluded 
from the term, and the last-named would fall 
naturally into the following imfwrtant groups : 
(1) those which immediately precede the Psalms, 
called also the Preces ; (2) thoee following the 
Apostles' Creed and the Lord's Prayer ; (3) those 




following the Lord's Prayer in the Litany ; (4) 
and the Responses of the first portion of the 
Litany, which, however, are of a special musical 
form which will be fully explained hereafter. 
Versicles and Responses are either an ancient 
formula of prayer or praise, as, *Lord, have 
mercy ui)on us,' etc., * Glory be to the Father,* 
etc., or a quotation from Holy Scripture, as, 

y O Lord, open Thou onr lips. 

1^ And our month shall shew forth Thy praise. 

which is Terse 15 of Psalm 11. ; or a quotation 
from a church hymn, as, 

}^ O Lord, save Thy people. 
R And bless Thine inheritance. 

which is from the Te Deum ; or an adaptation of 
a prayer to the special purpose, as, 


Fkronrably with mercy hear our prayers. 
O Son of David, have mercy upon us. 

The musical treatment of such Versicles and 
Responses offers a wide and interesting field of 
study. There can be little doubt that all the 
inflections or cadences to which they are set 
have been the gradual development of an 
original monotonal treatment, which in time 
was found to be uninteresting and tedious 
(whence our term of contempt * monotonous '), 
or was designedly varied for use on s])ecial 
occasions and during holy seasons. [See In- 

The word 'Alleluia' is found as a Response 
Id the Prayer- Book of 1549, for use between 
Easter and Trinity, immediately before the 
Psalms ; during the remainder of the year the 
translation of the word was a ^^ a ^ . 
used. Here is Marbeck's ^ — »Sp_ 

music foT it (1550)— Pmy.« y tb. Lord.. 

When this was in later editions converted 
into a Versiole and Response, as in our present 
Prayer-Book, the music was, according to some 
uses, divided between the Versicle and Response, 
thus — 

W FniiM> ye the Lord. 1$ Hie Lord'a nune be pniied. 

But as a matter of fact these ' Preces ' in our 
Prayer-Book which precede the daily Psalms 
have never been strictly bound by the laws of 
'ecclesiastical chant,' hence, not only are great 
varieties of plain-song settings to be met with, 
gathered fh>m Roman and other uses, but 
also actual settings in service-form (that is, 
like a motet), containing contrapuntal devices 
in four or more parts. Nearly all the best 
cathedral libraries contain old examples of this 
elaborate treatment of the Preces, and several 
have been printed by Dr. Jebb in his ' Choral 

As then the Preces are somewhat exceptional, 
we will pass to the more regular Versicles and 
Responses, such as those after the Apostles' 

Creed and the Lord's Prayer. And here we at 
once meet the final * fall of a minor third,' which 
is an ancient form of inflec- 
tion known as the Aixentus 
Medialis — 

This is one of the most characteristic progres- 
sions in plain-song versicles, responses, con- 
fessions, etc. It must have already struck the 
reader that this is nothing more or less than 
the * note ' of the cuckoo. This fact was prob- 
ably in Shakespeare's mind when he wrote, 

The flnch, the sparrow, and the lark, 
The Tplain-»ong cuckoo gray. 

This medial accent is only used in Versicles 
and Responses when the last word is a poly- 
syllable ; thus — Medial Accent. 


I^ A» we do put our trust In Thee. 

T^ And grant vm Thr Mlva-tion. 

When the last word is a monosyllable or is 
accented oaite iicderuu Aoc^t. 

last syllable, 
there is an ad- 
ditional note, ' 
thus — 

This may be said to be the only law of the . 
Accenttis EccUsiasticus which the tradition of our 
Reformed Church enforces. It isstrictly observed 
in most of our cathedrals, and considering its 
remarkable simplicity, should never be broken. 
The word 'prayers' was formerly pronounced 
as a dissyllable ; it 
therefore took the 

medial accent thus — •^ F»vour»WyT ... onr pmy-er*. 

but as a monosyllable it should of course 
be treated thus — 

Favourably .... oar pnycn. 

In comparing our Versicles and Responses 
with the Liatin from which they were trans- 
lated, it is important to bear this rule as to the 
' final word ' in mind. Because the Latin and 
English of the same Versicle or Response will 
frequently take difl'erent * accents ' in the two 
languages. For example, the following Versicle 
takes in the Latin the medial acceiU ; but in 
the translation will require the moderate accent. 


Latin form. 




English f&nn. 

DM Chris -te. 



From onr enemies defend ns. O Christ. 

It has been just stated that the early part of 
the Litany does not come under the above laws 
of * accent.* The principal melodic progression 
is, however, closely allied to the above, it 
having merely an addi- fl | 
tional note, thus — 






This is the old and com- 

mon Resi)ODse — 

O - i» pro uo-bU. 

and to this are adapted the Responses, ' Spare 
us, good Lord ' ; * Good Lord, deliver us ' ; 
< We beseech Thee to hear us, good Lord * ; 

* Grant us Thy peace * ; * Have mercy upon us * ; 

* Christ, hear us ' (the first note being omitted 
as redundant) ; and * Lord, have mercy upon us ; 
Christ, have mercy upon us.' At this point, 
the entry of the Lord's Prayer brings in the 
old law of medial and moderate accents ; the 
above simple melody, therefore, is the true 
Response for the whole of the first (and principal) 
portion of the Litany. It is necessaxy, however, 
to return now to the preliminary sentences of 
the Litany, or the * Invocations,' as they have 
been called. Here we find each divided by a 
colon, and, in consequence, the simple melody 
last given is lengthened by one note, thus — 

This is used without variation for all the Invo- 
cations. The asterisk shows the added note, 
which is set to the syllable immediately pre- 
ceding the colon. It happens that each of the 
sentences of Invocation contains in our English 
version a monosyllable before the colon ; but it 
is not the case in the Latin, therefore both Ver- 
side and Response differ from our use, thus — 


Father, of/ 




Piftter de omdU De • lu. 

In the petitions of the Litany, the note marked 
with an asterisk is approached by another addi- 
tion, for instead of 

^ '^ =^"^ 

we have 

with ua for erer. 

The whole sentence of music therefore stands 
thus — 


(Petition chanted by 

(Responne by Choir and 

We have now shoi*tly traced the gradual 
growth of the plain-song of the whole of our 
Litany, and it is impossible not to admire the 
simplicity and beauty of its construction. 

But the early English church-musicians fre- 
quently composed original musical settings of 
the whole Litany, a considerable number of 
which were printed by Dr. Jebb ; nearly 
all, however, are now obsolete except that by 
Thomas Wanless (organist of York Minster at 
the close of the 17th century), which is occa- 

sionally to be heard in our northern cathedrals. 
The plain-song was not always entirely ignored 
by church-musicians, but it was sometimes in- 
cluded in tlie tenor |)art in such a mutilated 
state as to be hardly recognisable. It is gene- 
rally admitted that the form in which Tallis s 
responses have come down to us is very ijupure, 
if not incorrect. To such an extent is this the 
case that in an edition of the * people's part ' of 
Tallis, published not many years since, the 
editor (a cathedral organist) fklrly gave up the 
task of finding the plain-song of the response, 
* Wo beseech Thee to hear us, good Lord,' and 
ordered the people to sing the tuneful 8nx>er- 
structure — 

We be • leec h Thee to hear vm, good Laid. 

It certainly does appear impossible to combine 
this with 

We beseech Thee to hear vm, good Lord. 

But it appears that { ■ ^ ■ 
this ancient form * 

existed — 

Chria-te ex - mu • dt u<»-. 

This, if used by Tallis, will combine with his 
harmonies ; thus — 

(Plain-song in Tenor.) 

Having now described the Preces, Versicles 
and Responses, and Litany, it only remains to 
say a few words on (1) Amens, (2) Doxology to 
Gosi>el, (3) Responses to the Commandments, 
all of which we have mentioned as being re- 
sponses of a less important kind. 

(1) Since the Reformation two forms of 
Amen have been chiefly used in our church, 
the monotone, and the approach by a semitone, 
generally harmonised thus — 

The former of these * Amens * in early times 
was used when the choir responded to the priest ; 
the latter, when both priest and choir sang 
together (as after the Confession, Lord's Prayer, 
Creed, etc.). Tallis, however, always uses the 
monotonic form, varying the harmonies thrice. 
In more modem uses, however, the ancient 
system has been actually reversed, and (as at 
St Paul's Cathedral) the former is only used 



when priest and choir join ; the latter when 
the choir responds. In many cathedrals no 
guiding principle is adopted ; this is undesirable. 
(2) The Doxology to the Gospel is always 
monotone, the monotone being in the Tenor, 
thus — 

There are, however, almost innumerable original 
settings of these words used throughout the 

(3) The Responses to the Commandments are 
an expansion of the ancient — 

Kyrie eleiBon, 

ChrUU eleiaim, 
Kyrie eleiaoD, 

uiade to serve as ten responses instead of being 
used as one responsive prayer. The ancient 
form actually appears in Marbeck (1550), and 
the so-called Marbeck's * Kyrie ' now used is an 
editorial manipulation. Being thrown on their 
own resources for the music to these ten re- 
sponses, our composers of the reformed church 
always oomjiosed original settings, sometimes 
containing comx>lete contrapuntal devices. At 
one period of vicious taste arrangemtnia of 
various sentences of music, sacred or secular, 
were pressed into the service. The ' Jommelli 
Kyrie' is a good — or rather, a bad — example. 
It is said to have been adapted by Attwood 
from a chaconne by Jommelli, which had already 
been much used on the stage as a soft and slow 
accom^Muiiment of weird and ghostly scenes. 
Tlio adaptation of ' Open the heavens ' from 
* Elijah ' is stOl very i)opular, and may be con- 
sidered a favourable specimen of an unfavourable 
daas. [Both these have happily passed out 
of general use at present, 1907.1 

The re-introduction of choral celebrations of 
Holy Communion has necessitated the use of 
various inflexions, versicles, and responses, of 
which the music or method of chanting has, 
almost without exception, been obtained from 
pre- Reformation sources. j. s. 

form in which psalms have been sung in the 
Christian Church. It is a development from 
inflected monotone (see Inflexion). In the 
earliest Christian days the recitation of the 
fjsalms was carried out by a single soloist, who 
monotoned the greater part of the psalm, but 
inserted various cadences or inflexions at certain 
points of distinction in the verse. This was very 
probably but the carrying on of what had longbeen 
current in the Synagogue. (See Plain-song, 
Synagogue Music.) It was very advisable not 
to leave the whole of the performance of the psalm 
to the soloist ; and it became customary for the 
congregation to inteiject some small response 

at the close of each verse. Such a response 
was known among the Greeks as an acrostic 
(i.Kpwrrixi-oif or dfc/>oT€\ei>rtoi'), and the technical 
word in Latin for this performance by the 
congregation was F^cspondere ; hence this foi*m 
of psalmody was called ' Responsorial Psalmody. ' 
The reirain was originally very brief, — an Amen 
or an Alleluia, a short text like the ' For his 
mercy endureth for ever ' of Psalm cxxxvi. or 
some pregnant sentence drawn from the Psalm 
which was being sung. In the earliest days 
the soloist's text was very little removed from 
monotone, but already by the time of St 
Augustine it had become more elaborate, and 
the ancient simplicity was looked upon as an 
archaism. The result was a x)erformance some- 
what resembling the familiar Litany. The 
psalmody remained such a short time in this 
comparatively simple stage that veiy few actual 
monuments of it have survived. The Respon- 
sorial Psalmody that exists is of the elaborate 
sort. Partly as a result of the growing artistic 
feeling, partly also in consequence of the 
existence of trained singers in the great Song 
School at Rome, the music, alike of the soloist 
who sang the verses of the psalm and of the 
choir who responded, was elaborated to a very 
high pitch. Then, since it was impossible to 
sing the whole psalm to a highly ornate chant 
habitually, certain verses were selected from 
the psalm for this elaborate treatment ; and 
there grew up, therefore, the musical form called 
the Respond, which consisted in its simplest 
shape of a choral melody (called the Respond 
proper), alternating with one or more Verses 
sung by the soloist. This form is found both 
in the music of the Mass and in that of Divine 
Service, and mainly as an interlude between the 
reading of lessons. In the former it is called for 
distinction's sake Responsorium Oraduale or the 
Gradual. In the latter case it is simply called 
Responsorium ; for the lesser Ofiices, which were 
sung \vithout musical elaboration, there came to 
be a few simple forms of Responsorial music, 
modelled on the elaborate responds of Mattins 
but difiering from them in being simpler in 
texture. This brief form was then called Re- 
sponsorium breve as distinct from the Respon- 
sorium prolixum. 

The highest development of elaboration was 
reached in the Gradual ; but even there, in 
spite of all the embroidery, the primitive 
monotone around which everything else centres 
is still traceable ; and careful analysis will 
show that with all its elaboration the chant is 
still an inflected monotone. This statement can 
most easily be proved by the study of a single 
group of Graduals which are ordinarily ascril)ed 
to the second mode, and are decorated with 
similar melodic themes. 

The music falls into eight divisions, each of 
which consists of (a) an intonation, (6) the reci- 
tation in inflected monotone, (c) the cadence or 



pneuma or vielUirva. There are in all fifteen 
diiferent texts set to this scheme of music ; the 
Justus ut palina is given here as being the best 
representative of the group ; but in two of the 
divisions another text is given as well, in order 
to reveal the structui-e the more clearly. 

Gloria patri as well, in the early shape in whieli 
it consisted of one phrase, not two. Further, it 
became customary in France to repeat after the 
Verse not the whole of the respond but only a 
part of it ; and this custom spread till it was 


^ Ji» 

Ri i>»^jV 

tus ut pal - nu flor 




,1V .8^1, 


y*\^y ^^\ . :.,3flV>fL. 



In do- ... ... mo ra - o 

(Pro-c« • • ileiM de ih» • U • luo Do-iol-nli 

1TOT ^' ^'^■'^ %v.?^^'^vr 





<-r— ^— *— 

^ All an • imn • tl • nn dmii 

(81 we • i noD fuorint do-ml 

■^ * » ^* » a ■ ■ ■ 8 

-^^''flTLTfl^'M , 

•B ■ ri • cor - Ul - am 


; a\3,a">3, 3 fLV>n. 

(Cp. in.) 


V » in 1^ 

i « . J Jt 

^- f -s^ 

(Op. IV.) 

The same plan holds good with the responds 
of the O0ice which are found for the most part 
in the service of Mattins. It is visible more 
plainly in the verses of the responds than in 
the responds themselves. Those of the Ofl5ce 
use a set of invariable psalm - melodies, one 
belonging to each mode ; in tliese the monotone 
is very clear, and yet there is much elaboration 
in the cadences, and the forms are so plastic 
that they can by certain well-defined rules be 
readily adapted to the vaiious texts of the 
verses. (See Pralmody.) The Graduals in the 
mass do not utilise these common forms for 
their Verses ; each Verse is jieculiar to the 
Gi-adual ; but even so there is much similarity 
observable amongst them both in general struc- 
ture and in detail. In exceptional cases even 
the responds of the Office have their Verses set 
to a special melody and not to the common one. 

As regards liturgical (as distinct from musi- 
cal) stnicture the respond of the Office is like 
the gradual - respond of the Mass, but not 
identical. In neither case is it common now 
to find more than one Verse, but the respond 
in the Office is often accompanied by the 

HOC - tetn 

The following respond, then, which belongs 
to Mattins of the First Sunday in Advent and 
stands at the head of the series, may be taken 
as representing this form of composition in an 
unusually full shape. 

Three boys sing the Respond — 


i ' * . ^ |l ^ . ^ . i|A14 , ^ ^ 


As-pl-d • rtu a lou - ?« 

ec • c* vi-d* • 

v,. ^ 

i po-t«a-ti • am re - ui • en 

. ^ I ^ , ^u'\ > ,M p. ;^ ' ■ - s^ 


• tern, et ue ■ hit 

1m 111 to • tani ter'taui te • 

j 3MS*< y jN 84^ 1^ Is .^— ^ 

n. .)( I - ie ob • vl 


1. et dl . ci • te ; 

t Nun • ci < a 



t '^ ^ i; - ' ■ (V^Xl^a — 

n-) - bis ■! til « Ip • M. 

I Qtil 

t 3 r^ ^it. '^^'^f^ =^=^=^ 

.r«f-ii»-ta - ma es 


t , 3 ■W'M.,fl^ : 

A boy sings the first Verse to the psalm melody 
of the Seventh mode (see Psalmody) — 
Qaiquie terrigenae et filii hominuin, simnl in unnm dives 
et pauper (Ps, xlix. 2}. 

The choir repeats the Respond from lU onwards. 
A second boy sings a second Verse as before — 
Qui regis Isnel intende, qui deducis velut ovem JoMph 

(P*. iTTT. IX 

The choir repeats the Respond from Nuncia, 
A third boy sings a third Vei-se — 
Excila domine potentiam tuam, et venl nt salvoe facias 

The I^ is repeated from Qui regncUurus, The 
three boys sing the Gloria pairi (down to Sancto 
only) to the same psalm melody, and the choir 
repeats the closing section of the Respond — In 
popido Isntel. w. H. F. 

RESPONSORIUM. See Respond, and Re- 

REST (Fr. Silence, Pause ; Ger. Pause ; Ital. 
Pattsa). The sign of silence in music, the 
duration of the silence depending upon the 
form of the character employed to denote it. 
The employment of the rest dates from the 
invention of 'measured music,' that is, music 
composed of notes of definite and proportionate 
values, [SeeMusiCAMENSTJRATA; Notation.] 
In earlier times the carUus was sung without 
pauses, or with only such slight breaks as were 
necessary for the due separation of the sentences 
of the text, but so soon as the relative duration 
of the notes was established, the employment 
of rests of like proportionate values became a 
necessity. Franchinus Gafurius, in his Praclica 
Miitiau (1496), says that the Rest ^was invented 
to give a necessary relief to the voice, and a 
sweetness to the melody ; for as a preacher of 
the divine word, or an orator in his discourse, 
finds it necessary oftentimes to relieve his 
auditors by the recital of some pleasantry, 
thereby to make them more favourable and 
attentive, so a singer, intermixing certain pauses 
with his notes, engages the attention of his 
hearers to the remaining parts of his song.' 
(«) (&) (c) 

(Hawkins, Hist, of Music, chap. 63.) Accord- 
ingly we find rests corresponding in value to 
each of the notes then in use, as shown in tlie 
following table. 

Maxinui. Longa. Brevlt. SemlbreTls. 

tq fc] HO 

Maxima. Longa perfecta. Longa imperfvcta. Fniua. Semlpausn. 






Sospirinm. Seiuisiuplriam. PatuaFoMB. Paoaa Semlf umb. 

Of these rests, two, the aemipausa and svspi- 
Hum, have remained in use until the present 
day, and appear, slightly increased in size but 
of unchanged value, as the semibreve and minim 
rests. T\('o of the longer rests are also occasion- 
ally used in modem music, the pausa, or breve 
rest, to express a silence of two bars' duration, and 
the longa imperfecta a silence of four. These rests 
are called in French bdtons, and are spoken of 
as * baton k deux mesures,' * k quatre mesures.' 

The rests employed in modem music, with 
their names and values in corresponding notes, 
are shown in the table below. 

By a license the semibreve rest is used to 
express a silence of a full Imr in any rhythm 
(hence the German name Taktpaicse) ; its value 
is therefore not invariable, as is the case with 
all the other rests, for it may be shorter than 
its corresiX)nding note, as when used to express 
a bar of 2-4 or 6-8 time, or longer, as when it 
occurs in 3-2 time. To express a rest of longer 
duration than one bar, either the bdtans of two 
or four bars are employed (Ex. a), or, more 
commonly, a thick horizontal line is drawn in 
the stave, and the number of bars which have to 
be counted in silence is written above it (Ex. b). 
(a) 0) 10 

Like the notes, the value of a rest can be 
increased by the addition of a dot, and to the 
same extent, thus •* • is equal to -^r, r * to r "1, 
and so on. 

In the earlier forms of the ancient * measured 
music ' rests were used as a part of the time- 
signature, and placed immediately after the clef. 
In this position they did not denote silence, 
but merely indicated the description of Mood 
to bo counted. [See Notation, Mood, Time, 
(d) (0 if) ia) 

M SemlbrvT* rati. 
M Crotch«tr«Bt 

k) OWT^tWt. 

(M ScoikiaaTv rest. 

I/) SMBitleatla«mk|iaver rMt. 



(61 Utmi-panae. 

(ct Soupir. 

(4) Dwnl-Muplr. 

(«) Quart-dc-Maptr. 

(/) D«mi-quart.d«-«ouptr. 

(^) 8eUUne-de*aottpir. 


(a) Patim della BemibrvTe. 

(fr) Pauia della Minima. 

|c) Piiuaa del la Sewimfohna, or Quarto. 

id) Fauaa dclla Crania, or Mano Quarto. 

(c) Fauia della Semicroma, or Rwplro. 

, (/) Fkma della Biwroma. 


(a) ThktpaoM. 

(fr) HalbeFaiue. 

(ci VIertclpauaa. 

{d) AohtelpaoM. 

(c) SecbawhntalpaaM. 

(/) Zwelunddrelnigathcilpaoae. „ , 

(g) VlsnmdMrhnlKrthollpaiiM. ! [g) Pauaa della BcmlMacroma. F. T. 




RESULTANT TONES (Fr. Sons rdmltam ; 
Ger. CombinationstoTie) are produced wheu any 
two loud and sustained musical sounds ara heard 
at the same time. There are two kinds of 
resultant tones, the Differential and the Sum- 
mational. The ' DifTerential tone ' is so called 
because its number of vibrations is equal to the 
difference between those of the generatingsounds. 
The ' Summational tone ' is so called because its 
number of vibrations is equal to the sum of 
those of the generating sounds. The following 
diagram shows the pitches of the differential 
tones of the principal consonant intervals when 
in perfect tune. 


If the interval be w^ider than an octave, as in 
the last two examples, the differential is inter- 
mediate between the sounds which produce it. 
These tones can be easily heard on the ordinary 
harmonium, and also on the organ. They are 
not so distinct on the piano, because the sounds 
of this instrument are not sustained. By 
practice, however, the resultant tones can be 
distinguished on the piano also. 

Dissonant as well as consonant intervals pro- 
duce resultant tones. Taking the minor Seventh 
in its three possible fonns the differentials are 
as follows : — 

-^6 '-€^9 -^4 

The first form of minor Seventh is obtained by 
tuning two Fifths upwards (C-G-D) and then a 
major Third downwards (D #Bb) ; itsdifferential 
tone is /Ab, an exact major Third below C. 
The second form is got by two exact Fourths 
upwards (C-F-B^) : the differential is then |Ab, 
which is flatter than the previous #Ab by the 
interval 35:86. The third form is the so-called 
Harmonic Seventh on 0, whose differential is G, 
an exact Fourth below C. The marks \ #, here 
used to distinguish notes which are confused 
in the ordinary notation, will be found fully 
explained under Tempekament. We may 
briefly remark that the acute sign # refers to 
notes in an ascending series of Fifths, the grave 
sign I to those in a descending series of Fifths. 
Hitherto we have spoken only of the differ- 
ential tones which are produced by the funda- 
mentals or prime partial tones of musical sounds. 
[See Partial Tones.] But a differential may 
also arise from the combination of any upper 
])artial of one sound with any partial of the 

other sound ; or from the combination of a 
differential with a partial, or with another 
differential. Thus the major Third C-E may 
have the foUowing differential tones :— 

All these tones are heard simultaneously ; but 
tor convenience the differentials of the first, 
second, third, and fourth orders are written 
in notes of different length. We see, then, 
that the number of possible resultant tones is 
very great ; but only those which arise from 
the primes of musical sounds are sufficiently 
strong to be of practical importance. 

In enabling the ear to distinguish between 
consonant and dissonant intervals, the differ- 
ential tones are only less important than the 
upper partials. Thus if the choi-d G-E-C be 
accurately tuned as 3 : 5 : 8, the differential of 
G-C coincides with E, and that of E-C mth G. 
But if the intervals be tempered the differentials 
are thrown out of tune, and give rise to beats. 
These beats are very loud and harsh on the 
ordinary harmonium, timed in equal tempera- 
ment Again, in the close triad G-E-G the 
differentials of C-E and of E-G coincide and 
give no beats if the intervals be in perfect tune. 
On a tempered instrument the result is very 
different. If we take C to have 264 vibrations, 
the tempered E has about 332^, and the 
tempered G about 396^ vibrations. The differ- 
ential of C-E is then 68^, and that of E-G 63. 
These two tones beat 5-^ times each second, and 
thus render the chord to some extent dissonant. 

In the minor triad, even when in just intona- 
tion, several of the resultant tones do not fit in 
with the notes of the chord, although they may 

be too far apart to beat In the msjor triad, on 
the contrary, the resultant tones form octaves 
with the notes of the chord. To this difference 
Helmholtz attributes the less perfect consonance 
of the minor triad, and its ol^ured though not 
inharmonious effect 

The origin of the differential tones has been 
the subject of much discussion. Thomas Young 
held that when beats became too rapid to be 
distinguished by the ear, they passed into the 
resultant tone. This view prevailed until the 
publication in 1856 of Helmholtz's investiga- 
tions, in which many objections to Young's 
theory were brought for^vard. To explain 
what these objections are, it would be necessary 




to treat at some length of the nature of beats, 
and the reader is therefore referred to the article 
Beats, for this side of the question. The later 
mathematical theoiy given by Helmholtz is too 
abfitrnse to admit of popular exposition. 

It was also part of Young's theory that the 
differential tone was produced in the ear alone, 
and not in the external air. But Helmholtz 
found that stretched membranes and resonators 
responded yery clearly to differentials produced 
by the siren or the harmonium. This he con- 
siden to prove the existence of vibrations in the 
external air corresponding to the differential 
tonea. But when the two generating tones were 
produced by separate instruments, the differ- 
ential, though powerfully audible, hardly set 
the resonator in vibration at alL Hence 
Helmholtz concludes that the differential tone 
13 for the most part generated in the ear itself. 
He further points out that certain features in 
the construction of the ear easily permit the 
action of the law which he has stated. The 
unsymmetrical form of the drum-skin of the ear, 
and the loose attachment of the ossicles are, he 
thinks, peculiarly favourable to the production 
of resultant tones. [A practical use of re- 
sultant tones is shown in the article Organ, 
vol. iii, p. 552a.] 

As a consequence of his theory, Helmholtz 
deduced a different series of resultant tones, 
which he calls sumrncUvmal tones, because their 
number of vibrations is the sum of those of the 
generators. The existence of the summational 
tones which Helmholtz believed he verified 
experimentally, has recently been called in 
question by Dr. Preyer. He points out that 
in some intervals, as, for instance, 1 : 2, 1 : 3, 
1 : 5, there will be a partial tone present of 
t}ie same pitch as the presumed summational 
tone, and these cases therefore prove nothing. 
Again, if we take 2 : 3, the note 5 is not 
necessarily a summational tone, but may be the 
differential of 4 and 9, which are the 2nd partial 
of 2 and the 3rd of 3 i*espectively. Dr. Preyer 
was unable to find any trace of the summational 
tones when care had been taken to exclude the 
upper partials. But to do this he could only 
use sounds of tuning-forks gently bowed, which 
were far too weak to produce any resultant tones 
in the air. The question, however, is one of 
theoretic interest merely. 

Not only the origin, but also the discovery 
of differential tones has been disputed. The 
earliest publication of the discovery was made 
by a German organist named Sorge in 1745. 
Then came Romieu, a French savant, in 1751. 
Lastly, the great Italian violinist, Tartini, made 
the phenomenon the basis of his treatise on 
Harmony in 1 754. But Tartini explicitly claims 
priority in these words: — *In the year 1714, 
when about twenty-two years of age, he dis- 
covered this phenomenon by chance on the 
violin at Ancona, where many witnesses who 

remember the fact are still living. He com- 
municated it at once, without reserve, to pro- 
fessors of the violin. He made it the funda- 
mental rule of perfect tuning for the pupils in 
his school at Padua, which was commenced in 
1728 and which still exists ; and thus the phe- 
nomenon became known throughout Europe.'^ 

Tartini in some cases mistook the pitch of the 
differential tone ; but there does not appear to 
be any reason for taking from him the credit of 
the discovery which has so long been associated 
with his name. J. l. 

RESZKE, DE, Edouard, bom at Warsaw, 
Dec. 23, 1855, was taught singing by his 
brother Jean, Giaffei, Steller, and Coletti, and 
made his d^but April 22, 1876, as the King in 
' Aida,' on its production at the Italiens, Paris. 
He sang there with success for two seasons, and 
afterwards went to Italy, where, in 1880, at 
Turin, he made a success in two new parts — the 
King in Catalani's ' Elda,' Jan. 81, and Charles 
V. in Marchetti's 'Don Giovanni d' Austria,' 
March 11, and appeared at Milan on the produc- 
tion of Ponchielli's * Figliuol Prodigo,' Dec. 26. 
From 1880 to 1884, he was engaged with the 
Royal Italian Opera, until its collapse. He made- 
his d6but on April 13, 1880, as Indra (' Koi de 
Lahore '), but his success as a foremost lyria 
artist was established by his admirable perform- 
ances of St. Bris, the Count in *Sonnambula,' 
Basilic, and later as Walter (* Tell '), Peter the 
Great, Prince Gudal (* Demonio '), June 21,. 

1881 ; S^non (Lenepveu's *Velleda'), July 4,. 

1882 ; Almaviva ; Mephistopheles ; Alvise, on 
production of 'La Gioconda,' May 31, 1883 ; 
Hagen, on production of Reyer's * Sigurd,' July 
15, 1884, etc. In 1883-84 he reappeared in 
Paris at the Italian Opera (Th^fitre des Nations), 
with great success, in * Simone Boccanegra' ; in* 
Massenet's *Herodiade,' on its production in 
Paris ; in Dubois' * Aben Hamet,* Dec. 16, 1884, 
and in other operas. He was engaged at the 
French Opera, where he first appeared April 13, 
1885, as Mephistopheles, a part he sang sub- 
sequently in the 500th performance of * Faust.' 
He appeared as LeporeUo in the centenary per- 
formance of ' Don Juan,' Nov. 4, 1887, and has 
sung in * Le Cid ' and * Patrie.' He played at 
the Italian Opera at Drury Lane in 1887 the 
part of Ramfis in * Aida,' and sang during the 
season as Basilio, St. Bris, Mephistopheles, and 
Henry the Fowler (* Lohengrin '). From 1888 
to 1900 he sang every season (except 1899), and- 
added to his repertory the parts of Almaviva, 
Marcel, the Mefistofele of Boito, and the Wag- 
nerian parts of Hans Sachs, King Mark, Hun- 
ding, and Hagen. From 1 890, for many seasons, 
he sang in America with his brother, with the 
greatest success. He sang at the Mozart (con- 
cert) Festival at the Nouveau Theatre in Paris 
in the spring of 1906, under the direction of 
M. Reynaldo Hahn. In Feb. 1 907 he advertised 

1 D0 Prhtctpil dHT Armonta, Padova, 1707, p. 96. 




liis intention of opening a scUool of singing 
in Loudon, and ap[>eared thoi'e on June 13. 

His brother, Jean (more correctly Jak Mec- 
zisLAw) born at Warsaw, Jan. 14, 1860,^ was 
the eldest son of theoonti^oUer of the government 
railways, was taught singing by his mother, a 
distinguished amateur, and at the age of twelve 
sang solos in the Cathedral there. He was 
taught later by Ciaffei, Cotogni, and Sbriglia. 
Under the name ' De Beschi ' he made his debut 
at Venice as Alfonso (' Favorita ') in Jan. 1874, 
according to an eye-witness with success.^ He 
made his d^but at Druiy Lane on April 11 of 
the same year, and in the same part, and played 
there two seasons as Don Giovanni, Almaviva, 
De Nevers, and Valentine. A contemporary ^ 
spoke of him as one of whom the highest ex- 
jiectations might be entertained, having a voice 
of delicious quality ; he phrased artistically and 
[lossessed sensibility, but lacked experience such 
sfi w^ould enable him to turn his vocal gifts to 
greater account and to become an effective actor. 
It is interesting to find that the quality of the 
organ was even then considered to be more of the 
robust tenor timbre than a baritone. Under his 
own name he made his debut at the Italiens as 
FraMelitone(*ForzadelDe3tino'),Oct. 81, 1876, 
with some success, and as Severo (Donizetti's 
' Poliuto ') Dec, 6, Figaro (* Barbiere ') Dec. 19. 
He made his tenor d^but as * Robert ' at Madrid 
in 1879 with great success, and was engaged at 
the Theatre des Nations in 1884. He played 
there the part of St. John the Baptist on the 
production of ' H^rodiade ' so much to the satis- 
faction of Massenet, that he procured him an 
engagement at the Academic to create the title- 
part of ' Le Cid,' in which he made his ddbut 
on its production, Nov. 30, 1885. He was 
engaged there for four years, and sang the usual 
tenor |)arts, notably Don Ottavio (* Don Juan * 
centenary) and Romeo (in 1888, on the produc- 
tion of Gounod's opera at the Grand Oi)era). 
On June 13, 1887, he reapjieared at Drury Lane 
as Radames, and sang as Lohengrin, Faust, and 
Raoul. He worthily fulfilled his eai'ly promise 
by the marked improvement both in his singing 
and acting, and by his ease and gentlemanly 
bearing, the improvements being almost entirely 
due to his own hard work and exertions. On 
June 4, 1888, as Vasco de Gama, he made his 
fii-st appearance at Covent Garden, and from that 
season dates the revival of opera as a fashionable 
amusement in London. Till 1900 inclusive, he 
sang nearly every year here, his parts including 
John of Leyden, the Duke in ' Un Hallo,' Don 
Jos^, Phoebus in Goring Thomas's * Esmeralda,' 
Lancelot in Bemberg's * Elaine,' Werther (in 
Massenet's opera). In the great parts of Wagner, 
such as Walther, Tristan, and Siegfried, he was 
unrivalled, throwing new light upon the music 
by his wonderful power of interpreting the 

> 8<w rrufh. July IB, 18B7. 

* Letter of Mr. Michju>l WilliAiiis in MuHoal World. Jan. 31. 1874. 

« Atkentoutn, Aiwil 18. and July S5, 1874. 

dramatic side, without losing sight of vocal 
purity. He sang for several seasons in America 
with his brother, and at Warsaw and St. Petei's- 
burg. On Dec 1 1 , 1 890, he assisted gi^tuitously 
in the performance of * Carmen ' at the Op^a- 
Comique in Paris, where Mme. Galli-Marit^ re- 
appeared in her original pai't, and Melba and 
Lassalle were in the cast He reappeared at in- 
tervals at the Paris Opera, singing in * Siegfried' 
and ' Pagliacci ' on the Paris production of those 
operas. He was announced in Beyer's * Sigurd * 
in 1904, but was unable to appear through ill- 
ness. He is living in Paris, and devotes himself 
to teaching. 

Their sister, Josephine, educated at tlie Con- 
servatorium of St. Peteraburg, atti-acted the notice 
of M. Halanzier at Venice, and was engaged by 
him at the Academic, where she made her debut 
as Ophelia, June 21 , 1 875. She sang there with 
success for some time, where she was tlie original 
Sita (* Roi de Lahore '), AprU 27, 1877. Later 
she was very successfiU at Madrid, Lisbon, etc. ; 
sang at Covent Garden as Aida, April 18, 1881, 
and again in Paris at the Th. des Nations as 
Salome (* Herodiade '), March 13, 1884. She 
retired from public on her marriage with M. 
Leopold de Kronenburg of Warsaw ; she died 
there Feb. 22, 1891. a. r. 

RETARDATION is a word used by some 
theorists to distinguish a small group of discoitis 
which are similar in nature to suspensions, but 
resolve upwards, as in Ex, 1. 


Ex. 2. 

The ground for making this sub-class in that 
it appears inaccurate to describe as suspensions 
notes which are delayed or retarded in ascending. 
A comparison of Ex. 2, which would be distin- 
guished as a suspension, with Ex. 1, will show 
the identity of principle which underlies the two 
discords ; while the fact of their ascending or 
descending is clearly not an attribute but an ac- 
cident So in this case there is no otiier osten- 
sible reason for breaking up a well-defined class 
but the fact that the common designation in use 
is supposed, perhaps erroneously, to be insuflScient 
to denote all that ought to come under it. On the 
other hand it requires to be noted tliat as all dis- 
cords of this class are discords of retaixlation, and 
as those which rise are very much less common 
than those which descend in resolution, the 
name which might describe the whole class is 
reserved for the smallest and least conspicuous 
group in that class. c. h. H. h. 

REUTTER, Gborg, bom 1656 at Vienna, 
became in 1686 organist of St. Stephen's, and 
in 1 700 Hof- and Kammer-organist. He also 
played the theorbo in the Hofcapelle from 

RfiVE, LE 



1697 to 1703. In 1712, he succeeded Fux as 
Capelliueister to the Gnadenbild inSt.Stepheu'8» 
dud ill 1715 became Capellmeister of the cathe- 
dral itselfl He died August 29, 1738. His 
church music (see list in the Quellcti-Lexikon), 
was sound, without being i-emarkable. Ou 
Jan. 8, 1695, he was knighted in Rome by 
Count Francesco Sforza, on whose family Po[)e 
Paul II L had bestowed the privilege of confer- 
ring tliat honour in 1539. His son, 

Geobg Kaiil (generally known by his 
tirst name only), according to the cathedral 
register, was bom in Vienna, April 6, 1708, 
became Court-composer in 1731, and succeeded 
lus fiither in 1738 as Capellmeister of the 
cathedral. In 1746 he was appoint^ second 
Conrt-capeUmeister, his duty being to conduct 
the music of the Em^ieror's church, chamber, 
and dinnei'-table. On Predieri's retirement in 
1751 Reutter exercised the functions of chief 
Coort-capellmeister, but did not receive tlie 
title till the death of the former in 1769. As 
an economical measure he was allowed the sum 
of 20,000 gulden (£2000) to maintain the 
coart-capelle (the whole body of musicians, 
vocal and insti-umental), and he enjoys the 
melancholy distinction of having i-educed the 
establishment to the lowest possible ebb. 
Reutter composed for the court numerous opei'as, 
cantatas d^ueeasiariy and Italian oratorios for 
Lent ; also a requiem, and smaller dramatic 
and sacred works. His grand masses are showy, 
with rapid and noisy instrumentation, so much 
so that *rushing(rauschende) violins d laJieiUter' 
became a proverb. Bumey heard one of tlieni 
during his visit to Vienna in 1772, and says 
'it was dull, dry stutf ; great noise and little 
meaning characterised the whole performance ' 
(Present State of Music in Qemiany, i. 361). 
in 1731 Reutter married Therese Holzhauser, 
a court singer of merit, who died in 1782. His 
own death took place March 12, 1772. He was 
much favoured at court owing to his great tact ; 
and Maria Theresa ennobled him in 1740 as 
' Edier von Reutter.' His name is inseparably 
associated with that of Haydn, whom he heard 
sing as a boy in the little town of Hainburg, 
and engaged for the choir of St. Stephen's, 
where he sang from 1740 to 1748. His ti^eat- 
ment of the poor chorister, and his heartless 
behaviour when the boy's fine voice had broken, 
are mentioned under Haydn, vol. ii. pp. 349- 
350. See StoUbrock's biography in the Vier- 
leljahrstehri/i, 8, p. 165 ff., ahso the Quellen- 
Lexii»ti, where a list of his compositions will 
be fonnd. (\ f. r. 

RfiVE, LE. Lyric drama in four acts, 
text by Louis Gallet after Zola, music by Alfred 
Hruneau. Produced at the Opera -Comique, 
Paris, June 18, 1891, and at Covent Garden, 
Oct 29, 1891. 

REVEILLJfe. See Military Sounds and 
Signals, vol. iiL piiw 204-209. 

REVERSE. See Recte et Retro, Rovescio. 

oldest and most complete of French musical 
periodicals. This branch of literature has taken 
root in France with gi-eat diiiicul ty . So fai* back 
as Jan. 1770, M. de Breuilly and other amateurs 
founded the JourruU dcMusiquc (monthly, 8vo), 
which after a troubled existence of three years 
was dropped till 1777, and then resumed for 
one year more. In 1810 Fayolle started Les 
TaMciUs de Polyiiinie (8vo), but it did not 
sui-vive beyond 1811, Undeten-ed by these 
failures, Fetis brought out the first number of the 
Revive inu9icale in January 1827. It ap|)eared 
four times a month, each number containing 
twenty-four pages 8vo, till Feb. 5, 1831, when 
it was published weekly, in small 4to, double 
columns. La Gazette musicale de Pai-is^ started 
Jan. 5, 1834, was similar in size to Fetis s Pcvuc 
and also weekly, but issued on Sunday instead 
of Saturday. The two were united on Xov. 1 , 
1835, since which date the iifeuitc et Oa-^ctt^ 
musicale twice enlarged its fonu, in 1841 and 
in 1845, at which date it became what it was 
till its last number, Dec. 31, 1880. 

The property of the publishers Schlesiuger 
k Brandus, this ])eriodical was always noted 
for the reputation and ability of its editoi-s. 
Amongst its regular conti-ibutoi-s have been : 
Berlioz, P. Bernard, M. Bourges, Chouquet, 
Oomettant, Danjou, Ernest David, F. J. Fdtis, 
0. Fouque, Heller, A. Jullien, Kastuer, Laconic, 
A. de La Fage, Liszt, d'Ortigues, Pougin, Monnais 
(' Paul Smith *), Richard Wagner, and Johannes 
Weber. A careful i-eader of the forty -seven 
volumes will easily recognise the sentiments 
of the various editora through whose hands it 
passed ; among those deserving special mention 
are Fetis, l^ouard Monnais, and M. Charles 
Bannelier, who conducted it from 1872 with 
equal learning and taste. The indexes given 
with each volume are a gi-eat boon, and consti- 
tute one of its advantages over other French 
^leriodicals of the same kind. g. c. 

REY, Jean Baitiste (I), bom at Lauzerto 
(Tarn et Garonne), France, Dec. 18, 1724. 
His musical studies began at an early age at 
Toulouse, where he became a chorister at the 
Abbey of Saint Sernin. There he remained 
until the age of seventeen, when he com})eted 
for and obtained the }»osition of Maiti-e de 
Chapelle at the Cathedral of Auch. Three 
years later, in 1739, a dispute with the authori- 
ties caused him to resign this i>osition and 
return to Toulouse, where he became cJuf 
d'orchestrc at the opera. Until tlie age of 
forty he filled similar ix)8ts at Montpellier, 
Mai-seilles, lk>rdeaux, and Nantes. It was at 
the last-named town that a summons to Paris 
to assist in the ]>roduction of G luck's ' Alceste ' 
reached him in 1776. Three yeai-s later Louis 
XVI. ap|)ointed him MaUre de la Musiquc de 
CJiaiiibre, with a salary of 2000 frs. In the 




same year the King decorated him with the 
Order of Saint Michel, and appointed him 
SurirUendant de la Chapelle. According to 
F^tis and Brenet, Rey conducted the orchestra of 
the Concert Spiritael between 1782 and 1786, and 
some of his compositions were performed there. 
After the French Revolution, he was elected 
a member of the Committee of Administration 
for the Affairs of the Opera, and the decree 
which established the Conservatoire of Music 
in 1796, named him one of the professors of 
harmony. It was there that F. J. F^tis became 
a pupil of Rey, and was instructed by him 
accoiding to the complicated principles of 
Rameaa. So staunch was his adherence to 
bygone traditions that he became involved in 
the turbulent discussions which were roused by 
Catel's innovations. Finally his champion- 
ship of his friend Lesueur brought about his 
dismissal from the Conservatoire in 1802. 
Napoleon soothed his wounded feelings by 
nominating him his Maitre de Cfiapelle two 
years later. He held this appointment for five 
years, but the death of his daughter, who was 
a talented pianist, plunged him into an abandon- 
ment of grief, which caused his death, July 15, 
1810. As a conductor, Rey was closely 
associated with all the great composers of his 
day and assisted in the productions of the 
masterpieces of Piccini, Gluck, Paisiello, Gretry, 
Lemoine, and Mdhul. Sacchini, on his death- 
bed, entrusted the completion of his o{)era 
' Armire et Evelina ' to his friend Rey. This 
commission was conscientiously executed by him, 
and the opera was produced April 29, 1788. 
He is also said to have written all the ballet 
music in the same composer's opera ' Oedipe a 
Colone,* and in Salieri's * Tarare.* 

His original compositions comprise some MS. 
motets with orchestra, several of which were per- 
formed in the Chapelle du Roi, and some solfege 
studies which are included in the third part of 
the ' Solfeges du Conservatoire de Paris/ His 
two -act opera 'Diana and Endymion* was 
produced in Paris in 1791, and the opera in 
one act, entitled 'ApoUon et Coronis,' was 
performed at the Academic Royale de Musique, 
in 1781. This last was written in conjunction 
with his brother, 

Rey, Louis Charles Joseph, who was 
born at Lauzerte, Oct 26, 1738, and died May 
12, 1811. Also a chorister at the Abbey of 
St. Semin, Toulouse, he became a violoncellist 
in the theatre orchestra at Montpellier, and 
came to Paris in 1765 to profit by Borteau's 
teaching. Two years later he occupied the 
post of violoncellist at the principal theatre in 
Bordeaux, an appointment which he held for 
nine years. At the end of the year 1766, he 
became a member of the Paris opera orchestra, 
and in 1772 was admitted into the orchestra 
of the Chapelle du RoL After forty years' 
service Rey retired from the orchestra with a 

pension in 1806. F^tis says that he cut his 
throat in delirium caused by a nervous fever. 
He wrote some trios for two violins and violon- 
cello ; some duos for violin and violoncello, etc., 
and a brochure entitled : Mdmaire justicaii/ des 
Artistes de VAcadimie Jtoyale de Miisique^ ou 
response a la lettre qui leur a itd adressSe le 
4 Sept, 1789. This last was a reply to Papillon 
de Lafert^'s complaints of the behaviour of the 
members of the opera orchestra. — Brenet, M.,Xes 
Concerts en France ; Saint Laurent, Didionnaire 
Encydopidique ; Nouvelle Biographie G^nerale^ 
Paris, 1843 ; Fetis, Biog. des Afus, Journal de 
Paris, July 19, 1810. B. h-a. 

REY, Jean Baptiste," (II), bom at Tarasoon 
about 1760, is said to have taught himself the 
harpsichord, violin, and violoncello ; occupied 
the post of Maitre de Musique at the cathedrals 
of Verviers and Uzes, and went to Paris in 
1786, establishing himself there as a professor of 
music. A year later he was admitted into the 
opera orchestra, and held an appointment as 
violoncellist until his death, at Paris in 1822. 
A potpourri (op. 1) of his for pianoforte was 
imblished by Lednc, in Paris, and Nadermann 
of Paris brought out his Cmirs iUnientaire de 
Musique et de Piano. In 1807 the same firm 
published his Exposition ^lementaire de Vhar- 
inonie; thSorie g^n^aZe des accords dHapres les 
diffirents genres de Musique, Copies of this 
last work are in the Biblioth^que at Brussels, 
in the British Museum, London, and also in 
Glasgow. The Quell en- Lexikon mentions twelve 
sonatas for violoncello, op. 4. — J. B. Wekerlin, 
Bihl, du. Conservatoire Nat. de Paris ; Fetis, 
Biog, des Mus, E. h-a. 

REYER, Ernest, whose real name is Rey, 
was born at Marseilles, Dec. 1, 1823. As a 
child he learned solfege at the free school of 
music founded by Bai-sotti (bom in Florence, 
1786 ; died at Marseilles, 1868), and became a 
good reader, though he did not carry his musical 
education far. At sixteen he went to Algiers 
as a government official, but continued his 
pianoforte practice, and began to compose with- 
out having properly learned harmony and 
counterpoint. He was soon able to write 
romances which became popular, and composed 
a mass which was solemnly i)erformed before 
the Due and Duchesse d'Aumale. The Revolu- 
tion of 1848 deprived him of the support of the 
Governor-General, and he returned to Paris, 
and placed himself in the hands of his aunt 
Mme. Louise Farrenc, who completed his musical 
education, and before long he found an op- 
portunity of coming before the public. From 
his friend Th^ophile Gautier he procured the 
libretto of ' Le Selam,* an oriental * Symphony ' 
in four parts, on the model of David's 'Le 
Desert. ' It was produced with success, April 6, 
1850, and then M^ry fumished him with 
* Maitre Wolfram,' a one-act opera, which was 
also successful, at the Th^tre Lyrique, May 20, 




1854. (Revived at the Op^ra-Comique, 1873.) 
His next work was *Sacountala' (July 20, 1868), 
one of the channing ballets of Th^ophile Gautier ; 
and ^Victoire,' a cantata, was given at the 
Op^ra, June 27, 1859 ; but his full strength 
was first put forth in 'La Statue,' a three-act 
opera produced at the Th^&tre Lyrique, April 

11, 1861, and containing music which is both 
melodious and full of colour. (It was revived 
in 1878 at the Op^ra-Comique, and in 1908 at 
the Grand Op^ra.) * Erostrate * (two acts) was 
j>erformed at Baden in 1862, and reproduced 
at the Academic, Oct 16, 1871, for two nights 
only. Among his earlier works may be 
mentioned a * Recueil de 10 M^odies ' for voice 
and PF. ; songs for a single voice ; and some 
pieces of sacred music. o. c. 

After numerous attempts on Reyer's part to 
secure an unmutilated performance of * Sigurd ' 
at the Paris Op^ra, he produced it at the 
Th^dtre de la Monnaie, Brussels, Jan. 7, 1884, 
with great and lasting success. On July 15 of 
the same year it was produced at Covent 
Garden. The first performance of the work in 
France was at Lyons, on Jan. 15, 1885, when 
it was received with marked success. On June 

12, 1885, < Sigurd' was performed at the 
Grand Op^ra in Paris, but at the general 
rehearsal the directors thought fit to make 
curtailments in the 8Coi*e, and the composer 
retired, protesting against the proceeding, and 
yet unwilling to withdraw a work on which so 
much trouble and expense had been bestowed, 
on the eve of its production. He threatened 
never to set foot in the opera-house until his 
score shoidd have been restored to its original 
integrity, and he kept his word. The public, 
less exacting than the composer, received the 
opera, which in many passages must have 
considerably surprised them, with increasing 
sympathy, and its success was all the more 
remarkable as it was entirely unassisted either 
by the composer, who appeared to take no 
interest in its fate, or by the directors, who 
would not have been sorry had it failed. 
It has definitely taken a high place in the 
repertory. The qualities which are most 
prominent in * Siguid ' are the individual charm 
of its musical ideas, the exact agreement be- 
tween the words and the music, vain repetitions 
and conventional formulas being generally 
absent ; and lastly, the richness and colouring 
of the instrumentation, the style of which was 
greatly influenced by Reyer's favourite masters, 
Weber and Berlioz, and in places by Wagner. 
No charge of plagiarism from the last-named 
composer is intended to be suggested, nor could 
such a charge be substantiated. It is true that 
the subjects of * Sigurd' and the 'Ring des 
Nibelungen' are identical, but this is a mere 
coincidence. The plot of the libretto, which 
was written by Du Locle and A. Blau, is taken 
from the Nibelungen Not, the source that 


inspired Wagner, who, however, went further 
back and took his subject direct from the 
Eddas, moulding it after his own conception. 
In 1868 the libretto of Wagner's trilogy had 
been published for fifteen years, but it was 
completely unknown in France, and when the 
trilogy was produced in 1876, Reyer's score 
was nearly finished and ready for production. 
Reyer was decorated with the Legion d'Honneur 
in August 1862, and was raised to the rank of 
an officer in Jan. 1886. In 1890 his grand 
opera on Flaubert's 'Salammbd,' was produced 
in Brussels, and was given at the Grand Opera 
in Paris, on May 16, 1892, with great success. 
It has been frequently revived. 

Besides being reckoned among the most 
poetical of French musicians, M. Reyer ia an 
accomplished feuilletoniste. After writing 
successively for the Presse, the JReime de 
FariSf and the Courrier de Paris, he became 
editor of the musical portion of the Journal 
des Dibats, having succeeded d'Ortigue, who 
followed Berlioz. He has collected his most 
important articles and published them under the 
title of Notes de Miisique (Paris : Charpentier, 
1875). In both literature and composition he 
is the disciple and admirer of Berlioz, in whose 
collected essays, published as Les Musidens, 
there is an interesting article on ' La Statue ' on 
p. 333. It is curious that M. Reyer, having 
succeeded F. David at the Institut (1876), 
who himself succeeded Berlioz in 1869, should 
thus occupy the positions, both in music and 
literature, of the master whose legitimate 
successor he may well claim to be. A. J. 

REZNICEK, Emil Nicholaus von, bom on 
May 4, 1861, at Vienna, was at first, like so 
many other musicians, destined for a legal 
career, and for that purpose was entered as a 
law student ; but, rebelling against the U'k- 
someness of that kind of employment, he be- 
came a student at the Leipzig Couservatorium. 
Being drawn towards the dramatic side of 
music, he presently undertook the duties of 
theatre conductor at Graz, Zlirich, Stettin, 
Berlin, and at other places ; and then, branch- 
ing out in a different direction, obtained an 
appointment as military conductor in Prague. 
[For a short time he was Court Capellmeister 
at Weimar, and in 1896-99 held a similar post 
at Mannheim. In 1902 he moved to Berlin, 
where he founded the *Orchester-Kammer- 
Konzerte ' for works requiring a small orchestra. 
He also directs the monthly concert of the 
Warsaw Philharmonic Society, and makes fre- 
qnent journeys to Russia, where he is as highly 
appreciated as he is in Berlin. He became 
teacher of composition at the Klindworth-Schar- 
wenka Conservatorium in 1 906. He conducted 
two concerts in London in Nov. 1907.] All 
his operas are of distinctly Czechish character ; 
although the libretti, as will be seen below, 
are founded on stories derived from varioua 




nations. The operas, with one exception, were 
all produced in Prague, where they met with 
great success. Their titles and dates of pro- 
duction are as follow: *Die Jungfrau von 
Orleans,' 1887 ; < Satanella,' 1888 ; ' Emmerich 
Fortunate' 1889 ; < Donna Diana,' 1894 ; 'Till 
£ul6U9piegel/ 1901. Of these the most cele- 
brated is * Donna Diana,' a comic opera, of which 
the scene is laid in the castle of Don Diego at 
Barcelona, at the period of the independence of 
Catalouia; the libretto is by Moreto. 'Till 
Eulenspiegel ' is a 'folk -opera,' dealing with 
the jokes of the well-known German comical 
character; it was produced at Carlsruhe, on 
the date given above, and repeated at Berlin 
in 1903. 

[Hit oomiKwlUoiu Jaclndts EagaiMn for SoluiMvkaJ, for dumu, 
" - . ^ jgg^ to f 1^ til* JabUM of the Emperor 

OKuhMttm, Mad 

I JoMph II. (1888): 'aohin nad BwigkciV * poen 
Nietnohe mc for tenor Volee and orofacetn ; a Comedy Orerture^ 

^ II. (II 

A Sjmphonle Suite In B minor, and another In D major: aome 
•ong* and niano pieoei ; a String Quartet In C miniar ; an Idylllo 
Overture (Berlin : Nlkleeh. 1908) ; a Traglo Bymnhony In D minor 
(BerUn : Weingartner, 1904) ; Three VoUuUeder for voloe and email 

orchoetra (Kammer'Orohaater-Konaerte, 190S) ; Ironic 8ymph<m7, 
B major (do.) ; a String Quartet In Oft minor (Berlin : Deanu 
Qnartet. 1906); NaohtatQck for T'oello, With aooompanlmeut for 

harp^ four home, and atring onartet; a Bersnate fbr atring*. 
and an Introduction and VaWCaprlce for violin and oreheetra 
{KammerOrebester-Konaerte. 1906) ; Pusne InCf minor, originally 
for atrlnga, and aubaequentty for full oreneatra.] 

D. H. ; additions by H. v. H. 

RHAMES, a family of Dublin music-pub- 
lishers. Bei^amin Rhames was established, 
about the year 1765, at 16 Upper Blind Quay, 
at the sign of the Sun. Dr. W. H. Grattan 
Flood informs the writer that the father, Aaron 
Rhames, was issuing sheet-music in Dublin, 
circa 1729 to 1732. Benjamin Rhames was in 
an extensive way of trade, and published great 
quantities of single sheet songs, mainly of con- 
temporary English music. He was succeeded 
by his widow, Elizabeth, about 1778 or 1776. 
In the year 1776 the name Upper Blind Quay 
was altered into Exchange Street, and the later 
imprints of Elizabeth Rhames bear the new 
address with the same number, 16. She re- 
mained in business until about the yesr 1790, 
when Francis Rhames, her son, took over the 
concern and greatly increased the output of 
music sheets. In or near the year 1811 Paul 
Alday bought the business and remained at 
the same address until 1828 or 1824, removing 
then to 10 Dame Street Elizabeth Rhames 
and her son published, among other Irish works, 
pieces by Sir John Stevenson, the copyright of 
which, after being held by Alday, was trans- 
ferred to James Power of London. F. k. 

RHAPSODY. The Greek Rhapsodist ('Pa^- 
yd6f) was a professional reciter or chaunter of 
epic poetry. 'Pa^yd^a is the Greek title of each 
book of IJie Homeric poems, the first book of 
the Iliad being 'Paf ^ia A, and so forth. The 
Rhapsody was the song of the Mapiode ; a 
sequel of Rhapsodies when sung in succession or 
written down so as to form a series, constituted 
an epic poem, and when a long poem was 
chanted in sections at different times and by 
different sin^rs it was said to be rhapsodised. 

The usual derivation of 'Vai/^tfiHa is l^irria- I 
sew, and 41^1^= song, ode. 

Musicians might speak, in Hamlet's phrase, 
of a ' rhapsody of woids,' or of tunes— that is to 
say, of a string of melodies arranged with a view 
to effective performance in public, but without 
regular dependence of one part upon another. 
Such a description would seem to apply pretty 
closely to Liszt's fifteen Rhapsodies Hongroises, 
and to his ' Reminiscences d'Espagne ' (a fantasia 
on two Spanish tunes, ' Les Folies d'Espagne ' 
and 'La Jota Aragonesa,' 1844-45) which, in 
1868, herepublishedas a 'Rhapeodie Espagnole. ' 
The history of the latter piece is similar to that 
of the Hungarian rhapsodies— portions of which 
were originally pubUshed under the title of 
' Melodies Hongroises — Ungarische National- 
melodien ' — short transcriptions of Hungarian 
tunes as they are played by the wandering bands 
of Gipsies, the national musicians of Hungary. 
The prototype of these ' melodies ' in all prob- 
ability was Schubert's ' Divertissement h la 
Hongroise,' in G minor, op. 54— a piece Liszt 
was always fond of, and of which he produced 
several versions — as of the whole for pianoforte 
solo, and of the march in G minor for orchestra.^ 
Liszt's ten sets of ' Melodies Hongroises ' date 
from 1839 to 1847 ; the fifteen so-called Rhap- 
sodies Hongroises from 1853 to 1854. 

In 1859 Liszt published a book in French 
Des Bcihimiens et de leur Jllusiqua en Hbngric — 
a late and overgrown preface, as he confesses, 
to the Rhapsodies. In this brilliant, though 
at intervals somewhat meretricious work,^ an 
effort LB made to claim for the set of Rhapsodies 
the dignity of an Hungarian Epic sui generis. 
Be this as it may, the term ' Rhapsodic ' 
remains as one of Liszt's many happy hits in 
the way of musical nomenclature. 

Brahms has adopted the term ' Rhapsodie ' 
both in Liszt's sense and in that of the Greek 
Rhapsodists ; and, as usual with him, he has 
added weight to its significance. His original 

* Rhapsodien,' op. 79, for pianoforte solo — in B 
minor and G minor — are abrupt, impassioned 
aphoristic pieces of simple and obvious structure, 
yet solidly put together. The ' Rhapsodic ' in 
C, op. 53, for contralto, male chorus, and 
orchestra, justifies its title, in the Greek sense, 
inasmuch as it is a setting — a recitation, a 
rhapsody — of a portion of Goethe's poem 

* HarzreiBe im Winter ' ; it, also, is a com^iact 
and carefully balanced piece. The last piano- 
forte piece, in op. 119, is a noble Rhajisody, in 
which there is perhaps rather more of the quality 
that is usually called ' rhapsodical ' than is to 
be found in Brahms's other rhapsodies. 

Among later rhapsodies may be named Mac- 
kenzie's Scottish Rhapsodies, Stanford's Iriiih 
Rhapsodies, German's Welsh Rhapsody, and 
' Rhapsody on March Themes.' 

1 He played hia veraloo of the march in London. April 188S. 
t Like Ltaat'a Ckopin, this book la on good authority reported to 
be the Joint production of himaelf and certain femal« fricnda. 




The last movement of Parry's 'Suite 
Modeme in A minor for orohestra/ entitled 
' Rhapeodie/ consists of a systematised series of 
melodies on the plan familiar in the Rondo. E. D. 

RHAW, or RHAU, Georg, bom about 
1488 at Sisfeld in Franconia, was Cantor at 
the Thomaasohule at Leipzig till 1520, after 
which he settled at Eisleben as a schoolmaster, 
and sabsequently at Wittenberg, where he 
became a printer, issuing books both in ordinary 
typography (including many first editions of 
Luther's writings) and in musical notes, includ- 
ing his own works, Enchiridion musices ex variis 
ma$ieorum libri, etc, 1518 (often reprinted), 
Enckiridi4miMmoaemen9uralis, 1520, etc. He 
also brought oat many collections of musical 
works (see the Qte^Uen-Lessikon) ; Winterfeld 
ascribes some chorales to him. He died at 
Wittenberg, August 6, 1548. 

RHEINBERGER, Josbf Gabriel, was bom 
March 17, 1839, at Vaduz (Liechtenstein). 
At an early age he showed extraordinary 
musical aptitude, and when five years old had 
attained to considerable local reputation. His 
father, who was financial agent to Prince 
Liechtenstein, though unmusical himself, was 
quick to recognise and encourage the uncommon 
talent of his son. He accoi-dingly placed him 
in charge of Sebastian Pohly, a superannuated 
schoolmaster in Schlanders, who gratuitously 
gave him lessons in musical theory, pianoforte, 
and oigan. The organ pedals not being within 
reach, F5hly arranged a second pedal board for 
the conTenience of his pupil. In 1846, when 
only seven years of age, Rheinberger was ap- 
pointed organist at Vaduz Parish Ohuroh, and 
during the following year his first composition 
— a three-part mass with organ accompaniment 
— ^was pnblidy performed. Shortly after this 
event the Bishop of Ohur invited Rheinberger 
Renior to bring his son to the cathediul in 
order that his musical ability might be tested. 
A 'Salve Regina* for four male voices and 
organ was placed before the young musician, 
which he was requested to play whilst the 
bishop and clergy sang. The performance, 
however, was brought to an unexpected con- 
duaion by young Rheinberger, who abruptly 
ceased his accompaniment and exclaimed, ' But, 
Herr Bishop, you continually sing out of tune ! ' 
('Aber, Herr Bischof, Sie singen ja immer 
falsch ! ') 

Even at this early stage of his career Rhein- 
berger had very decided opinions upon any 
music which came under his notice. Disap- 
proving of certain masses composed by one 
Franz Biihler, an Augsburg musician, the young 
organist one day during service stuffed them all 
into a stove. The volume of smoke arising in 
consequence alarmed the assembled congrega- 
tion, and the culprit had probably his youth 
to thank that this auto dafi had no unpleasant 

In November 1848 Rheinberger heard a 
stiing quartet for the first time when a few 
dilettanti came over to Vaduz for the day fix>m 
the neighbouring town of Feldkireh. The boy 
was allowed to turn the leaves for the leader, 
a revenue official named Schrammel. ^^^len 
the tuning began Josef promptly remarked, 
' Your A string sounds a semitone higher than 
my piano at home.' As the boy's statement 
turned out to be perfectly accurate, the interest 
of Schrammel was aroused. Realising the 
possibilities of a musical career for the talented 
child, the violinist approached Rheinberger 's 
father, who was finally induced to allow his 
son to reside in Feldkireh under Schrammel's 
protection, and receive musical instmction from 
the choir director there, Philipp Schmutzer. 
A si^ecial condition attached to the permission 
was that the organist's duties at Vaduz should 
not be abandoned ; so for two years the boy 
walked the ten miles between Vaduz and Feld- 
kiroh every Saturday and Monday. In Feld- 
kireh Rheinberger made rapid progress in his 
musical studies. It was here that he acquired, 
though under somewhat strict conditions, his 
intimate knowledge of the music of the great 
masters. He was allowed to study only one 
piece at a time, and this he had to play from 
memory before exchanging for another. Such 
strict discipline, however, had a beneficial in- 
fluence. It laid that foundation of thorough- 
ness which was so distinguiBhing a character- 
istic in later life. 

In 1850 Rheinberger left Feldkm^h, and 
after a year of careful preparation entered the 
Munich Consei-vatorium (founded in 1846 by 
Franz Hauser by command of King Ludwig 1.). 
Here he remained from 1851 to 1854, studying 
the piano with Julius Emil Leonhard, the 
organ ^vith Joh. Georg Herzog, and counter- 
point with Jul. Jos. Maier, the learned curator 
of the musical department of the Munich 
Library. On leaving the Conservatorium 
Rheinberger obtained the highest honoui-s 
granted by that institution, and he particularly 
impressed the ministerial examiner, Professor 
von Schafhiiutl, by an extempore performance 
on the organ of a complete four-part fugue. 
To show his appreciation of the youth's talent, 
Schafhiiutl presented him with a copy of 
Oulibicheff's biography of Mozart, and ever 
afterwards remained his trae friend and adviser. 

Rheinberger then became a private pupil of 
Franz Lachner, and remained in Munich supple- 
menting his small income by giving lessons. 
A series of 124 youthful compositions bears 
eloquent testimony to his untiring energy and 
enthusiasm at this time. On Leonhard's 
resignation in 1859 Rheinberger was appointed 
to succeed him as professor of pianoforte at the 
Conservatorium, and after hol<&ng this position 
about a year he was given the more important 
office of professor of composition. When the 




Munich Conservatorium was dissolTed Rliein- 
berger was appointed * Bepetitor ' at the Court 
Theatre, where he at once favourably impressed 
his colleagues by playing and transposing a 
prima vista Wagner's * Flying Dutchman. ' The 
environment of the theatre, however, proved 
uncongenial. He therefore retired from active 
service in 1867, retaining, however, his interest 
in the stage. 

Much of Rheinberger's earliest success as a 
composer was due to his Wallenstein and 
Florentine Symphonies. He at one time 
thought of setting the complete Wallenstein 
trilogy to music The project, however, was 
discarded in favour of a Symphony, which was 
published and first performed in Munich in 
1866. The Florentine Symphony was com- 
missioned by the SocietkOrchestrale of Florence. 
In 1868 Rheinberger revised his opera, * Die 
sieben Raben,' and composed the music to 
Raimund's ' Die unheilbringende Krone.' Both 
works were successfully produced in Munich the 
following year. From 1860 to 1866 Rhein- 
berger was organist of the Court Church of 
St. Michael. He had been since 1854 accom- 
panist to the Munich Choral Society, and in 
1864 he became director. When the present 
(1907) 'Kbnigliche Akademie der Tonkunst ' 
was founded in 1867 by Hans von Billow, he 
accepted the position of composition and oi^n 
professor and inspector of instrumental and 
theory classes, a post which he held with ever- 
increasing fame until the year of his death. 
The title of Royal Professor was conferred upon 
him soon after his installation in the Conserva- 
torium, and in the same year he married Frau 
von Hoffnaass, nde Fraulein Jagerhiiber (bom 
October 1822, died December 31, 1892), a 
gifted authoress and singer, who wrote the 
words of many of her husband's most success- 
fid choral works. In 1877 he was offered the 
directorship of the newly-founded Hoch Con- 
servatorium at Frankfort-on-Main, but being 
unwilling to forsake the congenial artistic sur- 
roundings of Munich, he declined the invitation. 
King Ludwig II., to mark his approval and 
appreciation, conferred upon him the order of 
knighthood of St. Michael. In the same year 
Rheinberger resigned his position as musical 
director of the Munich Choral Society and suc- 
ceeded Franz Willlner as dii*ector of the Court 
Church music (Konigliche Hofcapellmeister). 
This appointment stimulated Rheinberger to 
comi)ose many ecclesiastical works, one of which 
— a mass in eight parts, dedicated to Pope 
Leo XIII. — obtained for him the order of 
knighthood of Gregory the Great. In 1899, 
on his sixtieth birthday, Rheinberger was 
created Doctor honoris causa of the University 
of Munich — modorum musicoram inventare7n 
fccundissimum artis ad leges sevoriares adstricta^e 
praeceptorcm stibtilissimwn preisend. He died 
in Munich, Nov. 25, 1901. 

It is comparatively seldom that a highly dis- 
tinguished composer attains great success as a 
teacher. Rheinberger, however, was accounted 
one of the foremost musical theorists and 
teachers of his day. Students came to his 
composition classes at the Munich Conserva- 
torium not only from his own country but from 
many European countries, as well as from 
America. Three years were required to com- 
plete the full course of theoretical instruction 
in these classes. In the first year students 
were taught free harmonisation of chorales, in- 
cluding eanlo fermo in alto, tenor, and bass — 
the same for strings with free florid counter- 
point. Second and third year: form, double 
counterpoint, fugue, vocal and instrumental in 
two to six parts, instrumentation, scoring of 
movements from Mozart's and Beethoven's 
sonatas and quartets, etc. 

As an organ teacher Rheinberger's activity in 
his later years was somewhat restricted. His 
organ class consisted of four advanced students, 
generally chosen because of marked ability. 
The organ works of Bach and Mendelssohn, and 
Rheinberger's own organ sonatas, received the 
greatest amount of attention. He insisted upon 
a clear and noble delivery, his remarks upon 
the interpretation of his own works being 
especially valuable. 

Rheinberger's compositions embrace almost 
every branch of musical art. All his works 
show marked individuality, together with an 
absolute mastery of musical technique. It is, 
however, as a choral writer and composer for 
the organ that he is especially distinguished. 
His twelve masses, Stabat Mater, De Profundi^ 
and many other examples of church music are 
marked by earnestness and deep religious feel- 
ing. In ' Christophorus ' (Legend for soli, 
chorus, and orchestra, op. 120) Rheinberger 
combines religious and secular sentiment in a 
masterly and convincing manner. The Christ- 
mas cantata, * Stem von Bethlehem * (for soli, 
chorus, and orchestra, op. 164), lb also remark- 
able for its sustained beauty and loftiness of 
conception. Amongst his finest secular vocal 
compositions are the 'Seebilder,' ^Das Thai 
des Espingo,' *Am Walchensee,' *Wittekind,' 
* Montfort,' *Toggenburg,' * Die Rosen von 

Hans von Billow and Sir Charles Halle were 
the first to introduce Rheinberger's music into 
England. At a pianoforte recital which Billow 
gave in London in 1878, he played the 'Andante 
and Toccata,' op. 12, one of the finest and most 
brilliant of Rheinbei^r's pianoforte composi- 
tions. In the same year at the Musical Union, 
and also in the following year at a popular con- 
cert, Billow gave the Pianoforte Quartet in E flat, 
op. 38, which achieved awide popularity. Among 
his pianoforte compositions which have been re- 
ceived with special favour are the three 'Kleine 
Concertstiioke,' op. 5, and ' Aus Italien,' op. 29. 




Rheinberger's twenty organ sonatas are un- 
doubtedly tibe most valuable addition to organ 
music since the time of Mendelssolm, and it is 
probably upon the artistic worth of these works 
tliat hu position as a composer ultimately 
depends. They are chaiacterised by a happy 
blending of the modem romantic spirit with 
masterly counterpoint and dignified oigan style. 
As perfect examples of organ sonata form they 
are probably unrivalled. With the object of 
obtaining external and material relationship 
between the chief movements, Rheinberger 
generally introduced as a coda to his finale a 
brief summary of one or more of the chief sub- 
jects of the first movement. Another device 
with the same object in view — the unifying of 
the sonata — ^was the re-introduction, generally 
with fine artistic effect, of a first- movement 
subject as an integral part of the last movement. 
An instance of this procedure is found in 
Sonata No. 9 in B flat minor (op. 142). Here 
the principal subject of the first movement is 
re-introduced in the finale as the second sub- 
ject and developed in connection with the fugal 
subject of this last movement. Similar examples 
of this method are found in Sonatas No. 16 (op. 
175) and Na 17 (op. 181). Throughout the 
whole of the organ sonatas there is a constant 
flow of beautiful ideas, though a considerable 
distance separates his best and weakest move- 
ments. There is occasionally a tendency to pro- 
long some of the movements, considering the 
materials upon which they are built. The two 
concertos for organ and orchestra show real 
breadth of treatment and a freedom of mani- 
pulation that appeal strongly to the musical 

Rheinberger was not much in sympathy with 
modem art He strongly disapproved of 
Wagner's methods and theories. In the ante- 
ch^ber of his class-room were lying one day 
the opened scores of 'Lohengrin' and *Der 
Freisdiutz,' the former on the top of the latter. 
As Rheinberger passed through, he glanced at 
the books, and then with a gesture full of 
meaning, as if to say, ' This is how it ought to 
be/ puUed out the ' Freischutz ' and placed it 
on the top. In his later years Rheinberger 
suffered from a chronic lung disease contracted 
by exoeanve exposure when making a mountain 
tour in the l^n^l. His constant ill-health and 
niiturally austere, retiring disposition precluded 
mnch personal intercourse with the outside 
world. Towards his pupils he was invariably 
exacting and often severe, but his musical 
genius and commanding personality never fiuled 
to comp^ their respect. 

Rheinberger's individuality is faithfully re- 
flected in his compositions. Thoroughness and 
unpretentiousness are qualities equally charac- 
teristic of the artist and of his work. His 
musical themes are for the most part of great 
lieauty. Much of his work, however, betrays 

a lack of strong impassioned enthusiasm, and 
seldom, if ever, attains to that degree of exalted 
musical inspiration which marks the finest 
creations of a great genius. 

Opw Op. 

1. 4 Piece*. pL 74. 6 Male c 

*78. a Vooal qouleta, with pf. 
7 Bonn — — 









4 Piece*. pL 

5 Piurt-wnigi. 

6 Songs. 
S Small pf. 
S Studiei, pf . 

5 Chatactsristifi pleoei, pf . 
' WaldiuiirdiflD.' pf. 

6 Studies. pL 

* Wallenstein,' qrmphony. 
5 Piecoa. pf. 
Toocsta, pf . 

' TknuiteUa,' pL. 4 hand*. 
2i Preludee, pf. 
Duo, 9 pfik 
' SUbat Mater.' eoU. cfaonu, 

9 Four-part Balladi. 
Overtnre, 'Taming of the 

Tocoatlna, pf. 
' Die Sleben Baben,' roman- 

tlo opera in S acta. 
'WaHcxfee,' Tooal qnartet 

4 Songs. 
Fantasia, pf. 
4 Vocal quartet*. 

• Locknng,' Tooal quartet 

lat Orga 

4 Humoreiken. pf. 
' Aoa Italien,* S pf. pieces. 

7 Pf. duct* <trom the music 
to 'Der Wunderthltlge 

In C 

J not son 

. V^rt aonga. 

. 'Daughter of Jairu*,* can- 
tata for children. 

. Prelude and fugue, pf. 

. Trio. pf. and strluK*. 

. Uyuui for female choir, 
organ, and harp. 

. 9 Duets, pf. (from the murir 
to 'Die nnheilhrlngende 

. 'Poor Henzy,' comic opera 
for children. 

. Qtiartet, pL and strings, in 

. 6 PL pieces, in fugal fonn. 

. 5 Motets, choir. 

. 78ongB. 

. fitude and fugato, pf . 

. Capriodo gioooao, pf. 

. S Stale dio nis e s . 

. 9 Pf . studies on a theme bj 

4B. 'Passion Music,' dioir and 

47. Symphomio sonata, pL 

48. 4 Male choruses. 

49. 10 Orpui trloa. 
. Ballad. 'Das Thai des ]&► 



Improvisation on a theme 
from ' Die Zaaberllflte,' pL 

3 Studies, pf . 

4 Hymns, mecso-sopimno and 
organ, or pL 


4 Vocal ouartets, with 
stringi and pf . 

6 Hymns, dboir. 

Pf . study. 

Bequiem, soli, choms, and 

61. Tlieme and variations, pf. 
02. Mass for one Toioe and oripin. 
6S. 8 Part-songs. 

•64. 'May Dav.' 6 three-part 
female ^oruses. with pf. 

65. Snd Organ sonata in A flat. 

66. 3 Studies. pL 

67. 6 Preludes, pf. 

68. 6 Pieces, in fugal form. 
691. S Sacred part-sonffs. 

70. 'Thurmers TOchterlein,' 

comie opera in 4 acts. 

71. Ballad. ' KSnlg Erich,' 

choms with pf. 

72. ' AuB den Fsrieutagon,' 4 pf. 


73. Male chraruses. 

*76. 'TognnbuTg,' soil, chorus, 

77. Sonata, vln. and pf.. or 

T'oello and pf. 

78. 3 Pf. pieces. 

79. Fantasia, ordi. or pf., 4 

80. 6 Part^ongi. 

81. 'DietodtoBraut, 

orch., or pf. 
89. Stxlug quintet, in A minor 
(or pf. duet). 

83. Mlssa hTBTis in D minor, 

84. Bequiem In B flat, choir. 

85. 7 Male ohoruses. 

86. 4 Epic songs, male choir. 

87. Symphony (' Florentine ') in 

88. 3rd Organ sonata ('Pas- 

toral 'Tin G (or pf. duet). 

89. String quartet in C minor. 

90. 'Vom Bheine,* 6 male 

91. • Johannlsnacht,' male choir 

92. Swnata, pL and Voallo. in 

(or Tin. and pf.). 

93. "Aeme and Tsrlatlons, 

■trine quartet in O minor 
(or pi. duet). 

94. Concerto, pL and orch. in A 


95. 2 Ghoruaes with orob. or pf. 

96. 3 Latin hymns, three-part 

ftanale choir and organ. 
•97. Ballad. 'Clarice of Eber- 
stein,' soli, chorus, and 

98. 4th Organ sonata, 'tonus 
peregrinus,' in A minor (or 
pf . duet). 

89. Pf. sonata in D flat. 

100. 7 Songs, male choir. 

101. 3 StudiH. pf. 

109. Ballad, 'Wittekind.' male 
chorus and orch. , or pf . 

103. 3 Vocal duets, sop., bass, 

and pf. 

104. Toccata, pf. 

105. Sonata, yin. and pf.. in B 

106. 2 Bomantlc song^ choir and 

orch.. or pt 

107. Hymns for choir. 

108. ' Am Strom.' 6 part-eongs. 

109. Mass in B flat for double 

choir, dcd. to Leo XIII. 

lia OTertnre to Schiller's 'De- 
metrius' (or pL duet). 

HI. 5th Organ sonaU in Faharp 
(or pi. duet). 

112. 2ndTrio,pf., Tin. and T'oello, 
in A. 

113 6 Studies for pf. aeft hand). 

114. Quintet, pf. and striiaga. In O. 

115. Toccata, pL in C minor. 
11& 4 Songs, male choir. 

117. 'Mlssa Banctissimie Trini- 

Utis.' choir, in F. 

118. 6 Two-part hymna, with 


119. 6th Organ sonata, in B flat 
minor (or pf . duet). 

Legend. ' Chrlstophoms,' 
•oli, cfac ■ • 

•190L ] 

. chorus, and orch., or 

121. Trio, pf. and strings, in B 

192. Sonata. C minor. pL. 4 hands 

(or 2 pfs.. 8 hand«). 

193. 94 Fughetten for organ. 
124. 8 Pftrt^nga. 

120. 7 Male choruses. 

198. Mass, three-part female 

choir, in A. 
127. 7th Organ sonata in F minor 

(or pf. duet). 
198. 4 Eleglae songs, with (Hgan. 

129. 3 Italian songs. 

130. 6 Male choruses. 

131. 6 Female choruses. 

132. 8th Organ BotiatA, in E minor 

(or irf. duet). 

133. 4 Motets, six-part ohoir. 

134. Easter hymn, double choir. 



Oi>. Op. 

13&. Pf. aotuiU. in E flat. 175. 18th Orynn MnutK. In O 

IM. 14 Bongs. ilurp minor (or pL duct). 

1S7. Orgui oonoerto In F, with ITS. 9 Adwut-Motettcn. choir. 

orch. (or pf. dv«t). 177. 'ind Cuoeerto for oi^ui and 

138. Stabat Mater, chotr, string orcb.. in O minor (or pf. 

oroh. and oryan. da«t). 

l.ia. Nonet, wind and atrlnffi (or 178. Sonata for horn and pL 

at. dn«t). ' 179. ' HTmnna an die Tonkuiiat,' 

140. S Hjinna. choir and or^ai. for male chorus and oreh. 

18& IS Chaimotertatlc pieces for 

181. 17th Oi«an aooata in R. 
18S. ' Vom foldenen Horn.' 

141. 8 Male choruses. 
14S. 9th Organ sonata. In B flat 
minor (or pf. daet). 

143. 'Die Rosen von Hildeshelm.' 

male chorus and vlnd in* 

144. S Male chomsas. 

145. ' Montfort,' soli, ehoros. and 

148. 10th Organ sonata, in B 

minor (or pf. duet). 
147. String quartet in F. 
14!L 11th Organ sonata 

minor (or pt duet). 

fiiiitjt. om.n. Tlolin* 


14ik Suite, oraan. Tlolin.*T'oeUo. 

and string ordt. 
IBa 8 pteeca. riolin and organ, 

or T'oello and oigmn. 
191. Mass in O. 
15SL 30 Children's songs. 
153. 'Das &aberirort.' singspiel. 

In 9 acta, for children. 
194. 19th Organ sonata, in D flat 

(or pt duet). 
•186. Mass, three -part female 

ehoir and ozfcsn. 
1S8. 19 Chaiaeterlstio pleoes for 

187. 8 Sacred songs, with oivan. 
158. SSopcano (or baritone) songs. 
180. Mass, four -part choir and 

oraan, in F minor. 

180. 7 MAle ohoruses. 

181. ISth Organ sonata, in B flat 

(or pL duet). 
183. 'Monologue,' 19 organ pieces. 
•183. 8 Motets, flve-part choir. 
•184. ' Star of Bethlehem. 

Christmas cantata, snli, 

with pf. 

183. 19 Studies, pf. 

184. Romantic sonata for pf., in 
F sharp minor. 

188. 7 Male chomses. 

188. 8 Four-part song^ 'Jahrca- 

in D •187. Mass, for ftomale toIcm and 

organ, in G minor. 

188. 18th Organ sonata, in A. 

189. 19 Organ trios. 

190. Mass. for male choir and 
ongao, in F. 

191. Trio, for pL.Tln.,andT'calk>, 

193. Mass. ' Misericordias Do- 
mini.' choir and organ, in 

193. mh Organ sonata, in G 

194. Requiem, for ehoraa and 

196. ' Akademlsehe ' orerture, 
fngue with 8 themes for 

196. 90th Organ sonata. 'Znr 
Friedensfeler,' In F. 

197. Mass I posthumous), choir 
and organ (flnished bj 
Louis Adolph Coeme of 

chorus, and orch., or pf. 
183. nth Organ sonata, in (or 
pf. dust). 

166. Suits, Tin. and organ, in C 


167. 'MeditaUona.' 13 organ 

188. 16th Organ sonata, in D (or 

pf. duet). 

189. Mass, soli, choir, and oroh., 

or strings and organ. 
ITO. 8 Four-part so"^ "" 

und Frieden.' 
•171. ' Marlanlsehe 

Toloe and organ, or pt. 

173. Mass, male choir with organ, 

or wind Insts. 
ITS. 4 Male choruses. 

174. 13 Organ pii 

WUkota (^MU Xumben. 

*' Ats Maria,' soprano and oiigan, 
or three-part female ehoir. 

Romance, for soprano and harp. 

'Carmina sacra.* songs with 

Amuigement of Bach's 30 varia- 
tions, for 2 pflk 

Three flve-part songs. 

Idylle for v'oello and pf. 

Bhapsodie,for fluto and pf . . in B. 

'Trennung.' for voice, pt., or 

■ ^iaMbkehleln.' ft>r choir. 
Pastorale, for oboe and organ. 

from op. 98. 
Rhapsodle. for oboe and organ. 

or vln. and organ, from op. 


Tarantella tram op. 1S9. for 3 
Works possessing English text. J. \V. K. 

RHEINGOLD, DAS. The «Vorabend' of 
Wagner's trilogy. See Ring des Nibblukoen. 

RHINE FESTIVALS. See Nibderrhein- 
I8CHB MUSIKFESTE, voL ill. p. 377. 

RHUBEBA. See Rbbeo. 

RHYTHM. This much -used and many- 
sided term may be defined as ' the systematic 
grouping of notes with regard to duration.' It 
i.s often inaccurately employed as a synonym for 
its two subdivisions, Accent and Time, and 
in its proper signification bears the same relation 
to these that metre beare to quantity in poetry. 

The confusion which has arisen in the em- 
ployment of these terms is unfortunate, though 
so frequent that it would appear to be natuml, 
and therefore almost inevitable. Take a number 
of notes of equal length, and give an emphasis 
to every second, third, or fourth, the music will 
be said to be in * rhythm ' of two, three, or four 
— meaning in tim€. Now take a number of 
these groups or bars and emphasise them in the 
same way as their subdivisions : the same term 
will still be employed, and rightly so. Again, 


instead of notes of equal length, let each group 
consist of unequal notes, but similarly arranged, 
as in the following example from Schumann — 


or in the Vivace of Beethoven's No. 7 Symphony : 
the form of these groups also is spoken of as the 
'prevailing rhythm/ though here aceerU is the 
only correct expression. 

Thus we see that the proper distinction of the 
three terms is as follows : — 

Accent arranges a heterogeneous mass of notes 
into long and short ; 

Time divides them into groups of equal dura- 
tion ; 

Bhythm does for these groups what Accent 
does for notes. 
In short, Rhythm is the Metre of Music. 

This parallel \\i\\ help us to understand why 
the uneducated can only write and fully compre- 
hend music in complete sections of four and 
eight bars. [Rhythm is an essential part of 
all primitive music, and every folk-song has a 
distinct rhythmical character. It was long 
before this characteristic was introduced into 
serious music, which had been rhythmlesa 
because the notes of plain-chant exist only with 
reference to the words.] In polyphonic music 
the termination of one musical phrase ^foot, or 
group of accents) is always coincident with, and 
hidden by, the commencement of another. And 
this although the subject may consist of several 
phrases and be quite rhythmical in itself, as is 
the case in Bach's Organ Fugues in G minor and 
A minor. The Jihythmus of the ancients was 
simply the accent prescribed by the long and 
short syllables of the poetry, or words to which 
the music was set, and had no other variety 
than that afforded by their metrical laws. 
Modem music, on the other hand, would be 
meaningless and chaotic — a melody would cease 
to be a melody — could we not plainly perceive 
a proportion in the length of the phrases. 

The bar-line is the most obvious, but by no 
means a |)erfect, means of distinguishing and 
determining the rhythm ; but up to the time 
of Mozart and Haydn the system of liarring, 
although used more or less accurately from the 
time of the Elizabethan composers, in Virginal 
music, etc., was but imperfectly understood. 
Many even of Handel's slow movements have 
only half their proper number of bar-lines, and 
consequently terminate in the middle of a bar 
instead of at the commencement ; as, for instance, 
<Ho shall feed His flock' (which is really in 
6-8 time), and ' Surely He hath borne our griefs ' 
(which should be 4-8 instead of C)* Where 
the accent of a piece is strictly binary through- 
out, composera, even to this day, appear to be 
often in doubt about the rhythm, time, and 




barring of their music The simple and nnmis- 
takable role for the latter is this: the last 
strong accent will occur on the first of a bar, 
and joa have only to reckon backwards. If 
the piece falls naturally into groups of four 
accents it is four in a bar, but if tiiere is an 
odd two anywhere it should all be haired as 
two in a bar. Ignorance or inattention to this 
causes us now and then to come upon a sudden 
change from C to 2-4 in modem music. 

With regard to the regular sequence of bars 
with reference to doee and cadence — which is 
the tnie sense of rhythm — much depends upon 
the character of the music. The dance-musio 
of modem society must necessarily be in regular 
periods of 4, 8, or 16 bars. Waltzes, though 
written in S-4 time, are almost always really in 
6-8, and a danoe-music writer will sometimes, 
from ignorance, omit an unaccented bar (really 
a half-bar), to the destraction of the rhythm. 
The dancers, marking the time with their feet, 
and feeling the rhythm in the movement of their 
bodies, then complain, without understanding 
what is wrong, that such a waltz is * not good 
to dance to.* 

In pure music it is different. Great as are 
the varieties afforded by the diverse positions 
and combinations of strong and weak accents, 
the equal length of bars, and consequently of 
musical phrases, would cause monotony were it 
not that we are allowed to combine sets of two, 
three, and four bars. Not so freely as we may 
combine the different forms of accent, for the 
longer divisions are less clearly perceptible; 
indeed, the modem complexity of rhythm, 
esx»ecially in German -music, is one of the chief 
obstacles to its ready appreciation. Every one, 
as we have already said, can understand a song 
or piece where a half-close occurs at each fourth 
and a whole close at each eighth bar, where it 
is expected ; but when an uneducated ear is 
continually being disappointed and surprised 
by unexpected prolongations and alterations of 
rhjTthm, it soon grows conftased and unable to 
follow the sense of the music. Quick music 
naturally allows — ^indeed demands— more variety 
of rhythm than slow, and we- can scarcely turn 
to any scherzo or finale of the great composers 
where such varieties are not made use of. 
Taking two-bar rhythm as the normal and 
simplest form — just as two notes form the 
simplest kind of accent — the first variety we 
have to notice is where one odd bar is thrast in 
to break the continuity, as thus in the Andante 
of Beethoven's G minor Symphony : 

This may also be effected by causing a fresh 
phrase to begin with a strong accent on the 
weak bar with which the previous subject ended, 
thus really eliding a bar, as for instance in the 
minuet in Haydn's ' Reine de France ' Symphony : 


Here the bar marked (a) is the overlapping of 
two rhythmic periods. 

Gombinations of two -bar rhythm are the 
rhythms of four and six bars. The first of these 
requires no comment, being the most common 
of existing forms. Beethoven has specially 
marked in two cases (Scherzo of Ninth Symphony, 
and Scherzo of Ci minor Quartet) < Ritmo di 
4 battute,' because, these compositions being in 
such short bars, the rhythm is not readily per- 
ceptible. The six-bar rhythm is a most useful 
combination, as it may consist of four bars fol- 
lowed by two, two by four, three and three, or 
two, two and two. The well-known minuet by 
LuUi (from 'Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme ') is in 
the first of these combinations throughout. 

And the opening of the Andante of Beethoven's 
First Symphony is another good example. Haydn 
is especially fond of this rhythm, especially in 
the two forms first named. Of the rhythm of 
thrice two bars a good specimen is afforded by 
the Scherzo of Schubert's G miy'or Symphony, 
where, after the two subjects (both in four-bar 
rhythm) have been announced, the strings in 
unison mount and descend the scale in accom- 
paniment to a portion of the first theme, thus : 

A still better example is the first section of 
* God save the King.' 

This brings us to triple rhythm, uncombined 
with double. 

Three-bar rhythm, if in a slow time, conveys 
a very uncomfortable lop-sided sensation to the 
uncultivated ear. The writer remembers an in- 
stance when a band could hardly be brought 
to play a section of an Andante in 9-8 time 
and rhythm of three bars. The combination of 
d'xSxS was one which their sense of accent 
refused to acknowledge. Beethoven has taken 
the trouble in the Scherzo of his Ninth Sym- 
phony to mark ' Ritmo di tre battute,' although 




in such quiok time it is hardly neceesary ; 
the passage, 

being understood as though written— 

Numerous instances of triple rhythm occur, 
which he has not troubled to mark ; as in the 
Trio of the C minor Symphony Scherzo : — 

Rhythm of five bars is not, as a rule, produc- 
tive of good effect, and cannot be used — any 
more than the other unusual rhythms — for long 
together. It is best when consisting of four 
bars followed by one, and is most often found 
in compound form — that is, as eight bars 
followed by two. 

Minuet, Mozart's Symphony in C (No. 6). 

.^ J.J r.4J^ 

T' r 

A very quaint effect is produced by the un- 
usual rhythm of seven. An impression is con- 
veyed that the eighth bar — a weak one — has got 
left out through inaccurate sense of rhythm, as 
so often happens with street-singers and the 
like. Wagner has taken advantage of this in 
his * Dance of Apprentices ' ( * Die Meistersinger'), 
thus : — 

It is obvious that all largersymmetrical groups 
than the above need be taken no heed of, as 
they are reducible to the smaller periods. One 
more point remains to be noticed, which, a 
beauty in older and simpler music, is becoming 
a source of weakness in modem times. This is 
the disguising or concealing of the rhythm by 
strong accents or change of harmony in weak 
bars. The last movement of Beethoven's Piano- 
forte Sonata in D minor (op. 31, No. 2) affords 
a striking instance of this. At the very outset 
we are led to think that the change of bass at 
the fourth bar, and again at the eighth, indi- 
cates a new rhythmic period, whereas the whole 



movement is in four-bar rhythm as imchaugiug 
as the semiquaver figure which pervades it. The 
device has the effect of preventing monotony in 
a movement constructed almost entirely on one 
single figure. The same thing occxvca in the 
middle of the first movement of the Sonatina 
(op. 79, Presto alia Tedesca). Now in both of 
these cases the accent of the bars is so simple 
that the ear can afford to hunt for the rhythm 
and is pleased by the not too subtle^ artifice ; 
but in slower and less obviously accented music 
such a device would be out of place ; there the 
rhythm requires to be impressed on the hearer 
rather than concealed from him. 

On analysing any piece of music it will be 
found that whether the ultimate distribution of 
the accents be binary or ternary, the larger divi- 
sions nearly always nm in twos, the rhythms 
of three, four, or seven being merely occasion- 
ally used to break the monotony. This is 
only natural, for, as before remarked, the oom- 
prehensibility of music is in direct proportion 
to the simplicity of its rhythm, irreguLuity in 
this point giving a disturbed and emotional 
character to the piece, until, when all attention 
to rhythm is ignored, the music becomes inco- 
herent and incomprehensible, though not of 
necessity disagreeable. In * Tristan uud Isolde ' 
Wagner has endeavoured, with varying success, 
to produce a composition of great extent, from 
which rhythm in its larger signification shall 
be wholly absent. One consequence of this is 
that he has written the most tumultuously 
emotional opera extant ; but another is that 
the work is. a mere chaos to the hearer until it 
is closely studied. f. c. 

RIBATTUTA (re-striking), an old contriv- 
ance in instrumental music, gradually acceler- 
ating the pace of a phrase of two notes, until 
a trUl was arrived at. Beethoven has preserved 




it for ever in the Overture * Leonore No. 3 * 
{bar 75 of AlUgro), 

See too another passage farther on, before 
the Flute solo. [See Trill.] g. 

RIBIBLE, an obsolete instrument played by 
a bow. It is mentioned by Chaucer and other 
early vniters, and appears to have been either 
the rebec itself, or a particular form of it. 
Sometimes it is spelled 'rubible.' It has been 
suggested that both 'rebec' and 'ribible' are 
derived from the Moorish word *rebeb' or 
' rebab/ which seems to have been the name of 
a somewhat similar musical instrument. (See 
Kebec.) f. k. 

RIBS (Ft. blisses'. Germ. Zarge\ The 
sides of stringed instruments of the violin type, 
connecting the back and the belly. They con> 
aist of six (sometimes only five) pieces of maple, 
and should be of the same texture as the back, 
and if possible cut out of the same piece. After 
lieing carefully planed to the right thickness, 
they are bent to the required shape, and then 
glued together on the mould by means of the 
comer and top and bottom blocks, the angles 
being feather -edged. The back, the linings, 
and the belly are then added, and the body of 
the violin is then complete. The ribs ought to 
be slightly increased in depth at the broader 
end of the instrument, but many makers have 
neglected this rule. The flatter the model, 
the deeper the ribs require to be ; hence the 
Tiol tribe, having perfectly flat backs and bellies 
of slight elevation, are very deep in the ribs. 
The oldest violins were often very deep in the 
ribs, but many of them have been since cut 
down. Carlo Bergouzi and his contemporaries 
had a fashion of making shallow ribs, and often 
cut down the ribs of older instruments, thereby 
injuring their tone beyond remedy. Instru- 
ments made of ill-chosen and unseasoned wood 
will cFBck and decay in the ribs sooner than in 
any other part ; but in the best instruments the 
ribs will generally outlast both belly and back. 
Some old makers were in the habit of glueing 
a strip of linen inside the ribs. E. J. F. 

RICCI, LuiGi, bom in Naples, June 8, 1805, 
in 1814 entered the Royal Conservatorio, then 
under ZingarelH, of which he became in 1819 
one of the sub-professors together with Bellini 
His first work, ' L' Impresario in angustie,' was 
performed by the students of the Conservatorio 
in 1823, and enthusiastically applauded. In 
the following four years he wrote 'La Cena 
frastomata,' ' L* Abate Taocarella,' ^ II Diavolo 
condannato a prender moglie,' and ' La Lucema 
d' Epitteto, ' all for the Teatro Nuovo. In 1 828 
his 'Ulisse,' at the San Carlo, was a failure. 
In 1 829 ' II Colombo ' in Parma and ' L' Orfanella 
di Ginevra' in Naples were both successful. 
The winter of 1829-80 was disastrous for Ricci, 
his four new operas ( * II Sonnambulo, * * L' Eroina 
del Messico,* 'Annibale in Torino,' and <La 
Neve ') being all unsuccessful. In the autumn 

of 1831 he produced at the Scala, Milan, 
'Chiara di Rosemberg,' and this opera, per- 
formed by Grisi, Sacchi, Winter, Badioli, etc., 
was greatly applauded, and soon became success- 
ful in all the theatres of Italy. 'II nuovo 
Figaro' failed in Parma in 1832. In it sang 
Rozer, who afterwards married Balfe. The 
same fate attended ' I due Sergenti ' at the Scala 
in 1833, where the following year he gave ' Un' 
Avventura di Scaramuccia,' which was a very 
great success, and was translated into French 
by Flotow. The same year * Gli esposti,' better 
known as * Eran due ed or son tre, ' was applauded 
in Turin, whilst *Chi dura vince,' like Rossini's 
immortal ' Barbiere, ' was hissed at Rome. It 
was afterwards received enthusiastically at Milan 
and in many other opera-houses of Europe. In 
1835 'Chiara di Montalbano' failed at the 
Scala, while ' La serva e 1' ussero ' was applauded 
in Pavia. Rioci had thus composed twenty 
operas when only thirty years old ; and although 
many of his works had met with a genuine and 
well-deserved success, he was still very poor 
and had to accept the post of musical director 
of the Trieste Cathedral and conductor of the 
Opera. In 1838 his 'Nozze di Figaro' was a 
fiasco in Milan, where Rossini told him that 
its fall was due to the music being too serious. 

For the next six years Ricci composed nothing. 
In 1844 he married Lidia Stoltz, by whom he 
had two children, Adelaide, who in 1867 sang 
at the Th^dtre des Italiens in Paris, but died 
soon after, and Luigi, who lives in London. 
' La Solitaria delle Asturie ' was given in Odessa 
in 1844 ; 'II Birraio di Preston' in Florence 
in 1847 ; and in 1852 * La Festa di Piedigrotta' 
was very successful in Naples. His last opera, 
' II Diavolo a quattro,' was performed in Trieste 
in 1859. 

Luigi Ricci composed in collaboration with 
his brother Fedbrico ' II Colonnello,' given in 
Rome, and ' M. de Chalumeaux,' in Venice, in 
1835; in 1836 'II Disertore per amore' for 
the San Carlo in Naples, and 'L'Amante di 
richiamo,' given in Turin in 1846. Of these 
four operas, ' II Colonnello ' alone had a well- 
deserved reception. But Ricci's masterpiece, 
the opera which has placed him in a very high 
rank among Italian composers, is 'Crispino e 
la Coraare,' written in 1850 for Venice, and to 
which his brother Federico partly contributed. 
This opera, one of the best comic operas of 
Italy, ei\joyed a long success all the world over. 

Shortly after the production of * II Diavolo a 
quattro ' in 1 8 59, however, symptoms of insanity 
showed themselves, and the malady soon became 
violent. He was taken to an asylum at Prague, 
his wife's birthplace, and died there Dec. 31, 
1859. He was much mourned at Trieste ; a 
funeral ceremony was followed by a performance 
of selections from his principal works, his bust 
was placed in the lobby of the Opera-house, 
and a pension was granted to his widow. He 




published two volumes of vocal pieces entitled 
' Mes Loisirs ' and * Les inspirations du Th^ ' 
(Ricordi), and he left in MS. a large number of 
compositions for the cathedral service. His 

Federico, was bom in Naples, Oct. 22, 1809, 
entered the Royal Conservatorio of that town, 
where his brother was then studying, and 
received his musical education from Bellini 
and Zingarelli. In 1837 he gave * La Prigione 
d' Edimburgo ' in Trieste. The barcarola of 
this opera, 'Sulla poppa del mio brick,' was 
for long one of the most popular melodies of 
Italy. In 1839 his 'Duello sotto Richelieu' 
was only moderately successful at the Scala, but 
in 1841 * Michelangelo e Rolla' was applauded 
in Florence. In it sang Signora Strepponi, who 
after^vards raariied Verdi. *Oorrado d'Alta- 
mura ' was given at the Soala in the same year. 
At the personal request of Charles Albert he 
composed in 1842 a cantata for the marriage 
of Victor Emmanuel, and another for a court 
festival. In 1843 his * Vallombra ' failed at La 
Scala. ' Isabella de' Medici ' (1844) in Trieste, 
*Estella' (1846) in Milan, *Griselda' (1847) 
and ' I due ritratti' (1850) in Venice, were all 
failures. ' II Marito e I'Amante ' was greatly 
applauded in Vienna in 1852, but his last opera, 
* II paniere d'amore,* given there the following 
year, did not succeed. He was then named 
Musical Director of the Imperial Theatres of 
St. Petersburg, which post he occupied for many 
years. Of the operas written in collaboration 
with his brother we liave already spoken. 

He brought out at the Fantaisies-Parisiennes, 
Pjiris, *Une Folic k Rome,' Jan. 80, 1869, with 
great success. Encouraged by this he produced 
an op^ra-comique in three acts, * Le Docteur rose ' 
(Boulfes Parisiens, Feb. 10, 1872), and *Une 
Fete h Venise,' a reproduction of his earlier 
work, *Il Marito e I'Amante' (Ath^n^e, Feb. 
15, 1872). Shortly after this Federico retired 
to Conegliano in Italy, where he died Dec. 10, 
1877. He was concerned partially or entirely 
in nineteen operas. Of his cantatas we have 
s|>okon. He also left two masses, six albums 
or collections of vocal pieces (Ricordi), and 
many detached songs. l. r. 

RICCIO, Teodoro, a native of Brescia, who 
after holding the post of choirmaster at one of 
the churches of Brescia was in 1576 invited by 
George Frederick, Margrave of Brandenberg- 
Anspach, to be his capellmeister at Anspach. 
When in 1579 George Frederick became also 
Duke of Prussia, Riccio accompanied him as 
cai)ellmeister to his new capital Konigsberg, 
where, like Scandello, also a native of Brescia, 
in similar circumstances at Dresden, Riccio 
adopted the Lutheran faith, and seems to have 
settled for the rest of his life with an occasional 
visit to Anspach. His adoption of Lutheranism 
made little dilference to the nature of his com- 
positions for use in church, as Ijatin was still 

largely used in the services of Lutheran court 
chapels, and so we find that his publications 
mainly consist of various volumes of Latin 
masses, motets, and magnificats, a 4 to 8 or 12. 
Probably Johann Eocard, who was called to be 
his coadjutor at Konigsberg from 1581, pro- 
vided the music required for German texts. 
Besides the Latin works the QueUen-Lexikon 
mentions two incomplete books of madrigals 
a 5 and 6, and one book of Canzone alia 
napolitana. Riccio is supposed to have died 
between 1603 and 1604, since in the latter year 
Eccard is known to have definitely suooeeded 
him as capellmeister. J. B. M. 

RICERCARE, or RICERCATA (from rica-- 
care, 'to search out'), an Italian term of the 
I7th century, signifying a fugue of the closest 
and most learned description. Frescobaldi's 
Ricercari (1615), which are copied out in one of 
Dr. Bumey's note-books (Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 
11,588), are full of augmentations, diminutions, 
inversions, and other contrivances, in fact 
rechercMs or full of research, J. S. Bach has 
affixed the name to the 6-part Fugue in his 
' Mnsikalisches Opfer,' and the title of the whole 
contains the word in its initials — Regis lussu 
Cantio Et Reliqua Canonica Arte Resoluta. But 
the term was also employed for a fantasia on 
some popular song, street-cry, or such similar 
theme. Dr. Cummlngs has a MS. book, dated 
1680-1600, containing twenty- two ricercari by 
CI. da Coreggio, Gianetto Palestina (^ic), A. 
Vuillaert (sic), 0. Lasso, Clemens non Papa, 
Oip. Rore, and others — compositions in four 
and five parts, on 'Ce moy de May,' 'Vestiva i 
colli,' 'La Rossignol,' * Susan un jour,' and other 
apparently popular songs. This use of the word 
appears to have been earlier than the other, 
as pieces of the kind by Adriano (1520-67) 
are quoted. o. 

RICH, John, son of Christopher Rich, patentee 
of Drury Lane Theatre, was bom about 1682. 
His father, having been compelled to quit 
Dniry Lane, had erected a new theatre in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, but died in 1714 when it 
was upon the eve of being opened. John Rich, 
together with his brother Christopher, then 
assumed the management and opened the house 
about six weeks after his father's death. Find- 
ing himself imable to contend against the 
superior company engaged at Dmry Lane, he 
hsd recourse to the introduction of a new species 
of entertainment — pantomime — in which music, 
scenery, machinery,^ and appropriate costtimes 
formed the prominent features. In these pieces 
he himself, under the assnmed name of Lun, 
performed the part of Harlequin with such 
ability as to extort the admiration of even the 
most determined opponents of that class of 
en tertainment. [He played Harlequin in ' Cheats, 
or the Tavern Bilkers,' a pantomime by John 

I Moit of Rtob't machinery wm Inrmted br John HOOI0. the 
tniiaUtnr of T%mo. ami hia father, SatDnvt Hoole. an eminent 
watch maker. 




Weaver (adapted from * Les Fourberies de Sea- 
pin'), with music by Dr. Pepusch, in 1716-17. 
w. H. o. F.] [See also Beggar's Opera, vol. 
i. p. 277 ; LiKcoLN*8 Inn Fields Theatre, 
ToL ii. p. 738 ; Pantomime, vol. iii. p. 616.1 
Snconn^E^ by success he at length decided 
upon the erection of a larger theatre, the 
fiUge of which should afford greater facilities 
for scenic and mechanical display, and accord- 
ingly bnilt the first Covent Gu^en Theatre, 
which he opened Dec. 7, 1782. Hogarth 
produced a caricature on the occasion of the 
removal to the new house, entitled 'Rich's 
Glory, or his Triumphal Entry into Covent 
Garden,' copies of which will be found in Wil- 
kinson's Londina llluslraia^ and in H. Saxe 
Wyndham's AnruUs of Covent Garden Theatre, 
voL i. He oondncted the new theatre with 
great success until his death, relying much upon 
the attraction of his pantomimes and musical 
pieces, but by no means neglecting the regular 
drama. In his early days he had attempted 
tragic acting, but failed. He died Nov. 26, 
1761, and was buried Dec. 4, in Hillingdon 
churchyard, Middlesex. (See list of productions, 
etc, in the DicU of NaL Biog,) w. H. H. 

RICHAFORT, Jean, a Flemish musician of 
the earlier part of the 16th century, whom we 
know on the authority of the poet Ronsard to 
hare been a pupil of Josquin Despr^. He was 
one of the more distinguished composers of the 
lieriod immediately after Josquin, in which with 
the retention of what was valuable in the older 
technique of contrapuntal artifice, there was, as 
Mr. Wooldridge observes, a greater approach 
made towards purity of sound and beauty of 
expression. The only known dates of Richafort's 
career are that between 1548 and 1547 he was 
choirmaster of the church of St. Gilles, Bruges, 
but this is supposed to have been towards the 
end of his life, since as early as 1519 a motet 
of his composition appears in one of the collec- 
tions of Petmcci, the Motetti de la Corona, 
lib. ii. His works appeared only in the collec- 
tions of the time, and specially in those of 
Attaignant and Modemus between 1580 and 
1550. Two masses are specially mentioned, 
one 'Ogenetrix gloriosa' published by Attaignant 
1532, and afterwards copied into the Sistine 
c}ia{)el and other choir-books ; the other, ' Veni 
Siionsa Christi,' 1540, based on one of his o^'n 
motets, which Ambros describes as the finest of 
the collection of motets in which it appears. 
The motet has been reprinted in Maldeghem's 
*Tpe9or.' A Requiem, a 6, would seem from the 
account which Ambros gives of it to be on the 
whole more curious than beautiful, though it 
testifies to the aim after intensity of expression. 
While the other voices sing the ritual text, the 
two tenor sing in canon ' Circumdederunt me 
gomitus mortis,' and also reply to each other as 
if with exclamations of personal sorrow, ' c'est 
doulenr non pareille.' If some of Richafort's 

works retain a character of antique severity, 
others, as Eitner observes, are remarkable for 
their wonderful beauty, clearness, and simplicity. 
Several of his motets Ambros singles out for 
high praise. Of one which he mentions, * Quem 
dicunt homines,' the opening portion is given by 
Mr. Wooldridge in the Oxford History of Music, 
vol. ii. pp. 269-70. Glarean gives in full 
Richafort's motet ' Christus resurgens ' as a good 
example of the polyphonic treatment of the 
Ionic mode. Of the fifteen chansons of Richafort 
in various collections, two fine specimens are 
accessible in modem reprints, ' De mon triste 
d^plaisir' in Commer Collectio xii., and 'Sur 
tons r^ets * in Eitner's republication of Ott's 
*Liederbuoh,' 1544. J. R. M. 

comique in three acts ; words by Sedaine, music 
by Gr^tiy. Produced at the Op^ra-Comiquc 
Oct. 21, 1784. The piece has a certain historical 
value. One of the airs, ' Une fi^vre brfilante, ' 
was for long a favourite subject for variations. 
Beethoven wrote a set of eight upon it (in C 
miy'or), published in Nov. 1798, having prob- 
ably heard the air at a concert of Weigl's in 
the preceding March. Another set of seven 
(also in 0) were for long attributed to Mozart, 
but are now decided not to be by him. The 
air *d Richard, 6 mon roi, I'univers t'abandonne,' 
was played on a memorable occasion in the 
early stage of the French Revolution — at the 
banquet at Versailles on Oct. 1, 1789. [Two 
versions were made for the English stage ; 
General Burgoyne's was acted at Drury Lane 
in 1786, and Leonard MaoNally's at Covent 
Garden in the same year. Thomas Linley 
adapted Gr^try's music to one of them and 
the opera remained a standard work for many 
years, f. k.] o. 

RICHARDS, Henry Brinley, soivof Henry 
Richards, organist of St. Peter's, Carmarthen, 
was bom there Nov. 18, 1817, and intended 
for the medical profession, but preferred the 
study of music, and became a pupil of the 
Royal Academy of Music, where he obtained 
the King's scholarship in 1885, and again in 
1887. He soon gained a high position in 
London as a pianist. As a composer he was 
financially very successful, his song * God bless 
the Prince of Wales ' (published in 1862) having 
reached a high pitch of popularity, even out of 
England, and his sacred songs, part-songs, and 
pianoforte ]>ieces having been most favourably 
received. [An overture in F minor was per- 
formed in 1840.1 He composed additional 
songs for the English version of Auber's * Crown 
Diamonds,' when produced at Drury Lane in 
1846. He especially devoted himself to the 
study of Welsh music (upon which he lectured), 
and many of his compositions were inspired by 
his enthusiastic love for his native land. He 
exerted himself greatly in promoting the 
interests of the South Wales Choral Union 




on its visits to London in 1872 and 1878, when 
they successfully competed at the National 
Music Meetings at the Crystal Palace. [He 
died in London, May 1, 1885.] (Additions 
from Did, of NcU. Biog.) w. h. h. 

RICHARDSON, Joseph, an eminent flute- 
player, born in 1814, and died March 22, 
1862. He was engaged in most of the London 
orchestras, was solo player at Jullieu's concerts 
for many years, and afterwaixls became principal 
flute in the Queen's private band. {He played 
at the Melodists* Club and the Society 
Armonica in 1836, and was a member of the 
Liszt concert party in 1841, and visited Dublin 
in that capacity, w. h. g. f.] His neatness 
and rapidity of execution were extraordinary, 
and were the great features of his playing. He 
composed numerous fantasias for his instrument, 
usually extremely brilliant. o. 

RICHARDSON, Vaughan, bom in London 
in the latter half of the 17th century, was iu 
1685 a chorister of the Chapel Royal, under 
Dr. Blow. He was possibly a nephew of Thomas 
Richardson (alto singer, gentleman of the Chapel 
Royal from 1664 to his death, July 23, 1712, 
and lay vicar of Westminster Abbey), and a 
brother of Thomas Richardson, who was his 
fellow-chorister. In June 1 6 93 he was appointed 
organist of Winchester Cathedral. In 1701 he 
published ' A collection of Songs for one, two, 
and three voices, accompany'd with instruments.' 
He was author of some church music : a fine 
anthem, * O Lord God of my salvation,' and an 
Evening Service in C (composed in 1718), are 
in the Tudway Collection (Harl. M8S. 7341 and 
7342), and another anthem, 'O how amiable,* 
also in Tudway, and printed in Page's ' Har- 
monia Sacra ' ; others are in the books of 
different cathedrals. He was also composer of 
' An Entertainment of new Musick, composed 
ou the Peace ' [of Ryswick], 1697 ; * A Song in 
praise of St. Cecilia,' written for a celebration 
at Winchester about 1700, and a 'set of vocal 
and instrumental music,' written for a like 
occasion in 1703. [An autograph volume of 
music, containing foui*teen anthems, a 'Song 
for the King' (1697), six sonatas for strings, 
etc., is in the possession of J. S. Bumpus, Esq.] 
He died before June 26, 1729, and not, as 
commonly stated, in 1715. w. h. ii. 

RICHAULT, Chables Simon, head of a 
family of celebrated French music-publishers, 
born at Chartres, May 10, 1780, came early to 
Paris, and served his apprenticeship in the 
music-trade with J. J. Momigny. From him 
he acquired a taste for the literature of music 
and chamber compositions ; and when he set 
up for himself at No. 7 Rue Grange Bateli^re 
in 1805, the first works he published were 
classical. He soon perceived that there was 
an opening in Paris for editions of the best 
works of German musicians, and the early efforts 
of French composers of promise. His calcula- 

tion proved correct, and his judgment was so 
sound that his business increased rapidly, and 
he was soon obliged to move into larger premises 
in the Boulevard Poissonniere, first at No. 16, 
and then at No. 26. Here he published Mozart's 
Concertos in 8vo score, and other works of the 
classical composers of Germany, and acquired 
the bulk of the stock of the firms of Frey, 
Nadermau, Sieber, Pleyel, Petit, Erard, and 
Delahante. He moved in 1862 to No. 4 iu 
the Boulevard des Italiens. In this house he 
died, Feb. 20, 1866, well known as a publisher 
of judgment and abilil^, a man of keen intel- 
lect, and a pleasant social companion. His son, 

GuiLLAVME Simon, bom in Paris, Nov. 2, 
1806, had long been his father's paitner, and 
continued in the old line of serious music. At 
the same time he realised that in so important a 
business it was well that the Italian school should 
be represented, and accordingly bought tlie stock 
of the publisher Pacini. On his death, Feb. 7, 
1877, his son, 

L£oN, bom in Paris, August 6, 1839, resolved 
to give a fresh impetus to the firm, which already 
possessed 1 8, 000 publications. Bearing in mind 
that his grandfather had been the first to publish 
Beethoven's Symphonies and Mozart's Concertos 
in score ; to make known in France the oratorios 
of Bach and Handel, and the works of Schubert, 
Mendelssohn, and Schumann ; to bring out the 
first operas of Ambroise Thomas and Victor 
Mass^ ; to encourage Berlioz when his * Dam- 
nation de Faust' was received with contempt, 
and to welcome the orchestral compositions of 
Reber and Gouvy ; M. L^n Richault above all 
determined to maintain the editions of the 
German classical masters which had made Uie 
fortune of the firm. His intelligent administra- 
tion of his old and honourable business procured 
him a silver medal at the International Ex- 
hibition of 1878, the highest recompense open 
to music-publishers, the jury having refused 
them the gold med2J. g. o. 

RICHTER, Ernst Friedrich Eduard, son 
of a schoolmaster, bom Oct. 24, 1 808, at Gross- 
schonau in Lusatia ; from his eleventh year 
attended the Gymnasium at Zittau, managed 
the choir, and arranged independent jierform- 
ances. In 1 83 1 he went to Leipzig to study with 
Weinlig, the then Cantor, and made such pro- 
gress that soon after the foundation of the 
Conservatorium, in 1843, he became one of the 
professors of harmony and counterpoint. Up to 
1847 he conducted the Singakademie ; he was 
afterwards organist successively of the Petci^- 
kirche (1851) and the Neukirche and Nicolai- 
kirche (1862). After Hauptmann's death, Jan. 
3, 1868, he succeeded him as Cantor of the 
Thomasschule. Of his books, the Lehrbueh der 
ffarmanie (afterwards called Praktische Studien 
zur TJuorie\ (12th ed. 1876), has been trans- 
lated into Dutch, Swedish, Italian, Russian, 
Polish, and English. The Lehre von der Fvtre 




has passed through three editions, and Vom 
Contrapunct through two. The English transla^ 
tions of all these are by Franklin Taylor, and 
were published by Cramer & Go. in 1864, 
187 8, and 1874 respectively, Richter also 
published a GaUchism of Orffan-building, Of 
his mAny compositions de Hreonstanee the best 
known is the Cantata 'Dithyrambe/ for the 
Schiller Festival in 1869. Other works are — 
an oratorio, 'Christus der Erloser' (Mai-ch 8, 
1S49), masses, psalms, motets, organ-pieces, 
string-qnartets, and sonatas for PF. He became 
one of the King's Professors in 1868, died at 
Leipzig, April 9, 1879, and was succeeded as 
Cantor by W. Rust. F. g. 

RICHTER, Feroinakd Tobias, a native of 
AViirzbnrg, the date of whose birth is given as 
1649, 8QiS«eded Alessandro Poglietti as Imperial 
Court organist at Vienna in 1688. In the 
(/neilen- Lexikon he is wrongly said to have 
been the teacher in composition of the Emperor 
Leopold L, but he was undoubtedly music 
teadier to Leopold's children, the future Emperor 
Joseph I., and the three Archduchesses. Richter 
enjoyed a high reputation as organ-player and 
composer. Several even of Pachelbel's pupils 
at Nuremberg came afterwards to Vienna to 
perfect themselves in organ-playing by further 
Instructions from Richter, and Pachelbel him- 
self must have held Richter in high esteem, 
since in 1699 he dedicated to him along with 
Buztehude his organ or clavier work entitled 
*Hexachordum Apollinis.' It is all the more 
remarkable that so few organ works of Richter 
have been preserved. In a recent volume of 
the Denkmiiler der Tonkunst in Oesterreich 
(Jahrg. ziii. Th. 2) three clavier suites out of 
a set of five, and an organ toccata with short 
fugued Versetti out of a set of five on the church 
tones intended for liturgical use, have been 
printed for the first time, but hardly suffice to 
explain his great reputation. The Imperial 
libmry at Vienna preserves in MS. two serenatas 
by Richter evidently intended for court fes- 
tivities, ' L' Istro ossequioeo,' and * Le promesse 
degli Dei ; ' also five spiritual dramas composed 
for performance by the pupils of the Jesuit 
college at Vienna. There are also some instru- 
mental works, a sonata a 7 (described as for two 
Trombe, one Timpano, two violini, two viole 
da braccio e cembalo), along with some Balletti 
a 4 and a 5, also two Sonatas a 8. Richter died 
at Vienna in 1711. J. R. M. 

RICHTER, Franz Xaver, was bom at Hblli- 
schau in Moravia on Dec. 1 or 81,^ 1709. His 
first official poet was that of capellmeister to the 
Abbot of Kempten, which he held from 1740 
until 1 750, when difficulties appearto have arisen 
with the authorities as the result of his duplica- 
tion of posts. He had been a bass-singer at 

I Gerter's texikon, followed by Rlemann. Ill his LttxtJton, and In 
hi» pntiea to tbe ]>aikin. toIiiidc eoutaining worics tqr Richter, 
fivw Dec. I m tho dftto of hirth ; Btiier'e «««aMi-£«9rUon foUowe 
UbetelB'e Je«ni^ eCe.. in giniif Deo. n M the dAtCL 

the court of Mannheim since 1747, and no doubt 
this was the cause of his dismissal fh>m Kempten. 
He is stated by F. Walter, Oesehiekte des TheaierSf . 
etc. (1898), to have appeared in operatic per- 
formances in 1748 and 1749. He was also 
engaged as leader of the second violins in the 
orchestra. An oratorio, * La deposizione della 
croce,' was performed at Mannheim in 1748. 
He left Mannheim for Strasburg in 1769, 
becoming capellmeister at the Minster, and 
spending the remainder of his life there. He 
died Sept. 12, 1789, and was succeeded by 
Ignaz Pleyel, who, according to Fetls, had acted 
as liis assistant for six years. Bumey, in his 
Present State (Germany), ii. 327, speaks of the 
great reputation Richter eiyoyed, and of the 
want of real individuality in his music. He 
speaks of his frequent employment of the 
device called Rosalia. He left sixty - four 
symphonies, of which the themes of sixty-two 
are given in the volume devoted to the Mann- 
heim school of symphonists in the Denknu der 
Tmik, in Baycm, vol. iii 1. Three of the sym- 
phonies are printed in full, and the preface 
contains a detailed account of the composer. 
An enormous mass of church music is ascribed 
to him in Riemann's Lexikcni, such as twenty - 
eight masses, two requiems, sixteen psalms, 
thirty-eight motets, etc. The Quellen-Lexikon 
gives a more limited list of extant works, and 
contains many doubtful statements concerning 
the composer. m. 

RICHTER, Hans, celebrated conductor, born 
April 4, 1843, at Raab in Hungary, where his 
father was capellmeister of the cathedral. His 
mother, n^ Josephine Csazinsky, sang the part 
of Venus in ^Tannhauser' at the first performance 
in Vienna in 1857 ; she was afterwards a very 
successful teacher of singing in Vienna, and 
died Oct. 20, 1892. The father died in 1853, 
and Hans was then placed at the Lowenburg 
Convict-School in Vienna. Thence he went 
into the choir of the Court chapel, and remained 
there for four years. In 1860 he entered the 
Conservatorium, and studied the horn under 
Kleinecke, the violin under Heissler, and theory 
under Sechter. After a lengthened engagement 
as horn-player in the orchestra of the Kiimth- 
nerthor opera he was recommended by Esser to- 
Wagner, went to him at Lucerne, remained there 
from Oct. 1866 to Dec. 1867, and made the first 
fair copy of the score of the * Meistereinger. ' In 
1868heaccepted the post of conductor at theHof- 
und National Theatre, Munich, and remained 
there for a year. He next visited Paris, and 
after ashort residence there, proceeded to Brussels- 
for the production of * Lohengrin ' (March 22, 
1 870). He then returned to Wagner at Lucerne, 
assisted at the first performance of the ' Siegfried 
Idyll ' (Dec. 1870), and made the fair copy of the 
score of the * Nibelungen Ring ' for the engraver. 
In April 1871 he went to Pesth as chief conductor 
of the National Theatre, a post to which he owes 




much of his great practical knowledge of the stage 
and stage business. In Jan. 1875 he conducted 
a grand orchestral concert in Vienna, which had 
the effect of attracting much public attention 
to him, and accordingly, after the retirement 
of Dessoff from the Court opera, Richter was 
invited to take the poet, which he entered upon 
in the autumn of 1876, concurrently with the 
conductorship of the Philharmonic Concerts. 
In 1884-90 he acted as conductor of the concerts 
of the Gesellsohaft der Musik&eunde. 

He had conducted the rehearsals of the 
' Nibelungen Ring ' at Bayreuth, and in 1876 he 
directed the whole of the rehearsals and perform- 
ances of the Festival there, and, at the dose of the 
third set of performances, received the Order of 
Maximilian from the King of Bavaiia, and that 
of the Falcon from the Grand Duke of Weimar. 
In 1877 he produced the * Walkiire ' in Vienna, 
and followed it in 1878 by the other portions 
of tlie trilogy. In 1878 he was made court 
capellmeister, and received the Order of Franz 
Josef. His first introduction to English audiences 
was at the famous Wagner Concerts given in the 
Albert Hall in 1877, when he shared the duties 
of conductor with Wagner himself. In 1879 
/May 5-12), 1880 (May 10-June 14), and 1881 
(May 9-nJune 23) were started what were at 
first called 'Orchestral Festival Concerts,' but 
afterwards the * Richter Concerts,' in London, 
which excited much attention, chiefly for the 
conductor's knowledge of the scores of Beethoven's 
symphonies and other large works, which he 
conducted without book. [The Richter Concerts 
went on for many years with great success, but 
after the great conductor went to live in 
Manchester in 1897, as director of theManohester 
Orchestra, the London concerts were given less 
regularly. In 1882 and 1884 he conducted 
impoi-tant performances of German operas in 
London, introducing 'Die Meistersinger ' and 
' Tristan 'to the Loudon public. The special per- 
formances of German opera which form part of 
the Covent Garden season have been conducted 
by Richter siuce 1904. Since 1885 he has con- 
ducted the Birmingham Festival. In that year 
he received the honorary degree of Mu8.D. at 
Oxford. He has numberless decorations. (See 
Musical Times, 1899, pp. 441-6.) A special 
concert in celebration of his thirty years' work 
in England took place at .the Queen's Hall, June 
3, 1907.1 

Herr Richter is certainly one of the very 
greatest of conductors. He owes this position in 
great measure to the fact of his intimate practi- 
cal acquaintance with the technique of the instru- 
ments in the orchestra, especially the wind, to 
a degree in which he stands alone. As a musi- 
cian he is a self-made man, and enjoys the pecu- 
liar advantages which spring from that fact 
His devotion to his orchestra is great, and the 
high standard and position of the band of the 
Vienna opera-house is due to him. He is a 

great master of crescendo and d£cre9cendOy and of 
the finer shades of accelerating and retarding 
the time. F. g. 

RICOCHET. The employment of the bound- 
ing staccato — stacoaUi a rieoehet — ^is thus indi- 
cated in violin music As the best examples of 
this bowing are to be found in the works of tlie 
French and Belgian composers, it is probable 
that it owes its invention to the father of 
virtuosity — Paganini. The same system which 
governs the flying staocato — so brilliantly 
applied by Paganini, de B^ot, Wieniai^'ski, 
Vieuxtemps, and latter-day virtuosi, to the 
execution of swift chromatic passages — 
dominates the ricochet, but being thrown u|>on 
the strings less rapidly, and with more force, 
the effect is heavier. To accomplish this style 
of bowing neatly, the stick should be held so 
that the full breadth of the hair at the up{)er 
part shall fall upon the strings accurately. The 
wrist must remain flexible, while the fingers grip 
the bow firmly and relax to allow the bow to re- 
bound. Two graoeftd examples of the application 
of the ricochet are to be found in the Bolero of de 
B^riot's * Scene de Ballet,' and in the Polonaise 
of Vieuxtemps's * Ballade et Polonaise.' o. k. 

RICORDI, GiovAKXi, founder of the well- 
known music-publishing house in Milan, where 
he was bom in 1785, and died March 15, 1853. 
He made his first hit with the score of Mosca's 
' Pretendenti delusi.' Since that time the firm 
lias published for all the great Italian maestri^ 
down to Verdi and Boito, and has far out- 
stripped all rivals. The OasseUa fnusioaley 
edited with great success by Mazzucato, has had 
much influence on its prosperity. It jxissesses 
the whole of the original scores of the o])eras 
it has published — a most interesting collec- 
tion. Giovanni's son and successor Tito (bom 
Oct 29, 1811, died Sept 7, 1888) further 
enlai^ged the business. The catalogue issued 
in 1875 contains 738 iwges large 8vo. The 
present head of the firm is his son GiULio Di 
Tito, bom Dec 19, 1840, who is a practised 
writer, a skilled draughtsman, a composer of 
drawing-room music, under the pseudonym of 
Burgmein, and in all respects a thoroughly 
cultivated man. F. o. 

RIDDELL, John (or 'Riddle'), composer of 
Scottish dance music, bom at Ayr, Sept. 2, 
1718. It is stated in 'The Balhids and Songs 
of Ayrshire,' 1846, that Riddell was blind from 
infancy, also that he was composer of tlie well- 
known tune 'Jenny's Bawbee.' This latter 
statement is not authenticated. Bums mentions 
him as 'a bard -bom genius,' and says he is 
composer of ' this most beautiful tune ' (' Fin- 
layston House '). 

Riddell published about 1766 his first ' Col- 
lection of Scots Reels, or Country Dances, and 
Minuets,' and a second edition of it, in obloug 
folio, in 1 782. He died April 6, 1795. r. k. 

RIDDELL, Robert, a Scottish antiquary. 




and friend of Bobei't Burns. He was an aimy 
(or Volauteer) captain, and resided on the family 
estate Glenriddell, Dumfrieeshire. He was an 
amateur oompoeer of Scottish dance music, and 
wrote the mudc to one or two of Bums's songs. 
His most interesting publication (1794) is 'A 
Collection of Scotch, Galwegian, and Border Tunes 
. . . selected by Bobert Riddell of Glenriddell, 
Esq. , ' folio. He died at Friars' Carse, April 21 , 
1794. r. K. 

RIDOTTO. See Redcutjs. 

RI£D£L, Cakl, bom Oct 6, 1827, at Kronen- 
berg in the Rhine provinces. Though always 
mosicfldly inclined he was educated for trade, 
and was at Lyons in the silk business until 
3848, when he determined to devote himself 
to moaio as a profession. He returned home 
and at once began serious study under the 
direction of Carl Wilhelm, then an obscure 
musician at Crefeld, but destined to be widely 
known as the author of the * Wacht am Rhein.' 
Late in 1849 Riedel entered the Leipzig Con- 
servatoiium, where he made great jirogress 
under Moscheles, Hauptmann, Becker,and Flaidy . 
He had long had a strong predilection for the 
vocal works of the older masters of Germany 
and Italy. He practised and performed in a 
private society at Leipzig Astorga's *Stabat,' 
Palestrina's ' Improperia,' and Leo's * Miserere,' 
and this led him to found a singing society of 
his own, which began on May 17, 1854, with 
a simple quartet of male voices, and was the 
foundation of the famous Aasociation which, 
under the name of the ' Riedelsche Verein,' was 
so celebrated in Leipzig. Their first public 
concert was held in November 1855. The 
reality of tlie attempt was soon recognised ; 
members flocked to the society ; and its first 
great achievement was a ])erformance of Bach's 
B minor Mass, April 10, 1859. At that time 
Riedel appears to have practised only ancient 
music, but this rule was by no means main- 
tained ; and in the list of the works performed 
by the Verein we find Beethoven's Mass in D, 
Kiel's 'Christus,' Berlioz's 'Messe des Morts,' 
and Liszt's ' Graner Meese ' and ' St. Elizabeth.' 
Riedel's devotion to his choir was extraordinary : 
he was not only its conductor, but librarian, 
secretary, treasurer, all in one. His intei*est 
in the welfare of music was always ready and 
always effective, and many of the best vocal 
associations of Korth Germany owe their success 
to his advice and help. He was one of the 
founders of the < Beethovenstiftung,' and an 
earnest supporter of the Wagner performances 
at Bayrenth in 1876. His own com|)06itions 
are cMefly part-songs for men's voices, but he 
edited several important ancient works by 
Pl-aetorios, Franck, Eccard, and other old Ger- 
man writcffs, especially a ' Passion ' by Hein- 
rich Schutz, for which he selected the best 
portions of four Passions by that master — a 
proceeding certainly deserving all that can be 

said against it Riedel died in Leipzig, June 
3, 1888. o. 

R1£M, WiLHJSLM Fkiedrich, bomatCoUeda 
in Thuringia, Feb. 17, 1779, was one of J. A. 
Hiller's pupils in the Thomasschule at Leipzig. 
In 1807 he was made organist of the Kefoimed 
church there, and in 1814 of the Thomas- 
schule itself. In 1822 he was called to Bremen 
to take the cathedral organ and be director of 
the Singakademie, where he remained till his 
death, April 20, 1837. He was an industrious 
writer. His cantata for the anniversary of tlie 
Augsburg Confession, 1830 (for which Mendels- 
sohn's Reformation Symphony was intended) 
is dead ; so are his quintets, quartets, trios, 
and other large works, but some of his eight 
sonatas and twelve sonatinas are still used for 
teaching purposes. He left two books of studies 
for the PF., which are out of print, and sixteen 
progressive exercises, besides useful compositions 
for the organ. g. 

RIEMANN, Kakl Wilhelm Julius Hugo, 
was bom at Grossmehlra near Sondershaiiscn, 
July 18, 1849, and studied law, etc., at Berlin 
and Tubingen. He saw active service in the 
Franco -German war, and afterwards devoted 
his life to music, studying in the Leipzig Cou- 
servatorium. After some years' residence at 
Bielefeld as a teacher, he was ap]>ointed to the 
l^ost of * privatdozent ' in the University of 
Leipzig, which he held fi*om 1878 to 1880, 
going thence to Bromberg; in 1881-90 he was 
teacher of the piano and theory in the Hambui-g 
Conservatorium, and subsequently (after a three- 
months' stay at the conservatoriiun of Sonders- 
hausen) was given a post at the CouseiTatorium 
of Wiesbaden (1890-95). In the latter year 
he returned to Leipzig, as a lecturer in the 
University, and in 1901 was api>ointed 2>rofessor. 
Ho has been amazingly active as a writer on 
every branch of musical knowledge, but his work 
is as thorough as if it had been small in extent. 
On the teaching of harmony, on musical phrasing 
and the peculiarities of notation required for 
explaining his system to students, he has 
strongly supported various innovations, most 
of them due to his own inventive faculty. Tlie 
complete list of his works is given in his own 
Afusiklexikoyif to which the reader must be 
referred ; Die Naiur der Harmonik (1882), 
VereinfachU Hamvonielehre (1893), Lehrbuch 
des . , , CoM^rajwnir^s (1888), have been trans- 
lated into English, as well as the various 
catechisms dealing with every branch of 
musical study, and the famous Musiklexikini 
(first edition, 1882, sixth, 1905, Engl, transla- 
tion, 1893, etc.). The useful OpetmJiandhuch 
(1884-98) and works on musical histoiy must 
not be forgotten. As a practical illustration of 
his excellent method of teaching the art of 
phrasing, his editions of classical and romantic 
pianoforte music, called 'Phraaierungsausgaben,' 
may l)e mentioned. He has edited many 




masterpieces of ancient music, as, for instance, 
the works of Abaoo and the Mannheim sym- 
phonists for the Denkmaler der Tonkunst in 
Bayern (1900 and 1902 respectively). His 
original compositions — for he has found time 
to write music as well as musical literature — 
are numerous but not very important, being 
mainly of an educational kind ; but his position 
in the musical world of Germany is deservedly 
a very high one. m. 

RIEMSDIJK, J. 0. M. van, bom 1843, died 
June 30, 1895, at Utrecht, was a member of an 
aristocratic family, and thus grew up amid the 
best and most powerful social influences. An 
enthusiastic amateur musician, he threw him- 
self into the work of furthering the cause of 
music. A cultivated scholar, he devoted him- 
self to editing the old songs of the Netherlands 
with marked success. A practical and business- 
like citizen, he became Technical Director of the 
State railway. His house was always open to 
any artists, and his welcome was always ready 
for those who followed music as a profession. 

He was chairman of the ' Society of Musical 
history in the North Netherlands,' in which 
capacity he doubtless had many facilities for 
collecting old Netherland Folk- Songs, of which 
he availed himself in the most able manner. 
His works are as follows : — 

1881. StaU Mude School of UtrodU 16S1-18B1 (» eompleto hiatory 
of the Art of Hiulc in the NetherUnda beivMU tha«e dat«). 
*18S3. NetherUnd Danoes kirangwl for PF. Duet. 
1088. The two tint Kudo books of TylmAB 8ua»to (e. 1549). a 

ooUeetlon of NetherUnd Polk Song* of the 18th oentary. 
*1888. Horiiu Hoeiciu of J. A. Betnken (18Bf-17SSI) for two 

Tiolini, TiolA. and bua (truulatiou Into Dutch). 
•1890. Twenty-four Songa of the 16th and 16th centuries with PP. 

1896. Polk Song book of the Netherlanda (posthumous). 
The works marked thus * are among the publloations of the 
Vereenlging voor N.-Nederianda Muslkgesohledenia. jy ^ 

(the last of the Tribunes). An opera in five 
acts ; words (founded on Bulwer's novel) and 
music by Wagner. He adopted the idea in 
Dresden in 1837 ; two acts were finished early 
in 1839, and the opera was produced at Dresden, 
Oct. 20, 1842. 'Rienzi' was brought out in 
French (Nuitter and GuilUume) at the Theatre 
Lyrique, April 16, 1869, and in English at 
Her Majesty's Theatre, London (Carl Rosa), 
Jan. 27, 1879. o. 

RIES. A distinguished family of musicians. 

1. JoHANN RiES, native of Benzheim on the 
Rhine, bom 1 723, was appointed Court trumpeter 
to the Elector of Cologne at Bonn [with a salary 
of 192 thalers], May 2, 1747, and violinist in 
the Capelle, March 5, 1754. On April 27, 1 764, 
his daughter Anna Maria was appointed singer. 
In 1774 she married Ferdinand Drewer, violinist 
in the band, and remained first soprano till the 
break-up in 1794. Her father died at Cologne 
in 1784. Her brother, Franz Anton, was bom 
at Bonn, Nov. 10, 1755, and was an infant phe- 
nomenon on the violin ; learned from J. P. Salo- 
mon, and was able to take his father's place in the 
orchestra at the age of eleven. His salary began 

when he was nineteen [at 25 thalers a year ; he 
occupied the' post until 1774]. In 1779 he 
visited Vienna, and made a great success as a 
solo and quartet player. But he elected to re- 
main, on poor pay, in Bonn, and was rewarded 
by having Beethoven as his pupil and friend. 
[On March 2, 1779, he petitioned the Elector 
Maximilian for a post, and received it on 
May 2.] During the poverty of the Beethoven 
family, and through the miser}' caused by the 
death of Lud wig's mother in 1787, Franz Ries 
stood by them like a real friend. In 1794 
the French arrived, and the Elector's establish- 
ment was broken up. Some of the members of 
the band dispersed, but Ries remained, and 
documents are preserved which show that after 
the passing away of the invasion he was to have 
been Court-musician.^ Events, however, were 
otherwise ordered ; he remained in Bonn, and 
at Godesberg, where he had a little house, till 
his death ; held various small offices, culminat- 
ing in the Bonn city government in 1800, 
taught the violin, and brought up his children 
well. He assisted Wegeler in his Notices of 
Beethoven, was present at the imveiling of 
Beethoven's statue in 1845, had a Doctor's 
degree and the Order of the Red Eagle conferred 
on him, and died, Nov. 1, 1846, aged ninety- 
one all but nine days. 

2. Franz's son Ferdinand, who with the 
Archduke Rudolph enjoys the distinction of 
being Beethoven's pnpU, was bom at Bonn in 
November (baptized Nov. 28) 1784. He was 
brought up firom his cradle to music. His 
father taught him the pianoforte and violin, 
and B. Romberg the violoncello. In his 
childhood he lost an eye through small pox. 
After the break-up of the Elector's band he 
remained three years at home, working very 
hard at theoretical and practical music, scoring 
the quartets of Haydn and Mozart, and arrang- 
ingthe ' Creation, ' the * Seasons, 'and the Requiem 
with such ability that they were all three pub- 
lished by Simrock. 

In 1801 he went to Munich to study under 
Winter, in a larger field than he could com- 
mand at home. Here he was so badly off as to 
be driven to copy music at 3d. a sheet. But 
poor as his income was he lived within it, and 
when after a few months Winter left Munich 
for Paris, Ries had saved seven ducats. With 
this he went to Vienna in October 1801, taking 
a letter from his father to Beethoven. Beet- 
hoven received him well, and when he had 
read the letter said, ' I can't answer it now ; but 
write and tell him that I have not foi^tten 
the time when my mother died ' ; and knowing 
how miserably poor the lad was, he on several 
occasions gave him money unasked, for which 
he would accept no retum. The next three 
years Ries spent in Vienna. Beethoven took 

1 See the onrfoua and Important llsta and memorandnma, pui»- 
Uahed for the flnt time in Thayer'a aw O esew. L SO. 




a great deal of pains with his pianoforte-play- 
ing, but would teach him nothing else. He, 
however, prevailed on Albrechtsberger to take 
luDi as a pupil in composition. The lessons 
cost a ducat each ; Ries had in some way saved 
up twenty -eight ducats, and therefore had 
twenty-eight lessons. Beethoven also got him 
an appointment as pianist to Count Browne, the 
Russian chargi dCaffaires^ and at another time 
to Count Lichnowsky. The pay for these 
services was probably not over-abundant, but 
it kept him, and the position gave him access 
to the best musical society. Into Ries's relations 
with Beethoven we need not enter here. They 
are touched upon in the sketch of tlie great 
master in vol. i. of this work, and they are 
fully laid open in Ries's own invaluable notices. 
He had a great deal to bear, and considering 
the secrecy and imperiousness which Beethoven 
often threw into his intercourse with every one, 
there was probably much unpleasantness in the 
relationship. Meantime of course Ries must 
have become saturated with the music of his 
great master ; a thing which could hardly tend 
to foster any little originality he may ever have 

As a citizen of Bonn he was amenable to the 
French conscription, and in 1805 was summoned 
to appear there in person. He left in Sept. 
1805, made the journey on foot via Prague, 
Dresden, and Leipzig, reached Coblenz within 
the prescribed limit of time, and was then 
dismissed on account of the loss of his eye. 
He then went on to Paris, and existed in 
mu$ery for apparently at least two years, at the 
end of which time he was advised to try Russia. 
On August 27, 1808, he was again in Vienna, 
and soon afterwards received from Reichardt 
an offer of the post of capellmeister to Jerome 
Bonaparte, King of Westphalia, at Cassel, 
which Reichardt alleged had been refused by 
Beethoven. Ries behaved with perfect loyalty 
and stnughtforwardness in the matter. Before 
replying, he endeavoured to find out from 
Beethoven himself the real state of the case ; 
bat Beethoven having adopted the idea that 
Ei&i was trying to get the post over his head, 
wonld not see him, and for three weeks behaved 
to him with an incredible degree of cruelty 
aud insolence. When he could be made to 
listen to the facts he was sorry enough, but the 
opfiortunity was gone. 

The occupation of Vienna (May 12, 1809) by 
the French was not favourable to artistic life. 
Kiea, however, as a French subject, was free to 
wander. He accordingly went to Cassel, pos- 
sibly with some lingering hopes, played at 
Court, and remained till the end of February 
1810, very much applauded and fSted, and 
making money — but had no offer of a post. 
From Oassel he went by Hamburg and Copen- 
hagen to Stockholm, where we find him in 
Sept. 1810, making both money and reputation. 


He had still his eye on Russia, but between 
Stockholm and Petersburg the ship was taken 
by an English man-of-war, and all the passengers 
were turned out upon an island in the Baltic. 
In Petersburg he found Bemhard Romberg, and 
the two made a successful tour, embracing 
places as wide apart as Kiev, Reval, and Riga. 
The burning of Moscow (Sept. 1812) put a stop 
to his progi-ess in that direction, and we next 
find bim again at Stockholm in April 1813, tni 
route for Kngland. By the end of the month 
he was in London. 

Here he found his countryman and his father's 
friend, Salomon, who received him cordially 
and introduced him to the Philharmonic 
Concerts. His first appearance there was March 
14, 1814, in his own PF. Sextet. His sym- 
phonies, overtures, and chamber works fre- 
quently occur in the programmes, and ho 
himself appears from time to time as a PF. 
player, but rarely if ever with works of 
Beethoven's. Shortly after his arrival he married 
an English lady of great attractions, and ho 
remained in London till 1824, one of the most 
conspicuous figures of the musical world. * Mr. 
Ries,' says a writer in the Hdrmonieon of March 
1824, 'is justly celebrated as one of the finest 
pianoforte performers of the day ; his hand is 
powerful and his execution certain, often sur- 
prising ; but his playing is most distinguished 
from that of all others by its romantic wildness. ' 

His sojourn here was a time of herculean 
labour. His compositions numbered at their 
dose nearly 180, including 6 fine symphonies ; 

4 overtures ; 6 string quintets, and 14 do. 
quartets ; 9 concertos for PF. and orchestra ; 
an octet, a septet, 2 sextets, and a quintet, 
for various instruments ; 3 PF. quartets, and 

5 do. trios ; 20 duets for PF. and violin ; 10 
sonatas for PF. solo ; besides a vast number of 
rondos, variations, fantasias, etc., for the PF. 
solo and duet. Of these 38 are attributable to 
the time of his residence here, and they embrace 
2 symphonies, 4 concertos, a sonata, and many 
smalliar pieces. As a pianist and teacher he 
was veiy much in request. He was an active 
member of the Philharmonic Society. His 
correspondence with Beethoven during the 
whole period is highly creditable to him, 
proving his gratitude towards his master, and 
the energy with which he laboured to promote 
Beethoven's interests. That Beethoven profited 
so little therefrom was no fault of Ries's. 

Having accumulated a fortune adequate to 
the demands of a life of comfort, he gave a 
farewell concert in London, April 8, 1824, and 
removed with his wife to Godesberg, near his 
native town, where he had purchased a property. 
Though a loser by the failure of a London 
bank in 1825-26, he was able to live inde- 
pendently. About 1880 he removed to 
Frankfort. His residence on the Rhine brought 
him into close contact with the Lower Rhine 




Festivals, and he directed the performances of 
the years 1825, 1829, 1830, 1832, 1834, and 
1837, as well as those of 1826 and 1828 in 
conjunction with Spohr and Klein respectively. 
In 1834 he was appointed head of the town 
orchestra and Singakademie at Aix-la-Chapelle. 
3ut he was too independent to keep any post, 
and in 1836 he gave this up and returned to 
Frankfort. In 1837 he assumed the direction 
of the Cecilian Society there on the death of 
Schelble, but this lasted a few months only, 
for on Jan. 13, 1838, he died after a short 

The principal works which he composed after 
his return to Germany are *Die Riiuberbraut,' 
which was first performed in Frankfort probably 
in 1829, then in Leipzig, July 4, and London, 
July 1 5, of the same year, and often afterwards 
in Germany ; another opera, known in Germany 
as ' Liska,' but produced at the Adelphi, London, 
in English, as *The Sorcerer,* by Arnold's com- 
pany, August 4, 1831, and a third, ' Eine Nacht 
auf dem Libanon ' ; an oratorio, * Der Sieg des 
Glaubens' (The Triumph of the Faith), ap- 
parently performed in Dublin for the first time 
in 1831 ^ and then at Berlin, 1835 ; and a second 
oratorio, *Die Konige Israels' (The Kings of 
Israel), Aix-la-Chapelle, 1837. He also wrote 
much chamber music and six symphonies. All 
these works, however, are dead. Beethoven once 
said of his compositions, ' he imitates me too 
much.' He caught the style and the phrases, 
but he could not catch the immortality of his 
master's work. One work of his will live — the 
admirable Biographical Notices of Ludwig van 
Beethoven, which he published in conjunction 
with Dr. Wegeler (Coblenz, 1838). The two 
writers, though publishing together, have fortu- 
nately kept their contributions quite distinct ; 
Ries's occupies from pp. 76 to 163 of a little 
duodecimo volume, and of these the last thirty- 
five pages ai-e occupied by Beethoven's letters. 
The work is translated into French by Le Gentil 
(Dentu, 1862), and partially into English by 
Moschelos, as an Appendix to his version of 
Schindler's Life of Beethoven. 

3. Hubert, youngest brother of the preced- 
ing, was bom at Bonn, April 1, 1802. He made 
his first studies as a violinist under his father, 
and afterwards under Spohr. Hauptmann was 
his teacher in composition. From 1 824 he lived 
at Berlin. In that year he entered the band of the 
Konigstadt Theatre, Berlin, and in the following 
year became a member of the Royal band. In 
1835 he was appointed Director of the Phil- 
harmonic Society at Berlin. In 1836 he was 
nominated Conoertmeister, and in 1839 elected 
a member of the Royal Academy of Arts. [In 
1851 he became a teacher at the Kgl. Theater- 
instrumentalsohule, from which he retired with 
a pension in 1872.] A thorough musician and 
a solid violinist, he was held in great esteem as 

i Infonaation from L. X'C. U DU, Bhi. 

a leader, and more especially as a methodical 
and conscientious teacher. His Violin-School 
for beginners is a very meritorious work,eminently 
practical, and >videly used. He published two 
violin-concertos, studies and duets for violins, 
and some quartets. An English edition of the 
Violin-School appeared in 1873 (Hofmeister). 
He died in Berlin, Sept. 14, 1886. Three of 
his sons gained reputation as musicians : — 

Louis, violinist, born at Berlin, Jan. 30, 1830, 
pupil of his father and of Vieuxtemps, has, since 
1853, been settled in London, where he enjoys 
great and deserved reputation as violinist and 
teacher. He was a member of the Quartet of 
the Musical Union from 1855 to 1870, and held 
the second violin at the Monday Popular Con- 
certs from their beginning in 1859, until his 
retirement in 1897. 

Adolph, pianist, bom at Berlin, Dec 20, 
1837, died in April 1899. He was a pupil of 
Kullak for the piano, and of Boehmer for com- 
]x>sition, and lived in London as a pianoforte 
teacher. He published a number of oom|X}8i- 
tions for the piano, and some tongs, a. w. t. ; 
with additions in square brackets by E. h.-a. 

RIES, Franz, violinist and composer, was 
bom on April 7, 1846, in Berlin. His musical 
gifts were apparent in early youth. The 
))osse8sor of an alto voice of exceptional beauty, 
he was admitted at the age of twelve to the 
JConigl. Dorncfwr (royal Cathedral choir), which 
then, under Neithardt's direction, enjoyed con- 
siderable reputation in the musical circles of 
Berlin. He studied the violin in the first 
instance under his father, and afterwards, in 
Paris, under Leon Massart and Henri Vieux- 
temps. In composition he was a pupil of 
Friedr. Kiel. Gained in 1 868 the first prize at 
the Paris Conservatoire, and was active in the 
musical life of the city as soloist and also as 
viola -player in the Vieuxtemps Quartet. In 
1870 he migrated, owing to the Franco-German 
war, to London, appearing as a soloist at the 
Crystal Palace. But in 1872 an unfortunate 
nerve affection of the left hand compelled him 
to renounce the career of an executive artist. 
He founded in 1874 a publishing business in 
Dresden, and ten years later became partner in 
the firm Ries k Erler in Berlin, where he still 
resides. As a composer his main successes have 
been made in four suites for violin and piano- 
forte, which are in the repertory of almost 
every famous violinist. He has also vrritten a 
string quintet, two string quartets, a dramatic 
overture, piano and violin solos and arrange- 
ments, besides a series of songs, one of which, 
the 'Rheinlied,' has taken rank in the Rhine 
provinces as a Folk-song. w. w, c. 

German firm of music-publishers. The founder 
was Jacob Melohior Rieter-Biedermann (bom 
May 14, 1811 ; died Jan. 25, 1876), who in 
Jime 1849 opened a retail business and lending- 




libraiy at W'intertliar. Since the first work 
vas pabliahed in 1856, tlie business has con- 
tinually improved and increased. In 1862, 
a poblishing branch was .opened at Leipzig. 
The stock catalogue of the firm includes nmsic 
by Berlioz, Brahms (PF. Concerto, PF. Quintet, 
Bequiem, Magelone-Lieder, etc.) ; A. Dietrich ; 
J. O. Grimm ; Gemsheim ; Ton Herzogenberg ; 
F. Hiller ; Holstein ; Kirchner ; Lachner ; 
F. Marschner ; Mendelssohn (op. 98, Nos. 2, 
3 ; opp. 103, 106, 106, 108, 115, 116); Raff; 
Eleinecke ; Schumann (opp. 130, 137, 138, 140, 
142); etc. G. 

RIETZ (originally Ritz ^) Ebuasd, the elder 
brother of Julius Rietz, an excellent violinist, 
was bom at Berlin, Oct. 17, 1802. He studied 
nrst under his father, a member of the royal 
band, and afterwards, for some time, under Rode. 
He died too young to acquire more than a local 
reputation, but his name will always be re- 
membered in connection with Mendelssohn, 
who had the highest possible opinion of his 
{)ower3 as an executant,* and who comited him 
amongst his dearest and nearest friends. It 
was for Rietz that he wrote the Octet which 
is dedicated to him, as well as the Sonata for 
PF. and violin, op. 4. For some years Rietz 
i^-as a member of the royal band, but as his 
health faOed him in 1824 he had to quit his 
appointment and even to give up playing. He 
founded and conducted an orchestral society at 
Berlin, with considerable success ; he died of con- 
Komption Jan. 23, 1 832. Mendelssohn's earlier 
letters teem with affectionate reference to him, 
and the news of his death affected him deeply. ^ 
The Andante in Mendelssohn's string quintet, 
oji. 18, was composed at Paris 'in memory of 
E. Ritz,' and is dated on the autograph * Jan. 
*J3, 1832/ and entitled *Nachruf.' p. d. 

RIETZ, Julius, younger brother of the pre- 
ening, violoncellist, composer, and eminent 
conductor, was bom at Berlin, Dec. 28, 1812. 
Brought up under the influence of his father 
and brother, and the intimate friend of 
Mendelssohn, he received his first instruction 
on the violoncello from Schmidt, a member of 
the royal band, and afterwards from Bemhard 
Romberg and Moritz Ganz. Zelter was his 
teacher in composition. Having gained con- 
siderable proficiency on his instrument, he 
obtained, at the age of sixteen, an appointment 
in the bknd of the Konigstadt Theatre, where 
he also achieved his first success as a composer 
by writing incidental music for Holtei's drama, 
'Lorbeerbaum nnd Bettelstab.' In 1834 he 
went to Diisseldorf as second conductor of the 
opera. Mendelssohn, who up to his death 
ifhowed a warm interest in Rietz, was at that 
time at the head of the opera, and on his 

I Unilacnlj n spelt by McndelHohn, 

* * I loDf mraeKOr,' mift be. In • litter from Bome. 'for hia viol In, 
and Ua deoCh of feeling ; tb«<r oonie vlrUlIy befbre my mind when 
I 'xwhl* bdxrved ncBt handwritinf.' 

> XeMdcte(^m'« iMtanfvm ttalf and SieUttriand, EngllBh tnins- 
IitioB. ji. 337. 

resignation in the summer of 1835, Rietz became 
his successor. He did not, however, remain 
long in that position, for, as early as 1836, he 
accepted, under the title of * Stadtisclier Musik- 
director,' the post of conductor of the public 
subscription - concerts, the principal choral 
society, and the church -music at Diisseldorf. 
In this position he remained for twelve years, 
gaining the reputation of an excellent conductor, 
and also appearing as a solo violoncellist in most 
of the principal towns of the Rhine-province. 
During this period he wrote some of his most 
successful works — incidental music to dramas 
of Goethe, Calderon, Immermann, and others ; 
music for Goethe's Liederspiel ' Jery und Bately , ' 
Ms first Symphony in G minor ; three overtures 
— 'Hero and Leander,'* Concert overture in 
A major, Lustspiel-overture, the * Altdeutscher 
Schlachtgesang ' and *Dithyrambe' — both for 
men's voices and orchestra. He was six times 
chief conductor of the Lower Rhine Festivals — 
in 1845, 1856, and 1869 at Diisseldorf; in 
1864, 1867, and 1873 at Aix. 

In 1847, after Mendelssohn's death, he took 
leave of Diisseldorf, leaving Ferdinand Hiller 
as his successor, and went to Leipzig as con- 
ductor of the opera and the Singakademie. 
[He gave up the post at the o|)era in 1854.] 
From 1848 we find him also at the head of the 
Gewandhaus orchestra, and teacher of composi- 
tion at the Conservatorium. In this position 
he remained for thirteen years. Two operas, 
*Der Corsar' and *Georg Neumark,* were 
fiiilures, but his Symphony in Eb had a great 
and lasting success. At this [)eriod he began 
also to show his eminent critical powers by 
carefuUy revised editions of the scores of 
Mozart's symphonies and operas, of Beethoven's 
symphonies and overtures for Breitkopf & 
Hartel's complete edition, and by the work he 
did for the Bach and (German) Handel Societies. 
His editions of Handel's scores contrast very 
favourably with those of some other editors. 
An edition of Mendelssohn's complete works 
closed his labours in this respect. 

In 1860 the King of Saxony appointed him 
Conductor of the Royal Opera and of the music 
at the Hofkirche at Dresden. He also accepted 
the post of Artistic Director of the Dresden 
Conservatorium. In 1874 the title of General- 
Musikdirector was given to him. The Uni- 
versity of Leipzig had already in 1859 confen*ed 
on him the honorary degree of Doctor of 

Rietz was for some time one of the most 
influential musicians of Germany. He was a 
good violoncellist, but soon after leaving 
Diisseldorf he gave up playing entirely. As 
a composer he showed a rare command of all 
the resources of the orchestra and a complete 
mastery of all technicalities of composition. 
Yet few of Rietz's works have shown any vitality. 

* See Mendelawhn'a Letteri, 11. p. 2M (Eng. ed.). 




As a composer he can haidly be said to show 
distinct individuality ; his ideas are wanting 
in spontaneity, his themes are generally some- 
what dry, and their treatment often rather 
dif!iise and laboured. In fact Rietz was an 
excellent musician, and a musical intellect of 
the first rank — but not much of a poet. His 
great reputation rested, first, on his talent for 
conducting, and secondly on his rare acquire- 
ments as a musical scholar. An imfailing ear, 
imperturbable presence of mind, and great 
personal authority, made him one of the best 
conductors of modem times. The combination 
of practical musicianship with a natural inclina- 
tion for critical researdi and a pre-eminently 
intellectual tendency of mind, made him a 
first-rate judge on questions of musical scholar- 
ship. After Mendelssohn and Schumann, 
Rietz probably did more than anybody else to 
purify the scores of the great masters from the 
numerous errors of text by which they were 
disfigured. He was an absolute and uncom- 
promising adherent of the classical school, and 
had but little sympathy with modem music 
after Mendelssohn ; and even in the works of 
Schubert, Schumann, and Brahmshe wasover-apt 
to see the weak points. As to the music of the 
newest German School, he held it in abhorrence, 
and would show his aversion on every occasion. 
He was, however, too much of an opera-conductor 
not to feel a certain interest in Wagner, and in 
preparing his operas would take a special pride 
and relish in overcoming the great and peculiar 
difficulties contained in Wagner's scores. 

Rietz had many personal friends, but, as will 
appear natural 'with a man of so pronounced a 
character and opinions, also a number of bitter 
enemies. He died at Dresden, Sept. 12, 1877, 
leaving a large and valuable musical library, 
which was sold by auction in Dec. 1877. Be- 
sides the works already mentioned he published 
a considerable number of compositions for the 
chamber, songs, concertos for violin and for 
various wind-instruments. He also i^Tote a 
great Mass. p. d. 

RIGADOON (French Jtigadan or Rigaud(m), 
A lively dance, which most probably came from 
Provence or Languedoc, although its popularity 
in England has caused some writers to suppose 
that it is of English origin. It was danced 
in France in the time of Louis XIII., but 
does not seem to have become popular in 
England until the end of the 17th century. 
According to Rousseau it derived its name from 
its inventor, one Rigaud, but others connect it 
with the English *rig,* i.e. wanton or lively. 

The Rigadoon was remarkable for a peculiar 
jumping step (which is described at length in 
Compan's Diiiionnairedc la Danse^ Paris, 1 802) ; 
this step survived the dance for some time. 
The music of the Rigadoon is in 2-4 or Q time, 
and consists of three or four parts, of which 
the third is quite short. The number of bars 

is unequal, and the music generally begins on 
the third or fourth beat of the bar. The fol- 
lowing example is from the third part of Henry 
Playford's 'Apollo's Banquet' (sixth edition, 
1690). The same tune occurs in * The Dancing 
Master,' but in that work the bars are incor- 
rectly divided 

w. B. B. 

RIGBY, George Yebnon, bom at Birming- 
ham, Jan. 21, 1840, when about nine years old 
was a chorister of St. Chad's Cathedral, Bir- 
mingham, where he remained for about seven 
years. In 1860, his voice having changed to 
a tenor, he decided upon becoming a singer, 
tried his strength at some minor concerts 
in Birmingham and its neighbourhood, and 
succeeded so well that in 1861 he removed to 
London, and on March 4, appeared at the 
Alhambra, Leicester Square (then a concert 
room, managed by E. T. Smith), and in August 
following at Mellon's Promenade Concerts at 
Covent Garden. In 1865 he sang in the 
provinces as a member of H. Corn's Opera 
Company, until November, when he went to 
Italy and studied under Sangiovanni at Milan, 
where, in Nov. 1866, he appeared at the Car- 
cano Theatre as the Fisherman in * Guglielmo 
Tell.' He next went to Berlin, and in Jan. 
1867 appeared at the Victoria Theatre there, 
in the principal tenor parts in * Don Pasqoale,' 
'La Sonnambula,' and 'L'ltaliana in AlgierL' 
He then accepted a three months' engagement 
in Denmark, and performed Almaviva in the 
'Barbiere,' the Duke in 'Rigoletto,' and other 
parts, in Copenhagen and other towns. He 
returned to England in Sept. 1867, and sang 
at various places. In 1868 he was engaged 
at the Gloucester Festival with Sims Reeves, 
whose temporary indisposition afforded him 
the opportunity of singing the part of Samson 
in Handel's oratorio, in which he acquitted 
himself so ably that he was immediately en- 
gaged by the Sacred Harmonic Society, where 
he appeu^, Nov. 27, 1868, with signal success, 
and immediately established himself as an 
oratorio singer, appearing at all the principal 
festivals. In 1869 he appeared on the stage of 
the Princess's Theatre as Acis in Handel's * Acts 




and Golateft.' His voice was of fine quality, full 
compass, and considerable power, and he sang 
with earnestness and care. Since an appeai*ance 
at Brighton in 1887 in 'Eli,' he has virtually 
retired. w. h. h. 

RIGHINI, YiNGENzo, awell-known conductor 
of the Italian opera in Berlin, bom at Bologna, 
Jan. 22, 1756. As a boy he was a chorister 
at San Petronio, and had a fine voice, but owing 
to injury it developed into a tenor of so rough 
and muffled a tone, that he turned his attention 
to theory, which he studied with Padre Martini. 
In 1776 he sang for a short time in the Opera 
buffa at Prague, then under Bustelli's direction, 
but waa not well received. He made a success 
there, however, with three operas of his com- 
position, ' La Yedova scaltra,' * La Bottega del 
Cali^' and 'Don Giovanni,' also performed in 
Vienna (August 1777), whither Righini went 
on leaving Prague in 1780. There he became 
singing-master to Princess Elisabeth of Wiirtem- 
berg, and conductor of the Italian opera. He 
next entered the service of the Elector of Mainz, 
(1 788-92) and composed for the Elector of Treves 
' Alcide al Bivio' (Coblenz) and a missa solemnis 
(1790). In April 1793 (owing to the success 
of his 'Enea nel Lazio') he was invited to 
succeed Alessandri at the Italian Opera of Berlin, 
with a salary of 8000 thalers (about £450). 
Here he produced * II Trionfo d'Arianna' (1 793), 
liberata,' and *La Selva incantata' (1802). The 
last two were published after his death with 
German text (Leipzig, Herklotz). 

In 1793 Righini married Henriette Kneisel 
(bom at Stettin in 1767, died of consumption 
at Berlin, Jan. 25, 1801), a charming blonde, 
and according to Gerber, a singer of great 
exfoieasion* After the death of Friedrich 
Wilhelm II. (1797) his poet became almost a. 
sinecore, and in 1806 the opera was entirely 
diacontinned. Righini was much beloved. 
Gerber speaks in high terms of his modesty 
and courtesy, and adds, ' It is a real enjoyment 
to hear him sing his own pieces in his soft veiled 
voice to hia own accompaniment.' As a com- 
jtoder he was not of the first rank, and of course 
was eclipsed by Mozart His best point was 
his feeling for ensemble, of which the quartet in 
* Gemsalemme ' is a good example. He was a 
successful teacher of singing, and counted dis- 
tingoiahed artists among his pupils. After the 
loss of a promising son in 1810, his health gave 
way. and in 1812 he was ordered to tiy the 
effects of his native air at Bologna. When bid- 
ding good-bye to his colleague, Anselm Weber, 
he said, ' It is my belief that I shall never 
return ; if it should be so, sing a Requiem and 
a Miserere for me ' — touching words, too soon 
fulfilled by his death at Bologna, August 19, 
1812. His own Requiem (score ii? tiie Berlin 
Library) was performed by the Singakademie 
in his honour. 

Besides twenty operas, of which a list is given 
by F^tis (thirteen are mentioned in the Quellcn- 
Lexihon as still extant), Righini composed 
church music — a Te Deum and a Missa Solennis 
were published — several cantatas, and innumer- 
able Scenas, Lieder, and songs ; also a short 
ballet, 'Minerva belebt die Statuen des Dadalus ' 
(1802), and some instrumental pieces, including 
a serenade for two clarinets, two horns, and two 
bassoons (1799, Breitkopf k Hartel). One of 
his operas, * II Gonvitato di pietra, ossia il 
dissolute,' will always be interesting as a fore- 
runner of Mozart's 'Don Giovanni.' It was 
produced at Vienna, August 21, 1777 (ten years 
before Mozart's), and is described by Jahn 
{Mozart, ii. 333). His best orchestral work is 
his overture to 'Tigrane,' which was often 
played in Germany and England. Breitkopf 
k Hartel's Catalogue shows a tolerably long 
list of his songs, and his exercises for the voice 
(1 8 04) are amongst the best that exist. English 
amateurs will find a duet of his, * Come opprima, ' 
from * Enea nel Lazio,' in the ' Musical Libraiy,' 
voL i. p. 8, and two airs in Lonsdale's ' Gemme 
d'Antichitli.' He was one of the sixty-three 
composers who set the words ' In questa tomba 
oscura,' and his setting was published in 1878 
by Ritter of Magdeburg. ¥. o. 

RIGOLETTO. An opera in three acts; 
libretto by Piave (founded on V. Hugo's Le 
Itoi s'amuse), music by Verdi. Produced at 
the Teatro Fenice, Venice, March 11, 1851, 
and given in Italian at Covent Garden, May 
14, 1858, and at the Italiens, Paris, Jan. 19, 
1857. ^ G. 

RILLE, Francois Anatole Laurent de, 
the composer of an enormous number of part- 
songs and other small choi*al works, bom at 
Orleans in 1828. He was at first intended to 
be a painter, but altered his purpose and studied 
music under an Italian named Comoghio, and 
subsequently under Elwart. His compositions, 
of which a list of the most important is given 
in the supplement to Fetis, have enjoyed a last- 
ing popularity with * orph^oniste ' societies, and 
although they contain few if any characteristics 
which would recommend them to the attention 
of earnest musicians, they have that kind of 
vigorous effectiveness which is exactly suited to 
their purpose. A laige number of operettas of 
very slight constraction have from time to time 
been produced in Paris, and the composer has 
made various more or less successful essays in 
the department of church music. m. 

RIMBAULT, Edward Francis, LL.D., son 
of Stephen Francis Rimbault, organist of St. 
Giles in the Fields, was bom in Soho, June 13, 
1816. He received his first instmction in music 
from his father, but afterwards became a pupil 
of Samuel Wesley. At sixteen years old he was 
appointed organist of the Swiss Church, Soho. 
He early directed his attention to the study 
of musical history and literature, and in 1838 




delivered a series of lectures on the history of 
music in England. In 1840 he took an active 
part in the formation of the Musical Antiquarian 
and Percy Societies, of both which he became 
secretary, and for both which he edited several 
works. In 1841 he was editor of the musical 
publications of the Motet Society. In the 
course of the next few years he edited a collec- 
tion of Cathedral Chants ; The Order of Daily 
Service according to the use of Westminster 
Abbey ; a reprint of Lowe's Short Direction for 
the performance of CcUhednd Service ; Tallis's 
Responses ; Marbeok's Book of Common Prayer, 
noted ; a yolume of unpublished Cathedral 
Services ; Arnold's Cathedral Music ; and the 
oratorios of * Messiah,' 'Samson,' and 'Saul,' 
for the Handel Society. In 1842 he was elected 
a F.S. A. and member of the Academy of Music 
in Stockholm, and obtained the degree of Doctor 
in Philosophy. He was offered, but declined, 
the appointment of Professor of Music in Har- 
vard University, U.S. A. In 1848 he received 
the honorary degree of LL.D., from the univer- 
sity of Oxford. He lectured on music at the 
Collegiate Institution, Liverpool ; the Philo- 
sophic Institute, Edinburgh ; the Royal Institu- 
tion of Great Britain, and elsewhere. He pub- 
lished The Organ, its History and Construction 
(1855) (in collaboration with Mr. K J. Hopkins), 
Notices of the Early English Organ Builders 
(1865), History of the Pianoforte (1860), Biblio- 
thecaMadrigcUiana (IS^7), Musical IllustraJtunis 
of Percy's Reliques, The Ancient Focal Music of 
England, The Mounds, Catches, and Canons of 
England (in conjunction with Rev. J. P. 
Metcalfe), two collections of Christmas Carols. 
'A Little Book of Songs and Ballads,' etc. etc. 
He edited North's Memoirs of Mtisick (1846), 
Sir Thomas Overbury's Works (1866), the Old 
Cheqne Book of ths Chapel Royal (1872), and 
two Sermons by Boy Bishops. He arranged 
many operas and other works, was author of 
many elementary books, and an extensive 
contributor to periodical literature. His com- 
positions were but few, the principal being an 
operetta, * The Fair Maid of Islington ' (1838), 
music to 'The Castle Spectre' (1839), and a 
posthumous cantata, 'Country Life.' His pretty 
little song, 'Happy Land,' had an extensive 
popularity. After his resignation of the organist- 
ship of the Swiss Church, he was successively 
organist of several churches and chapels, such 
as St. Peter's, Vere Street. He died, after a 
lingering illness, Sept 26, 1876 (buried at 
Highgate Cemetery), leaving a fine musical 
library, which was sold by auction at Sotheby's 
on July 3, 1877, and following days. See an 
account of the library in the Musical World, 
1877, p. 539. An obituary notice appeared in 
the Musical Times, 1877, p. 427, and other 
papers. The most complete list of his works 
is in Brit. Mus, Biog. w. h. h. 

RIMSKY-KORSAKOV, Nicholas Axdreie- 

VICH, was bora March 18 (O.S. March 6), 1844, 
in the little town of Tikhvin, in the Govern- 
ment of Novgorod. The child's earliest musical 
impressions were derived from a small band, 
consisting of four Jews employed upon the 
family estate. These mnsicians mustered two 
violins, cymbals, and a tambourine, and were 
often summoned to the house to enliven the 
evenings when there was company or dancing. 
At six years old the boy began to be taught 
the piano, and at nine he made his first at- 
tempts at composition. His talent for music 
was evident to his parents, but being of aristo- 
cratic family he was destined for one of the 
only two professions then considered suitable 
for a young man of good birth. In 1855 
Rimsky - Korsakov entered the Naval College 
in St. Petersburg, where he remained until 
1862. This period of his life was not very 
favourable to his musical development, but he 
managed on Sundays and holidays to receive 
some instruction in the violoncello from Ulich, 
and in the pianoforte from an excellent teacher, 
Fedor Kanill^. His acquaintance with Bala- 
kirev, dating from 1861, was the decisive 
moment in his career. Intercourse with the 
young but capable leader of the new Russian 
school of music, and with his disciples, Cui, 
Moussorgsky, and Borodin, awoke in the yonng 
naval cadet an ambition to study the art to 
more serious purpose. He had only just begun 
to profit by Balakirev's teaching when he was 
sent abroad ; but, undaunted by the interrup- 
tion, during this cruise, which lasted three 
years (1862-65), he completed a symphony, 
op. 1. From the letters which he ^\Tote at 
this time to Cesar Cui it is evident that he 
composed under great difficulties, but the work 
was completed in spite of them, and, movement 
by movement, the manuscript was sent to 
Balakirev for advice and correction. The work 
was performed for the first time in December 
1865, when Balakirev conducted it at one of 
the concerts of the Free School of Music, St, 
Petersburg. It was the first symphony ifroni 
the pen of a native composer, and the public, 
who gave it a hearty reception, were surprised 
when a youth in naval uniform appeared to 
acknowledge their ovation. Rimsky- Korsakov 
now remained in St. Petersbui*g, and was able 
to renew his musical studies and his close 
association with the circle of Balakirev. 

The compositions which followed the First 
Symphony— ^ the symphonic poem *Sadko' 
(1867), and the opera * Pskovitianka ' (*The 
Maid of Pskov ') — called the attention of all 
musical Russia to this promising composer. 
In 1871 he was appointed professor of com- 
position and instrumentation in the St. Peters- 
burg Conservatoire. He retired from the na\'3', 
which can never have been a congenial profes- 
sion, in 1873, and at the wish of the Grand 
Duke Constantiue Nicholaevich was appointed 




inspector of naval bands, a post which ho held 
an til it was abolished in 1884. From 1883 to 
1S84 he was assistant director to the Conrt 
Chapel nnder Balakirev. Succeeding to Bala- 
kirey, he became director and conductor of the 
Free School Concerts from 1874 to 1881, and 
oondacted the Russian Symphony Concerts, 
inaogurated in St. Petersburg by Bclaiev, from 
1886 to 1900. His gifts in this respect, 
although ignored in England, have been highly 
appreciated in Paris and Brussels. Rimsky- 
Korsakov's career has remained closely asso- 
ciated with St. Petersbuig, which was the scene 
of his earliest successes, and on more than one 
occasion he has declined the directorship of 
the Moscow Conseryatoire. His pupils number 
some distinguished names : Liadov, Ippolitov- 
IvanoT, Sacchetti, Grechianinov, and Glazounov 
have all studied under him for longer or shorter 
periods. In 1873 Rimsky-Korsakov married 
Xadejda Nicholaevna Pourgold, a gifted pianist, 
who proved a helpmeet in the tniest sense of 
the word. This lady and her sister, A. P. 
Molas, have played important parts in the 
history of the modem Russian school ; the' 
former by her clever pianoforte arrangements 
of many of the great orchestral works, while 
the latter, gifted with a fine voice and dramatic 
instinct, created most of the leading female 
roles in the operatic works of Cui, Moussorgsky, 
and Borodin, before they obtained a hearing at 
the Imperial Opera. 

Rimsky-Korsakov had already composed his 
symphonic works 'Sadko' and * An tar,' and 
Ids opera * Pbkovitianka,' and had been ap- 
]ioint6d professor at the St. Petersburg Conser- 
vatoire, when his 'ideal conscientiousness' 
awoke in him some doubts as to the solidity 
of his early musical education. Admirably as 
the system of self-education had worked in his 
case, he still felt it a duty to undergo a severe 
coarse of theoretical study in order to have at 
his disposal that supreme mastery of technical 
means in which all the great classical masters 
excelled. Accordingly he began to work at 
fugae and counterpoint, thereby calling forth 
from Tchaikovsky, in 1875, this tribute of ad- 
miration : ' I do not know how to express all 
my respect for your artistic temperament. . . . 
I am a mere artisan in music, but you will be 
an artist in the fullest sense of the word.' 
Moat of Rimsky-Korsakov's early works have 
been revised since this period of artistic dis- 
cipline. In the earlier phases of his career he 
was obviously influenced by Glinka and Liszt, 
and in a lesser degree by Schumann and Berlioz. 
The imitative period was, however, of short 
duration, and perhaps no contemporary com- 
poser can boast a more individiial and distinctive 
utterance than Rimsky-Korsakov. But its dis- 
tinctiveness liea in extreme refinement and 
restraint rather than in violent and sensational 
expression. He wins but does not force our 

attention. A lover of musical beauty rather 
than musical truth — or, to put it more justly, 
believing truth to lie in idealistic rather than 
realistic methods of ci^eation, he was never 
deeply influenced by the declamatory and natu- 
ralistic style of Dargom^jsky and Moussorgsky. 
Like Tchaikovsky, he has divided his career 
between operatic and symphonic music, but 
with a steadily increasing tendency towards the 
former. After his first symphony, written on 
more or less conventional lines, he showed a 
distinct preference for the freer forms of pro- 
gramme music, as shown in the symphonic poem 
'Sadko,' the Oriental Suite 'Antar,' and the 
Symphonic Suite * Scheherezade. ' In the Sin- 
fonietta upon Russian themes, and the Third 
Symphony in C major, he returns to more 
traditional treatment. Of all his orchestral 
works the Spanish Capriccio seems to have met 
with the greatest appreciation in England. 
Almost without exception Rimsky-Korsakov's 
symphonic works are distinguished by a poetic 
and tactful expression of national sentiment. 
His art is rooted in the Russian soil, and the 
national element pervades it like a subtle but 
unmistakable aroma. We may be repelled or 
fascinated by it, according to individual taste, 
but we are forced to recognise that this is 
not mere local colour laid on by a coarse brush 
to give factitious and sensational interest to 
music which would be otherwise commonplace 
in character, but an essential product of the 
national spirit. 

His music invariably carries the charm of 
expressive orchestration. Taking it up where 
Glinka left it in his * Jota Aragonese' and in- 
cidental music to * Prince Kholmsky,' Rimsky- 
Korsakov has developed this characteristic 
quality of Russian musicians beyond any of his 
contemporaries, without, however, overstepping 
the bounds of what sane minds must still re- 
gard as legitimate eflect. He is at his best in 
descriptive orchestration — in the suggestion of 
landscape and atmospheric conditions. But 
his clear objective outlook leads him to a 
luminous and definite tone-painting quite dif- 
feretft from the subtle and dreamy impressionism 
of Debussy. The musical pictures of Rimsky- 
Korsakov are mostly riant and sunny ; some- 
times breezy and boisterous, as in the sea-music 
of * Sadko ' and * Scheherezade ' ; often full of 
a quaint pastoral grace, as in the springtide 
music in his opera 'The Snow Maiden.' His 
harmony has freshness and individuality. He 
makes considerable use of the old Church modes 
and Oriental scales. 

All Rimsky-Korsakov's operas, except 'Mozart 
and Salieri,' are based upon national subjects, 
historical or legendary. Tales from the Slavonic 
mythology, which combine poetical allegory with 
fantastic humour, exercise the greatest attraction 
for him. In his first opera, * The Maid of Pskov, * 
he evidently started under the partial influence 




of Dargorngsky's ' Tlie Stone Gnest/ for the solo 
jiarts consist chiefly of mezzo •I'ecitative, the 
dryness of which is compensated by the orches- 
tral colour freely employed in tlie accompani- 
ments. In the two operas which followed, ' A 
Night in May' and 'The Snow Maiden,' the 
dramatic realism of his first work for the stage 
gives place to lyrical inspiration and the free 
flight of fancy. With ' Mozart and Salieri ' — 
a setting of Poushkin's dramatiis duologue — 
and *The Boyarina Vera Sheloga' Rimsky- 
Korsakov shows a return to the declamatory 
style, while 'Sadko/ which appeared in 1896, 
is a skilful compromise between lyrical and 
dramatic forms, and may be accepted as the 
mature expression of his artistic creed. Of all 
his operatic works, * The Snow Maiden,' founded 
upon OstroYsky's poetical legend of the spring- 
tide, has jjerhaps the most characteristic charm, 
and seems best calculated to win popular favour 
outside Russia. ' Sadko,' the thematic material 
for which is partly drawn from the symphonic 
ix}em of the same name, is more epic in char- 
acter and full of musical interest. It must be 
surmised that it is only the peculiarly national 
character of the libretto which has hindered 
this remarkable work from becoming more 
widely known. Time, which must inevitably 
biidge over this intellectual gulf which separates 
eastern and western Europe, will probably bring 
these two masterpieces of Russian art to Paris, 
and perhaps farther afield. Most of Rimsky- 
Korsakov's operas combine with this strong 
national element that also of the neighbouring 

As a song-writer he takes a high place in a 
school which has shown itself pre-eminent in 
this branch of art. He has composed about 
eighty songs, remarkable for an all-round level 
of excellence, for few are really poor in quality, 
while the entire collection comprises such lyrical 
gems as 'Night,' the Hebrew song ('Awake, 
long since the dawn appeared '), ' A Southern 
night,' 'Spring,' and 'Come to the kingdom of 
roses and wine.' In his songs, as in his operas, 
he inclines more to the lyrical grace of Glinka 
than to the declamatory force of Dargomijsky. 
His melodies are not lacking in distinction and 
charm, especially when they approacli in style 
to the melodies of the folk-songs ; but in this 
respect he is somewhat lacking in im{)assioned 
inspiration and copious invention. The rich- 
ness and picturesqueness of his accompaniments 
make tlie characteristic interest of his songs. 

A close study of the works of Rimsky-Kor- 
sakov reveals a distinguished musical person- 
ality ; a thinker, a fastidious and exquisite 
craftsman, an artist of that refined and dis- 
criminating type who is chiefly concerned in 
satisfying the demands of his own conscience 
rather than the tastes of the general public. 
Outside Russia he has been censured for his 
exclusive devotion to national ideals. On the 

other hand, some Russian critics have accused 
him of opening the door to AVagnerism in 
national opera. This is only true in so far as 
he has grafted upon the older lyrical forms the 
use of some modem methods, notably the 
occasional employment of the leitmotif. As 
regards instrumentation he has a remarkable 
faculty for the invention of new and brilliant 
effects, and is a master in the skilful use of 
onomatopa3ia. Given a temperament, musically 
endowed, which sus its subject with the direct 
and observant vision of the painter, instead of 
dreaming it through a mist of subjective exal- 
tation, we get a type of mind that naturally 
tends to a programme which is clearly defined. 
Rimsky-Korsakov belongs to this class. We 
feel in all his music the desire to depictf which 
so often inclines us to the language of the 
studio in attempting to express the quality of 
his work. His music is entirely free from that 
tendency to melancholy unjustly supposed to 
be the characteristic of all Russian art The 
folk-songs of Great Russia — the source from 
which the national composers have drawn their 
inspiration — are pretty evenly divided between 
the light and shade of life ; it is the former 
aspect which makes the strongest appeal to 
the vigorous, optimistic, but highly poetical 
temperament of this musician. 

Many gifted members of the New Russian 
School were prevented by illness, by the enforced 
choice of a second vocation, and by the imperfect 
conditions of artistic life fifty or sixty years 
ago, from acquiring a complete musical educa- 
tion. Rimsky-Korsakov, out of the fulness of 
his own technical equipment, has ever been 
ready to sacrifice time and labour in the interest 
of his fellow-workers. Thus, he orchestrated 
' The Stone Guest ' which Dargomijsky endea- 
voured to finish on his death -bed ; part of 
Borodin's 'Prince Igor' and Moussorgsky's 
operas ' Khovantshina ' and ' Boris Godounov.' 

In 1889, during the Paris Exhibition, he con- 
ducted two concerts devoted to Russian music 
given in the Salle Trocad^ro. In 1890 and 
again in 1900 he conducted concerts of Russian 
music in the Th^&tre de la Mounaie, Brussels. 

In March 1905, in consequence of a letter 
published in the JHusSf in which he advocated 
the autonomy of the St. Petersbui^ Conserva- 
toire, hitherto under the management of the 
Imperial Russian Musical Society, and com- 
plained of the too stringent police supervision 
to which the students were subjected, Rimsky- 
Korsakov was dismissed from his professorship. 
This high-handed action on the part of the 
authorities was deeply resented by all his 
colleagues, and Glazounov,Liadov, and Blnmen- 
feld immediately resigned their posts by way 
of protest By the autumn of the same year 
the Conservatoire had actually wrested some 
powers of self-government from the Musical 
Society, and having elected Glazonnov as 




director, the new committee lost no time in 
re-instating Rimsky-Korsakov in the professor- 
ship of composition and instnimentation which 
he had honourably filled since 1871. The 
following is a list of Rimsky-Korsakov's numer- 
ous oompositions : — 


flfvpliaBT Nok I, 4 minor, op. 1, AftenrardB tmn«poMd Into 
Mr; Syniphonjr No. 2, 'Antar.' op. 9. afterwardti entitled 
'*-' *"*•-• Sjmphony No. S, C minor, up. 32, 1873, rcviaed 

E minor: 
'<)r{cstnl Sidte' 

IflM; SiBfouietta on Rvnlaa thomat, A minor.' op. SI. Orerturv 
on KuHten theme*, opu 38 : * Euter,' oTertnre, op. M, 1888 ; ' Sedko, 
mnriol pictvn. opu S. MIS?, rariaed 18B1 ; Serbian FantaaiA, op. 6; 
* A Ikte.^ op. 9. rabjeet trout the Prologoe of Pooahkin a ' Roaalan 
maA UowiBiillja' : Caprlorto on Spaniah themee, op. 34. 1887 ; Bym- 
phoaie fhUte ' Sehahcraade ' (from the AraMan IfigkU), op. 3S, 1888 ; 
^ttitM fnim the opetna ' The Snow Matden ' and ' Tear Saltana,' and 
the opei»-baIlet 'JUada,' op. 67; prelude 'At the Otare.' op. 61 ; 
STiltefnimth«op«n'CbjlBUnaBBve'( * 

I m.). 

L Mvaic 

String qQart«i. F m«Jor, opw 19 ; string aextet. A major (MS.): 
fiTf4 move m ent of the atring quartet on the theme B-la-f. 
BelaieT) ; third moTcment of tbe qoartet ' for a FMe Day ' ; allegro 
*A th« atriog quartet in the collection 'Fridaya' ; Serenade for 
riuioneello and piiUMiftete, op. 37. 

OBCBsmu An> Solo Iirernviuam 
PUaoCorte oonoerto, C^ minor, op. 30; Fantasia on Buaian 
themea ftar TioUn and orcneetra. 


Six nalatioiia an the them* B-arc-h. op. 10 ; four piece*, op. 11 ; 

three piaeei, op. 19 ; ilz fugue*, op. 17 ; eight Tariatlona on a folk- 

tone (Boopk nnmber); Are variatioua for the 'ParaphnMea' (aee 



Folk-eang, op. 90 ; * Slava,' op. 21 ; cantata for loprano. tenor, and 
mixed dwrna. op. 44; 'Tbe Fir and the Palm "^ (from op. 3) for 
faarltaae : two arloaoa lor baat, ' Azudiar' (The Upaa Tree) and 'The 
ProphK,' opL 49 : trio for female roloea, op. tS3 ; * The Legend of 
i<t Olga.' cantAta for aoU and ohoma, op. 58; 'Fragment from 
UoBcr/ <mntata for three female Toioe* and chorua, op. 60. 


Two trio* for female rolt-ea, op. 13 ; four rariatioiu and a fnghetta 
&v female quartet, op. 14; six ehoruae* a oappella, op. 16: two 
■iix«d dioniae*. op. 18 ; fifteen RoaRiaii folk-eonga, op. 19 ; four trio* 
lift male roloe*. op. 83, 

Soscta, tTC 

F<»ar ■o«ga. op. 9 ; foor eonga. op. 8 : four longi. op. 4 ; four ionga, 
op. 7 : *ix aonfa, op. 8 ; two aonga, op. 25 ; four aongs, op. 26 ; four 
■ony^ op. 27; foor aonga, op. 99; four aongs, op. 40; four wnigB, 
4^ 41 ; four fonga, op^ 42 ; four aong*, op. 43 ; four •onp, op. 4S ; 
five vaagi, op. 46; two doeta. op. 47 ; four dneta, op. 00; Ave duetn, 
"p. 31 ; two duel*, op. fi3; four doeta for tenur, op. 85 ; two dueta, 
«p. 94. 

Sacrkd WoBxa 

The lltini7 of St. John Chryvoctom (a portion only), op. 22 ; 
eiz tTanapoMtlom*. inclnding the iwalm ' By the waters of Babylon,' 
op. as • ; • W* ptaise The^ U Qod ' (MS. 1883). 


' Th* Maid of PftkOT ' (' Pakoritianka '). libretto from a drama by 
Mcy a9«9-7S; performed St. Petersbntg. 1878. reriaed in 18M): 
* A Night ill M«y.' test from Gogol (1878, St. PlDterabuig. 18801 ; 
'The Snow Maiden.' text from Oatroroaky (1880^. St. Petersburg, 
28n»; ■Mlada.'faiXTopcn-ballet fSt Petersburg. 1893) ; 'Christmas 
Eve,' ligtindsry open, text from Gogol, 1874 (Maryinsky Theatre. St. 
P»««nlnurf. 1885): *8Bdko^' epic-opera, 1896-96 (Private Opera. 
Moaeow. lSir7 ; SC Petenbui^. 1901) : ' Mozart and Salleri.' dramatic 
•OBMS^ op. 4S, 188S (PtiTate Opera, Moeoow. 1898) ; ' Boyarina Vera 
S^loga.'^anstcal dramatic prologue to 'The Maid of Pskov.' op. 64 
cPrfvate Opera, Mosoow, 1899; SL Pfetenborg. 1902) ; 'The Tsar's 
Bride.' lan rPtlTate Oami, Moeoow. 1899 ; St. Petenburg, Maryinsky 
Theatnw 1901) : 'The Tkle of T«ir Saltana, etc,' 1880-1800 (Private 
Opera^ Mowaow, 1900t: 'Bervilia' (IflAryinaky Theatre, St. Peten- 
hiirg. 1909) ; * Kostehe! the Immortal,' an autumn legend (Private 
f>pcra. Moeoow. 1909> ; ' Van Toyevoda,' 'The Tale of the Invisible 
<1ty td Kitesh and tbe Maiden Fevronia.' 

One h«odr«l Rnaslan folk-eonga, op. 24 (1877); forty Russian 
folk-«on«i asa^ : A PmeUeal OuitU to the Studg «/ aarmonp (1888). 

R. N. 

RINALDO. (i.) HandeVs first opera in Eng- 
land ; composed in a fortnight, and produced 
at the King's Theatre in the Haymarket^ Feb. 
24, 1711. The Hbretto was founded on the 
episode of Rinaldo and Armida in Tasso's 
Oentgalentme liberata (the same on which 
Glnck based his ' Armida '). Rossi wrote it in 
Italian, and it was translated into English by 
Aaron HilL The opera was mounted with 
extraordinary magnificence, and had an unin- 

terrupted run of fifteen niglits — at that time 
unusually long. The march, and the air ^11 
tricerbero,' were long popular as 'Let us take 
the road' ('Beggar's Opera'), and *Let the waiter 
bring clean glasses.' 'Lsiscia ch'io pianga' — 
made out of a saraband in Handel's earlier opera 

* Almira ' (1704) — is still a favourite with singers 
and hearers. [John Walsh published the songs 
in folio with the title * Arie del' opera di Rinaldo 
composta dal Signor Hendel, Maestro di Cajjella 
di sua Altezza Elettorale d' Hannover. London, 
printed for J. Walsh, Servant in oidinary to her 
Britannick Majesty.' It is said that Walsh 
made £1600 by the publication, and that the 
comjxiser addressed to him a satirical letter : — 

* My dear Sir, as it is only right that we should 
be on an equal footing, you shall compose tlie 
next opera, and I will sell it.' F. K.] 6. 

(ii.) Cantata for male voices, set to Goethe's 
words, by Johannes Brahms (op. 50). First 
performed by the Akademisches Gesangverein, 
Vienna, Feb. 28, 1869. 

RINALDO DI CAPUA, an Italian composer 
of the 18th century, of whose life very little 
is known. Burney made his acquaintance in 
Rome in 1770, and since he describes him as 
an old man we may suppose him to have been 
bom about 1700-10. F^tis gives 1715 as tlie 
year of his birth, and Rudhardt 1706, but 
neither wiiter states his authority for the date. 
According to Burney he was * the natural son 
of a pei-son of very high rank in that country 
[i.c, the kingdom of Naples], and at first studied 
music only as an accomplishment ; but being 
left by his father with only a small fortune, 
which was soon dissipated, he was forced to* 
make it his profession.' It has been assumed 
that he was bom at Capua, and took his name 
from that place ; but it may be noted that 
whether Rinaldo had a legitimate claim to it 
or not, Di Capua was a fairly common surname 
in the neighbourhood of Naples at that time. 
He com}x>sed his first opera at the age of seven- 
teen, at Vienna, according to Burney ; Spitta 
showed that no opera by Rinaldo was ever 
produced at Vienna, but thought it pi-obable 
that he had some connection with that city, 
since Metastasio's *Ciro Riconosciuto,* which 
formed the libretto of an opera by Rinaldo pro- 
duced at Rome in 1737, was set to music for the 
first time by Caldara for performance at Vienna 
on August 28, 1786. A further connection 
with the imperial court is shown by the fact 
that he composed a special work to celebrate 
the election of Francis I. in 1745. It seems, 
therefore, not unreasonable to take Bumey's 
words literally, and to understand that the 
opera *Ciro Riconosciuto,' though performed 
in Rome, was composed in Vienna. If this 
was his first opera, it would settle 1720 as the 
year of Rinaldo's birth. Spitta was, however, 
not aware of the existence of a few airs from a 
comic opera, the title of which has not been 



preserved, produced at the Teatro Valle in 
Kome in the autumn of 1737. Of the subse- 
quent history of Kinaldo's life nothing is known. 
Bumey informs us that 'in the course of a 
long life he has experienced various vicissitudes 
of fortune ; sometimes in vogue, sometimes 
neglected.' Most of his operas were given at 
Rome, a few being produced at Florence and 
Venice ; although described in some libretti 
as a Neapolitan, no opera of his is known to 
have been performed in Naples. The Bouifons 
Italiens performed an intermezzo of his, 'La 
Zingara ' (La Boh^mienne), at Pans in 1753, in 
a version which included songs by other com- 
posers ; among these was the well-known * Tre 
giorni son che Nina,' generally ascribed to 
Pergolesi, and on this account attributed to 
Rinaldo by Spitta. The song has, however, 
been recently proved to be by another composer 

ECre oiobni son ohe Nina], When Buruey 
new him he was in somewhat impoverished 
circumstances, owing to the indifference of the 
public which had once applauded him. He 
had collected his works with a view to making 
provision for his old age, but at the moment 
when they were required, discovered that his 
son had sold them for waste paper. The date 
of his death is not known. Bumey mentions 
an intermezzo composed for the Gapranica 
theatre in 1770 (' I finti ^mzzi '), when he was 
already an old man. Another opera, *La 
donna vendicativa* (ascribed by Clement and 
Larousse to 1740, though on no apparent 
authority), was performed in Rome in 1771, 
and this was probably his last work. After 
this date we know only of ' La Oiocondina ' 
(Rome, 1778), which was pi-obably a revival of 
an earlier work. Bumey, with characteristic 
kindliness, recommended him as a teacher to 
William Parsons, who had studied at a 
Nea^iolitan conservatorio, where according to 
his own account he learnt nothing. Parsons 
became Master of the King's Musick in 1786, 
to the great disappointment of Bumey, to 
whom the post had been promised. Another 
pupil of Rinaldo's was Antonio Aurisiccliio. 

Rinaldo was supposed to have been the 
inventor of accompanied recitative ; Burney 
pointed out that this invention belonged to 
Alessandro Scarlatti. Rinaldo himself only 
claimed 'to have been among the first who 
introduced long ritomellos or symphonies into 
tlie recitatives of strong passion and distress, 
which express or imitate what it would be 
ridiculous for the voice to attempt.' An 
example from * Vologeso ' is in the Fitzwilliam 
Museum. His musical education having been 
that of an amateur, his technique of composi- 
tion was sometimes defective ; but apart from 
this slight weakness of harmony, he was one 
of the best composers of his i>eriod for dramatic 
])ower and melodic beauty. He was especially 
successful in brilliant coloratura, but was also 

capable of producing most attractive light 
operas. To judge from the few fragments of 
his work that remain, ' Giro Riconosciuto ' and 
' Vologeso' seem to have been his most important 
dramatic works. 


A comic opera, luuite unknown (Borne, T. V«ll«, 1737). Fracments : 

Palermo B.C.M. 
Giro Ricouowlato (Rome. T. Tordinonk, 1737 ; revived Rome, 1739L 

PragmeiiU: formerly in poaMuion u( SpitU; Brit. Mua.; 

Ia Commedia in Commedi* (Rome. T. Valle, 1788). Libretto: 

Brunela Conaervatoire. Fiagmeiita: Palermo R.C.1L Ravlred 

at Venice (T. San Caviano, 1749). Ubretto : Venice, Blbl. Marc 
The opera was alao performed in London ; Walsh printed five air* 
aa ' The favourite Songa in the Opera call'd La Comedla in Comedia.' 
Rinaldo'* name !• not meuUoued, and the work waa probabljr a 
paaticcio ; one eons, howevei. ' Nou so la prole mia.' is in tae Palermo 
ooUection. which bean Rinaldo'* namCb 
Famaoe (Venice, T. 8. Giovanni OriMMtomo. 1739). Libretto: 

Venioe. Bibl. Marc. 
Vologceo Rede' Fartl (Rome. T. Aiyentlna, 173B). Lllnvtto: Bolopia, 

Lie. Mu*. Fra«ment* : Brit. Mua. ; Brunei* Cona. ; Oambridire. 

Fiti. Mns. ; Dresden ; Mttnater ; New York, in poen—iun of 

H. B. Krehbiel. Ew). 
Ia Ubert4 Nociva (Borne. T. VaUe. 1740). Libretto: Bolofua. 

Bmiaels Con*. Fragment* : Brit. Mn*. ; Cambridge. Pita. Mu*. 

Bevived In Florence (T. Cooomero, I'tt), Bolagna (T. Fonnag- 

liari. 174S). Libretti: Bologna. Aim at Venice (T. Han 

Ca**iano, 1744). Libretto : Bologna, Venice. 
Tunio Herdonlo Ariclno (Bome, T. Gapranica, 1743). Ubretto: 

Bologna, Bnueela Cona. 
Le Noxae dl Don Trifone (Rome. T. Axgentlna, 1743). Libretto: 

L' AmbUione daluaa (Venice, T. S. Caariano, 1744). Libretto: 

BologiuK Venice. Revived at Milan (T. Ducale, 1745). Ubretto: 

L* Forza del Snogue (Intermeao), (Florence, T. Pallaoorda. 1746). 

Libretto : Bruaaela Cona. 
II bravo 4 U beUo (intetmeuo), (Borne. T. Grauarl. 1748). libretto : 

Bmaaela Con*. 
Mario In Numidia (Rotne, T. Dame. 1748). Ubretto: Bologna. 

Fragment* : BrlL Mu*., Dresden. Munich, 
n Bravo Burlato (Intenneuo), (Florence, T. PliUaoorda. I74f>l. 

Libretto: BnuaelsCou*. 
A oomio opera (Borne ? 1700). Fragment* : Dresden. 
II Bipieio in Amoie (Borne, T. Valle. 1761). Libretto : Bologna. 
II Cavalier Mignatta \ (IntermeKzi). (Borne, T. Gapranica. 1791). 
UGallopplno / Libretto: Brunei* Con*. 

La Donna auperba (intermeasu). (Paris. Opirtk, 17BSL Ubretto: 

Brtvnela Con*. Fragmeuts (with French words) : Brussels Cona. 
lA Foria della Face (Rome. T. Ptww. 17921. Ubretto : Bologna. 
La ZIngan (intermesso). (Phrls. Op4ra. 1753). Ubrrtto : BnTeU 

Cona. Score, printed in Plaris, BruaselaConB. Revived at Peaaro. 

1755, a* * II Veoehio Amante e la Ziiioara.' Libretto: Bologna. 
La Ser^a Spoaa (Rome. T. Valle. 175.1). Ubretto : Bologna. 
La Chiavarlna (Rome, T. Valle, 1754). Ubretto : BologiM. 
Attalo (Rome, T. Gapranica, 17641. Libretto: Brusacls Cona. 

Rinaldo dl Capua appears here under the peeudonym of Cleo- 

fante Doriano. 
Adriauo in Sirla (Rome. Angentlna. 1798). Ubretto: D r ui w e ls 

Coua. Fragments: Brit Mua. 
La Bmorflosa (Florence. T. Coeuniero, 17BH). Libretto : Bologiw. 
Le Donne Bidicole (intermeao), (Rome, T. Gapranica. 1750). 

Ubretto: BruaMls Cons. 
II Gam di Gampagna (fknetU), (Borne, T. Pace, 1784). Libretto: 

Bologiw, Bmesela Cons. 
1 Finti PasBi per Ainore (fanetta). (Borne, T. Pace, 1770). UI»«tto : 

Bologna. Brusaels Cons. 
La Donna Vendicativa (farsetta). (Borne. T. Pace. ITH). Libretto : 

Bologna. Soon: Brit Mus. 
la Oiooondlna (farsetta), (Rome. T. Pace. \7t%). Ubretto : Bnusels 

[La Stntoa per Puntiglio. aacrlbed to R. di Capua by Eltner. is by 

Marcello di Capua.] 

Sacrbd Muaio 
Cantata per la Katlvltk della Bonta Vcrgine (Rome. Collcgin 

Naaareno, 1747). Score: MOnster. Paris, Bibl. Nat t(Kltu«T}. 
A few other works ara mentioned by Eltner : symphonies, probably 
open overtures, and cantatas (Venire) ascribed toCavallere Rinaldi. 
who may have been a different composer. 

Airs from opera* as yet unidentified are at Cambridge, Fits. Mns.. 
MUnster. and Monteoassino. 

The writer is indebted to Mr. H. E. Krehbiel for notice of the 
aire in his possession : the MS. from which they are taken formerly 
belonged to Thomas Gray, the poet, and is described in Mr. 
KrehbiH's Mutie and Hannert in th» CUmieal Period. Other 
authorities consulted : Bumey's /Ves^nC Statt of Jftuie in /Vanr* 
and Italu (1771) ; an article by SpitU in the riertetfaMrttelnrift /Gr 
MtutkwiM,. vol. ill. (1887). and A. Wotquenne's CtttalcyaM of the 
library of the Bniasels Conservatoire, vol. i. (1806). The two latter 
works give fuller bibliographical detailB than we have spac« for 
***^ E. J. H. 

RINCK, or RINK, Johann Christian Hkis- 
RICH, celebrated organist and composer for his in- 
strument, was bom at Elgersburg in Saxe-Gotha, 
Feb. 18,1770, and died at Darmstadt, August 7, 
1846. His talent developed itself at an early 




period, and, like Johann Schksidek, he had 
the adTuitage of a direct traditional reading of 
the works of Sebastian Bach, having studied at 
Erfnrt (in 1786-89) under Kittel, one of the 
great composer's best pupils. Rinck having 
sat at the feet of Forkel at the University of 
(lottingen, obtained in 1790 the organistship 
of Giessen, where he held several other musical 
appointments. In 1805 he became organist at 
Dumstadt, and ' professor ' at its college ; in 
1813 was appointed Court organist, and in 
1817 chamber musician to the Grand Duke 
(Ladwig I.). Rinck made several artistic tours 
in Germany, his playing always eliciting much 
admiration. At Treves, in 1 827, he was greeted 
with special honour. He received various 
decorations, — in 1831 membership of the Dutch 
Society for Encouragement of Music ; in 1838 
the cross of the first class from his Grand Duke ; 
in 1840 ' Doctor of Philosophy and Arts ' from 
the University of Giessen* Out of his 1 25 works 
a few are for chamber, including sonatas for PF. , 
violin, and violoncello, and PF. duets. But 
his reputation is based on his organ music, or 
rather on his ' Practical Organ School, 'a standard 
work. Rinck's compositions for his instrument 
show no trace of such sublime influence as might 
have been looked for from a pupil, in the second 
generation, of Bach ; indeed, throughout them 
fugue -writing is conspicuous by its absence. 
But without attaining the high standard which 
has been reached by living composers for the 
instrument in Germany, his organ-pieces contain 
much that is interesting to an organ student. 

Rinck*s name will always live as that of an 
executant, and of a safe guide towards the form- 
ation of a sound and practical organ-player ; 
and Ids works comprise many artistic studies. 
Amongst these the more important are the 
* (^Tactical Organ School,' in six divisions (op. 
55, re-edited by Otto Dienel, 1881), and 
numerous ' Preludes for Chorales,' issued at 
various periods. He also composed for the 
church a * Pater Noster ' for four voices with 
organ (op. 59) ; motets, ' Praise the Lord * (op. 
88) and 'God be merciful' (op. 109) ; twelve 
chorales for men's voices, etc h. s. o. 

RINFORZANDO, * reinforcing ' or increasing 
in power. This word, or its abbreviations, 
rinf. or r/s, is used to denote a sudden and brief 
cmceRdo, It is applied generally to a whole 
phrase, however short, and has the same mean- 
ing as sffynando, which is only applied to single 
notes. It is sometimes used in concerted music 
to give a momentary prominence to a subordinate 
part, as for instance in the Beethoven Quartet, 
op. 95, in the Allegretto, where the violoncello 
part is marked rinforzando, when it has the 
second section of the principal subject of the 
movement. m. 

Ring of the Niblung,' a tetralogy or se- 
quence of four music-dramas (more correctly 

a * trilogy ' with a proludial drama), words and 
music by Richard Wagner, was first performed 
in its entirety at Bayreuth, August 13, 14, 16, 
and 17, 1876, and repeated during the two 
foUoTving weeks. The book, which is written 
in an alliterative style modelled on that of the 
* Stabreim,' is founded on the Icelandic Sagas, 
and has little in common with the Nibelungen- 
lied, or more correctly * Der Nibelunge N6t,* 
a mediaeval German poem of the beginning of 
the 18th century, in which the mythical types 
of the old Norse sagas appear in humanised 
modifications. The poem was completed in 
1852. The whole was given at Her Majesty's 
Theatre, under the management of Augelo Neu- 
mann and the conductorship of Anton Seidl, 
on May 5-9, 1882 ; four performances of the 
complete cycle took place. The dates of first per- 
formances of the separate parts are appended : — 

Das Rheingold. The * Vorabend,' or Pre- 
ludial Evening, was first performed at Munich , 
Sept. 22, 1869. 

Die Walkure was completed in 1856, and 
the first performance took place at Munich 
June 25, 1870. It was given in English at 
Covent Garden, Oct. 16, 1895. 

Siegfried was completed early in 1869, 
and first performed in its place in the cycle, at 
Bajrreuth, August 16, 1876. It was given in 
French at Brussels, June 12, 1891, and subse- 
quently at the Op^ra in Paris ; and in English, 
by the Carl Rosa Company, in 1898. 

Gotterdammeruno, completed in 1874, was 
first heard at Bayreuth, August 17, 1876. The 
whole trilogy was announced for production in 
English at Covent Garden in the winter season 
of 1907-8. M. 

RIOTTE, Philipp Jacob, bom at St. Mendel, 
Treves, August 16, 1776. Andre of Oflenbach 
was his teacher in music, and he made his first 
appearance at Frankfort in Feb. 1 804. In 1 806 
he was music-director at Gotha. In 1808 he 
conducted the French operas at the Congress of 
Erfurt In April 1809 his, operetta * Das Grenz- 
stiidtchen ' was produced at the Kamthnerthor 
Theatre, and thenceforward Vienna was his resi- 
dence. In 1818 he became conductor at the 
Theatre an-der-Wien, beyond which he does not 
seem to have advanced up to his death, August 
20, 1856. The list of his theatrical works is 
immense. His biography in Wurzbach's Lexicon 
enumerates, between 1809 and 1848, no less 
than forty-eight pieces, operas, operettas,ballets, 
{)antomimes, music to plays, etc., written mostly 
by himself, and sometimes in conjunction with 
others. In 1852 he wound up his long laboura 
by a cantata * The Crusade,' which was performed 
in the great Redoutensaal, Vienna, with much 
applause. He wrote an opera called * Mozart's 
Zauberflote ' at Prague about 1 820. He left also 
a symphony (op. 25), nine solo-sonatas, six do. 
for PF. and violin, three concertos for clarinet 
and orchestra, but these are defunct. He 




became very jMjpular by a piece called *Tbe 
Battle of Leipzig,' for PF. solo, which was 
i'e[)ublished over half Germany, and had a 
prodigious sale. g. 

RI PIENO, * supplementary. * The name given 
in the orchestral concertos of the 17th and 18th 
oen tunes, to the accompanying instruments 
which were only employwi to till in the har- 
monies and to support the solo or * concertante ' 
parts. [See Concertante, and Concertino, 
vol. i. pp. 676-7.] M. 

RIPPON, John, bom at Tiverton, April 29, 
1751. Died in London, Dec. 17, 1836 {Brit. 
Mh8, Biog,), He was a doctor of divinity, and 
had a meeting-house for a number of years in 
Carter Lane, Tooley Street. His * Selection of 
Psalm and Hymn Tunes,' from the best authors 
in three and five parts (1795) was a tune-book 
in much request for congregational singing, 
and ran through a large number of editions. 
In its compilation and arrangement he was 
assisted by T. Walker. Rippon was composer 
of an oratorio 'The Crucifixion,' published in 
1837. F. K. 

RISELEY, George, bom at Bristol, August 
28, 1845, was elected chorister of Bristol Cathe- 
dral in 1852, and in Jan. 1862 articled to Mr. 
John Davis Corfe, the Cathedral organist, for 
instruction in the organ, pianofoi'te, harmony, 
and counterpoint. During the next ten years 
he was organist at various dmrches in Bristol 
and Clifton, at the same time acting as deputy 
at the Cathedral. In 1870 lie was appointed 
organist to the Colston Hall, Bristol, where he 
started weekly recitals of classical and popular 
music, and in 1876 succeeded Corfe as organist 
to the Cathedral. In 1877 he started his or- 
chestral concerts, which have won for him 
a well-deserved reputation. Notwithstanding 
considerable opposition, and no small pecuniary 
risk, he has continued, during each season, to 
give fortnightly concerts, at which the principal 
works of the classical masters have been well 
performed, and a large number of interesting 
novelties by modem writers, both English and 
foreign, produced. [In 1878 he was ap}>ointed 
conductor of the Bristol Orpheus Society, and 
has enlarged its scope and greatly increased its 
reputation. He is conductor of the Bristol 
Society of Instrumentalists, and was the founder 
of the Bristol Choral Society in 1889. He 
retired with a 2>ension from the cathedral 
apiK)intment in 1898, and was appointed 
conductor of the Alexandra Palace, and of the 
(Queen's Hall Choral Society. In 1896 he 
conducted his first Bristol Festival, with great 
success. His compositions include a Jubilee 
Ode (1887), ])art-8ongs, etc. See an interesting 
article on him in Musical TiitieSf 1899, p. 
81 ff.] \v. B. s. 

RISLER, Joseph Edouard, bom at Baden, 
Feb. 23, 1873, studied at the Paris Conserva- 
toire, where he gained, among other distinctions, 

first medals in solfege and elementary piano in 
1887, a first piano prize (in Dimmer's class) in 
1889, a second harmony prize in 1892, and 
the firat prize for accompaniment in 1897. On 
leaving the Conservatoire, Risler made further 
studies with Dimmler, Stavenhagen, D* Albert, 
and Klind worth. In 1896 and 1897 he was 
one of the 'Assistenten auf der Biihue' at 
Bayreuth, and took part as * r^p^titeur,* in 
preparing the ' Meistersinger ' for the Paris 
Opera. In 1906 he was appointed a member 
of the Conseil sup^rienr of the Paris Conserva- 
toire. Risler has given many pianoforte reoitals 
in France, Germany, Holland, Russia, Spain, 
etc. His first apjiearance in England took place 
at Prince's Hall, May 17, 1894, when he played 
two sonatas of Beethoven, a master for whom 
he has a special predilection. His playing was 
then found to be singularly free from aifecta- 
tion, although in his later years he has yielded 
to certain mannerisms which detract from the 
artistic beauty of his earlier performances. His 
technique is very remarkable. He played the 
thii-ty-two sonatas of Beethoven in London in 
1906. He has written a ooncert-trsnscriptiou 
of Strauss's 'Till Eulenspiegel,' etc. o. F. 

RISPOSTA (Lat. Comes; Eng. * Answer y 
The Answer to the subject of a Fugue, or {X}int 
of imitation. [See Puoposta.] 

In Real Fugue, the answer imitates the 
subject, interval for interval. In Tonal Fugue, 
the Tonic is always answered by the Dominant, 
and vice versa. In both, the imitation is 
usually conducted, either in the fifth above 
the Proposta, or the fourth below it, when the 
subject begins upon the Tonic ; and, in the 
fourth above, or the fifth below, when it begins 
upon the Dominant. [See Fugue, Sub- 
ject.] w, s. r. 

UTO. [See Rallentaxdo.] 

RITORNELLO (Abbrev. JUtamd., RUor. ; 
Fr. llitoumellr), I. An Italian word, literally 
signifying a little i^tum or repetition ; but 
more frequently applied, in a conventional sense, 

(1) to a short instnimentAl melody played 
between the scenes of an opera, or even during 
the action, either for the purpose of enforcing 
some particular dramatic effect or of amusing 
the audience during the time occupied in the 
preparation of some elaborate * set-scene * ; or, 

(2) to the symphonies introduced between the 
vocal phrases of a song or anthem. 

1. The earliest known use of the term, in its 
first sense, is to be found in Peri's *Euridice,* 
in connection with a melody for three flutes, 
which, though called a * Zinfonia ' on its first 
appearance, is afterwards repeated under tlie 
title of *Ritoraello.* *Euridice* was first 
printed at Florence in 1600, and at Venice in 

A similar use of the term occurs soon after- 
wards in Monteverde*s * Orfeo,' printed at Venice 




in 1 609, and republished in 1 6 1 5. In this work , 
the Overtiire — there called Toccata — is followed 
by a * Bitoraello ' in five parts, the rhythmic 
form of which is immeasurably in advance of 
the age in which it was produced. [Both toccata 
and ritomello are printed in the MusiecU Tivies 
for 1880, in an essay on Monteverde ; and the 
toccata is given in Parry's SeveiUeemik Century 
{fhford Hist, of M'uaic, vol. iii), p. 51.] 

2. When vocal music with instrumental 
accompaniment became more extensively culti- 
vated, the word was brought into common use, in 
its second sense, as applied to the instrumental 
symphonies of a song, or other composition for 
a solo voice. Ritomelli of this kind were ftreely 
a:)ed by Cavalli, Gesti, Garissimi, and many 
other composers of the early Venetian dramatic 
school, who imitated their manner. An example 
from Cavalli's * II Giasone ' will be found at 
vol. iiL p. 440. Towards the close of the 
17th century such instrumental interpolations 
became very common, in all styles and countries. 
For instaneey in early editions of the Verse 
Aathema, of Croft, Greene, and other English 
compoeeTS, of the 17 th and 18 th centuries, we 
constantly iind the words 'Ritomel.,' *Ritor.,' 
or 'Rit,' printed over little interludes, which, 
unknown in the more severe kind of ecclesiastical 
mnsic, formed a marked feature in works of this 
particular school, frequently embodying some of 
its choicest scraps of melody, as in Dr. Boyce's 
Anthem, 'The Heavens declare the glory of 

In later editions the term disappears, its place 
being supplied, in the same passages, by the 
words ' Organ,' or ' Sym.' ; which last abbrevia- 
tion is almost invariably found in old copies of 
Handel's songs, and other similar music, in 
which the symphonies are interpolated, as often 
as opportunity permits, upon the line allotted 
to the voice. 

II. An ancient form of Italian verse, in which 
each Strophe consists of three lines, the first and 
third of which rhyme with each other, after the 
manner of the Term rima of Dante. Little Folk- 
Songs of this character are still popular, under 
the name of ' Ritomelli ' or ' Stomelli,' among 
the peasants of the Abruzzi and other motmtain 
regions of Italy. w. 8. r. 

RITTER, Fr«d£ric Louis, bomat Strasburg, 
June 22, 1884. His paternal ancestors were 
S[janish, and the family name was originally 
Caballero. His musical studies were begun at 
an early age under Hauser and Schletterer, and 
continued at Paris (whither he was sent when 
sixteen years of age) under the supervision of 
his cousin, Georges Kastner. Possessed with 
the idea that beyond the Rhine he would find 
better opportunities forthe study of composition, 
he ran away to Germany, where he remained^ 
for two years, assiduously pursuing his studies 
with eminent musicians, and attending concerts 
whenever good music could be heard. Return- 

ing to Lorraine, aged eighteen, he was nominated 
professor of music in the Protestant seminary 
of Fen^strange, and invited to conduct a Societe 
de Concerts at Bordeaux. The representations 
made by some of his fandly who had settled in 
America induced him to visit the New ^N^orld, 
He spent a few years in Cincinnati, where his 
enthusiasm worked wondera in the development 
of taste. The Cecilia (choral) and Philharmonic 
(orchestral) Societies were established by him, 
and a large number of important works presented 
at their concerts for the first time in the United 
States. In 1861 Ritter went to New York,, 
becoming conductor of the Sacred Harmonic 
Society for seven years, and of the Arion Choial 
Society (male voices), and instituting (1867) the 
first musical festival held in that city. In 1867 
he was appointed dii-ector of the musical depart- 
ment of Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, whither 
he removed in 1874 on resigning his conductor- 
ships. The University of New York conferred 
on him the degree of Doctor of Music in 1878. 
He died at Antwerp, July 22, 1891. Ritter's 
literary labours have included articles on musical 
topics printed in French, German, and American 
periodicals. His most important work is A 
History of Music, in the Form of Lectures — vol. i. 
1870 ; vol. iL 1874, Boston ; both republished 
byW. Reeves, London, 1876. Music in Englaiid 
appeai-ed in New York in 1883, and Music in 
America in the same year. 

The following works have appeared in the 
catalogues of Hamburg, Leipzig, Mainz, and 
New York publishers : — 

OpL 1. 'H*fls,' cyelus of Penlan.Op. 10. PiT« taofpu TVn Irbih 
M«lodlM wlUi new PF. 


2. Preainbnle Scheno*. PF. 

3. Ton diildren'a Ktugs. 

4. Fairy Lore. 

B. Kight PF..P10OW. 

6. Six longa. 

7. FlTeohonw 
a PHUmxxlii. 

11. Orgiui fantMla and fapie. 

12. Voices of the Night, PF. 
' O Salutarla,' baritone, oigan. 
' Are Uaria/ ueso-aopr., organ. 

One string quartet; three PF. 

Fsalni iv. baritone solo, ohonu, 

and orehMtra. 
Plalm xlrl., aolo, chor. and orch. 
Paalm xofv. fenude voices with 

ticca. ' Pfcrting,' song, meuo-sopnuio. 
le voices. A practical Alethod for the lu- 
I stmctionof Choms-classes. 

The following are his most important unpub- 
lished com])osition8 : — 

S Symphonies— A, E minor. Ei>. 
' Stella.' Poinie • eymphoulque, 

d'aprta v. Hngo. 
OTerture, 'Othello.' 
Concerto, PF. and orch. 

Do. Tloloucello and orch. 
Fantasia, baas clarinet and orch. 

Dr. Ritter's wife, nie Raymond, is known 
under the name of Fanny Raymond Rittek 
(bom at Philadelphia in 1840), as an author and 
translator of works on musical subjects. She 
brought out translations of Ehlert's Letters on 
Music, to a Lady; and of Schumann's Essays 
and Criticisms — ^in two series, as Music and 
Musicans ; and a pamphlet entitled Wmnan 
as a Musician — all published by Reeves, 
London. f. h. j. 

RITTER, Hermann, sou of a German 
government official, was bom at Wismar, M eckleii- 
burg, Sept. 26, 1849. A gifted writer and able 
violinist and musician, he attracted considerable 
public interest in Germany during the latter 
half of the 10th century by his performances. 




oil the 'Viola Altaian instrument which he 
claimed to be his own invention. While study- 
ing history and art at the Heidelberg University, 
Herr Ritter became deeply interested in the 
history of musical instmments, and the desire 
to improve the muffled tone of the oi*dinary 
viola induced him to attempt the construction 
of a similar instrument which should possess 
the acute resonant qualities of the violin. 
Accoi-ding to his own account, this consumma- 
tion was effected by the aid of the rules laid 
down by Antonio Bagatella in his pamphlet 
entitled Regoh per la costrusiont di KioUni, 
Viole^ VioloncellijC Vwlom^etc. etc., Padua, 1786, 
x)f which a second edition apt)eared in Padua 
in 1883, and German translations at Padua in 
1786 and Leipzig in 1806. In point of fact 
Hermann Ritter's * Viola Alta ' was in reality a 
revival of the large 'Tenor Viol,' that direct 
descendant of those iiistrumetUs de remplissage 
the Quiittea.n& Haute Contre, which he methodised 
into a tenor of extra large proportions constructed 
on the scientific acoustical basis appertaining to 
the violin. His public api)oarances with the 
instrument began in 1876. They attracted 
the consideration of many eminent composers, 
and Wagner, who was at that time occupied 
with his 'Nibelungen,' invited his aid for the 
production of that opera in the same year. 
After completing this engagement Herr Ritter 
travelled for several years, touring in Germany, 
Austria, Switzerland, Holland, Russia, England, 
and Scotland, and in 1879 he was appointed 
professor of musical history and (esthetics, as 
well as of the viola, at the Royal School of 
music at AVurzburg. There his talents and 
personal influence were the means of attracting 
a vast number of students, who assisted in 
spreading the fame of his invention, and in 
1889 five of his pupils were playing in the 
orchestra of the Bayreuth festival. In 1889 ho 
was learnedly advocating the use of a three-footed 
binder in a pamphlet entitled £>cr DreifUssige 
oder Normal-Geigemtey (Wiirzburg, G. Hartz). 

The Grand Duke of Mecklenburg appointed 
Herr Ritter his * Court Chamber Virtuoso,' and 
the Emperor Ludwig II. of Bavaria gave him 
the title of * Court Professor. ' He married the 
singer Justine Haecker in 1884. Ho wrote 
and arranged an immense amount of music for 
his * Viola Alta ' and traced its history in his 
book entitled Die Geschiehte des Viola Alia 
(Leipzig, Merseburg). (See Viola.) G. Adema, 
Hermann Ritter und seine Viola alta (Wiirzburg, 
1881, 2nd edition, 1890); Hermann Ritter, 
Die Viola alta oder Altgeige (Leipzig, 1885), 1st 
edition, Heidelberg, 1876, 2nd edition, Leipzig, 
1877. (Riemann, Diet, of Music) E. h-a. 

RITTER (properly Bennet), Theodore, 
bom near Paris, April 6, 1841, was a pupil of 
Liszt and wrote a number of successful drawing- 
room pieces (* Chant du braconnier,' * Sylphes,' 
etc). He produced two o{)eras (* Marianne,' at , 

Paris in 1861, and ' La dea risorta,' at Florence, 
1865) ; he died in Paris, April 6, 1886. 

RIVARDE, Serge Achille, %'iolinist, was 
bom on Oct. 31, 1865, in New York of an 
American mother, his father being a Spaniard. 
He lived in America till the age of eleven, 
receiving lessons successively firom Felix Simon, 
Henri Wieniawski and Joseph AVhite (a man 
of colour). Coming to Europe he entered the 
Paris Conservatoire, to become a pupil of Charles 
Dancla. He won a first prize in July 1879, shar- 
ing the same with Franz Ondricek. In 1881 
he returned to America, where he stayed three 
years, and then gave up violin-i)laying entirely 
for a time. In 1885 he came back to Paris and 
entered Lamoureux's orchestra, in which he 
remained for five years as princi^tal violin, and 
occasional soloist. He gave up the appointment 
in 1891 and made hisd^but in London in 1894. 
In 1899 he took the post of violin professor 
at the Royal College of Music. He is occa- 
sionally heard as soloist in London and abroad, 
being the possessor of an exceptionally pure 
style, but spends most of his time in teaching. 
Until recently he played almost exclusively 
upon violins made by a modern maker, 
Sze^^essy Bela, but recently has tiiken to a 
Nicolas Lupot. w. w. c. 

])ortant quarterly review on music, published 
by the firm of Bocca in Turin, and edited by 
L. Torchi. Each quarterly * fascicolo * contains 
about 200 pages in Italian or French, the 
articles headed 'Memorie' dealing frequently 
with points of musical arclueology, while ' Arte 
contem})oranea ' is the heading of those which 
treat of current events or the criticism of new 
music. Operas and other works of importance 
are discussed in detail, there are illustrations, 
musical and otherwise, and shorter reviews of 
musical books appear under the title of ' Reoen- 
sioni.' A useful feature is a list of articles on 
music which appear in other periodicals. Among 
the Italian contributors to the first volume 
may be mentioned Signori Chilesotti, Giani, de 
Piccolellis, Tacchinardi, Tebaldini, and Vald- 
righi ; while the names of some of the most 
eminent writers of other countries, such as 
Guido Adler, F. Draeseke, F. A. Qevaert, Adolphe 
Jullien, Arthur Pougin, Saint-Saens, Philipp 
Spitta, and J. Weckerlin, appear in the list of 
contributors. The publication began in 1894, 
and has maintained a high standard of excellence 
ever since. m. 

RIZZIO, David (Rizzi, or Ricci), the son 
of a professional musician and dancing-master, 
bom at Turin, in Italy, in the early years of 
the 16th century. He obtained a post at the 
court of the Duke of Savoy, and came over to 
Scotland in the train of the ambassador in 
1661. With his brother Joseph he remained 
in the service of Queen Mary, in the first in- 
stance as a bass singer, receiving £80 per year. 




He so won his way into her favour (no doubt 
primarily by liis ability in connection with 
court masques, of which she was so fond), that 
he became, in 1564, her foreign secretary. By 
this he aroused political and other feelings, and 
he was stabbed to death, almost in the Queen's 
prussence, in Holyrood Palace, on the evening 
of March 9, 1566. 

Tliere is no doubt that Rizzio exercised some 
inHuence on the music then fashionable in Scot- 
land (or at least in Edinburgh), and there appears 
to have been a very strong tradition that he was 
the composer of several of the well-known Scots 
tunes. In 1725 William Thomson in the 
* Orpheus Caledonius ' puts this tradition into 
deiinite form by affixing a mark to seven of the 
airs there engraved, stating them to be the com- 
{•osition of Rizzio (see Orpheus Caledonius). 
James Oswald and others have in one or two 
instances also assigned other airs to Rizzio with 
probably less of tradition to justify them. f. K. 

An Kn glifib national song whose tune has 
beoome associated with the serving of dinner 
at public functions, and occasionally used as a 
signal for the same in the army. 

The air is a fine marked specimen of English 
melody, and is probably the composition of 
Richard Leveridge, who doubtless sang the song 
in public. The first two verses were inserted 
in Henry Fielding's ballad opera, * Don Quixote 
in England,' produced in 1733. They ai*e 
considertxl to be by Fielding himself, and are 
marked as to be sung to the air *The Queen's 
old Courtier.' Another claim, however, arises. 
In Walsh's British Musical Miscellany or T?ie 
I/fUghfful Grace, vol. iii., is * A Song in praise 
of Old English Roast Beef: the words and 
^lusick by Mr. Leveridge.* This is a version of 
seven verses, including the two, with slight 
verbal diiferenoes, already placed in Fielding's 
*Don Quixote.' The tune is, however, the 
now well-known melody as under — 

The melody has been used for many songs, one, 
formerly well known in the north, being * The 
KaU Brose of auld Scotland.' 'The Roast 
Beef Cantata ' was a well-known piece originally 
published about 1760-70. Headed by a copy 
of Hogarth's picture the 'Gate of Calais,' the 

subject of which is the carrying of a huge piece 
of beef before a starved French seutiy, the 
praises of roast beef are set to several jwpular 
airs, concluding with the ' Roast Beef of Old 
England.' f. k. 

ROBARTT, of Crewkeme, was an *orgyn 
maker ' who let out organs to churches by the 
year. The Mayor of Lyme Regis, in 1551, |jaid 
him ten shillings for his year's rent v. de p. 

ROBERT BRUCE. A iMisticcio adapted by 
Niedermeyer from four of Rossini's operas — 
'Zelmira,' the 'Donna del Lago,' 'Torvaldo e 
Dorliska,' and ' Bianca e Faliero.' Produced 
without success at the Academic Royale, Dec. 
30, 1846. It is published in Italian as 'Roberto 
Bnice * by Ricordi. g. 

ROBERT LE DIABLE. Opera in five acts ; 
words by Scribe, music by Meyerbeer. Pro- 
duced at the Academic, Paris, Nov. 21, 1831. 
In London, and in English, imperfectly, as 

* The Demon, or the Mystic Branch,' at Drury 
Lane, Feb. 20, 1832, and as ' The Fiend Father, 
or Robert of Normandy,' at Covent Garden the 
day following ; as * Robert the Devil ' at Drury 
Lane (Bunn), March 1, 1845. In French, at 
Her Mjyesty's, June 11, 1832, with Nourrit, 
Levasseur, Damoi-eau. In Italian, at Her 
Majesty's, May 4, 1847 (first appearance of 
Jenny Llnd and Staudigl). g. 

(1) Oi)era in three acts, text by Romani (from 
Comeille), music by Mercadante. Produced at 
Milan, March 10, 1833. (2) An opera in 
three acts ; libretto by Camerano from Comeille's 

* Comte d'Essex, * music by Donizetti. Produced 
in Naples in 1837 ; at the Italiens, Paris, Dec. 
27, 1838 ; at Her Majesty's Theatre, London, 
June 24, 1841. The overture contains the air 
of ' God save the King. ' g. 

ROBERTS, Henry, a music and an orna- 
mental engraver, who issued several notable 
books of songs with music, now much sought 
after, mainly on account of their decorative 
character. In these works the 2>ieces are headed 
with pictorial embellishments. The earliest of 
Roberts's publications is 'Calliope, or English 
Harmony,' in two volumes octavo. It was 
issued by and for the engraver in ])eriodical 
numbers of 8 ])p. and commenced late in the 
year 1787. Twenty-five numbers formed the 
first volume, which was completed in 1739. 
The second volume began in this year, but 
from some cause now unknown, the publication 
came to a standstill when half through, and 
was not resumed until 1746, when it came out 
with the imprint of John Simpson (q.v.). This 
volume contains 'God save the King,' which, 
from the date 1739 appearing on some of the 
plates, has been hastily assumed to be prior to 
the copy in the OenUetrtan^s Magazine of 1745 ; 
this, however, is not the case, for ample proof 
exists that this portion of the volume was not 
issued before the spring of 1746. The plates 

^ "^ 




of * Calliope,' thirty or forty years afterwards, 
came into possession of Longman k Broderip, 
who reprinted from them. Roberts's other 
famous work is *Clio and Euterpe,' precisely 
similar in style, which, issued in two volumes, 
bears the dates 1758 and 1 759. A later edition 
has a third volume added, and is dated 1 762. 
A fourth was again added when re-issued by 
John Welcker. Henry Roberts kept a music 
and a print-shop in Holborn ' near Hand Alley 
almost opposite Great Turnstile.' His name is 
attached as engraver to several pieces of decora- 
tive engraving on music-sheets. f. k. 

ROBERTS, John, composer of sacred music, 
bom in Wales, Dec. 22, 1822. Before 1839 
he had adopted the name *Ieum Qwyllt.' 
He removed to Liverpool and became editor 
of a Welsh newspaper, besides writing upon 
musical matters. In 1858 he again returned 
to Wales, and at Aberdare set up as a music 
teacher. On Jan. 10, 1859, he founded there 
the first of a long series of Welsh musical 
festivals, and in the same year published a 
tune -book, 'Llyfr Tonau,' which was much 
used throughout Wales, and passed through 
many editions. Roberts was a strong advocate 
of temperance, and preached as a Calvinistic 
Methodist He died May 6, 1877. [Informa- 
tion principally from Diet. Not, Biog,\ f. k. 

ROBERTS, J. Varlby, Mus.D., native of 
Stanningley, near Leeds, bom Sept. 25, 1841. 
He early exhibited much ability for music, and 
at twelve was appointed organist of S. John's, 
Farsley, near Leeds. In 1862 he became 
organist of S. Bartholomew's, Armley, and in 
1868 organist and choirmaster of the parish 
church, Halifax. In 1 8 7 1 he graduated Mus. B. , 
and in 1876 Mu8.D., at Christ Church, Oxford. 
During his organistship at Halifax, upwards of 
£3000 was raised to enlarge the organ, origin- 
ally built by Snetzler — the instrument upon 
which Sir William Herschel, the renowned 
astronomer, formerly played — and it. is now 
one of the finest and largest in the North of 
England. In 1 8 76 Dr. Roberts became a Fellow 
of the Royal College of Organists, London. 
In 1882 he was elected organist at Magdalen 
College, Oxford, succeeding Mr. (now Sir 
Walter) Parratt. In 1884 the University Glee 
and Madrigal Society wss founded under his 
conductoi-ship. In 1885-93 he was organist 
of St. Giles's, Oxford, and in the former year 
was appointed examiner in music to the Oxford 
Local Examinations, and also became conductor 
of the Oxford Choral Society. In 1883 he was 
appointed one of the University examiners for 
musical degrees. In 1907 he presented a new 
organ to his native village of Stanningley. His 
compositions include sacred cantatas, 'Jonah,' 
for voices and orchestra ; ' Advent,' * The Story 
of the Incarnation,' 'The Passion,' for church 
choirs ; Psalm ciii. for voices and orchestra ; six 
services, one an evening service in C written for 

the London Church Choir Association Festival 
in 1894 ; about fifty anthems, besides jiart- 
songs, and organ pieces. His FrcuUieal Method 
of Training Choristers, 1898, 1900, and 1905, 
is very useful. w. b. s. 

ROBIN ADAIR. [See Eileen Aroon, vol. 
i. p. 770.] 

ROBIN DES BOIS. The title of the French 
version of * Der Freischiitz ' at its first apjiear- 
anoe in Paris (Od^n, Dec. 7, 1824 ; 0|)era- 
Comique, Jan. 15, 1835 ; Lyrique, Jan. 24, 
1855). The libretto was made by Sanvage ; 
the names of the characters were dhanged, the 
action and the story were altered, portions of 
' Preciosa ' and ' Oberon ' were introduced, and 
the piece was made to end happily. The 
alterations were due to Castil Blaze, who, to 
save expense, scored the music himself from a 
PF. copy. Nevertheless, with all these draw- 
backs, so great was the popularity of the music 
that Castil Blaze made a large sum of money 
by it. For the translation by Pacini and 
Berlioz see FreischCtz, vol. ii. p. 107. g. 

ROBIN HOOD. An opera in three acts ; 
words by John Oxenford, music by G. A. Mac- 
farren. Produced at Her Migesty's Theatre, 
London, Oct. 11, 1860, and had a very great 
ran. o. 

Other operas on the same subject have been 
produced, besides many masques of the 16tli 
and 17th centuries, more or less associated 
with the May Day games and observances ; 
of these early pieces littie record as to detail 
has survived. 

A ballad opera of the name was acted at Lee 
k Harper's great booth, at St. Bartholomew's 
Fair, in 1730 ; the music and libretto of this 
was published by John Watts in the year of 
production. A different * Robin Hood, ' by Moses 
Mendez, was performed atDrary Lane in 1750, 
the music being supplied by Charles (afterwards 
Dr.) Bumey. Another English ballad opera 
in three acts, which attained some degree of 
fame, was entitled 'Robin Hood, or Sherwood 
Forest.' This was written by Leonard Mac- 
Nally, with the music selected, arranged, and 
composed by William Shield. It was produm^d 
at Co vent Garden Theatre in 1784, the prin- 
cipals being Mrs. Kennedy, Mrs. Martyr, Mrs. 
Banister, and Miss Kemble, while the male 
singers were Banister, Johnstone, and Edwin. 
The piece had a considerable ran, and several 
of the songs lasted in popularity long after the 
opera itself was dead. f. k. 

ROBINSON, Anastasia, bora about 1698, 
was daughter of a portrait painter, who, becom- 
ing blind, was compelled to qualify his children 
to gain their own livelihood. Anastasia received 
instmction from Dr. Croft, Pier Giuseppe 
Sandoni, and the singer called The Baroness, 
successively. She appeared in ' Creso, ' in 1 71 4 : 
as Ariana in Handel's 'Amadigi,* May 25, 
1715 ; and in 1720 at the King's Theatre as 




Echo in Domemoo Scarlatti's opera, 'Narciso.' 
She afterwards sang in the pasticcio of 'Muzio 
SceTola,* in Handel's *Ottone/ * Floridante/ 
" Flavio/ and ' Giulio Cesare ' ; in Baononcini's 
'Crispo' and 'Griselda,' and other operas. 
Her salaiy was £1000 for the season, besides 
a benefit-night. She possessed a fine voice of 
extensive compass, but her intonation was un- 
certain. She quitted the stage in 1724, having 
two years previously been privately married to 
the Earl of Peterborough, who did not avow 
the marriage until shortly before his death in 
1735, although, according to one account, she 
resided with him as mirtress of the house, and 
was received as such by the Earl's Mends. 
According to another account, she resided with 
her mother in a house at Parson's Green, which 
the Earl took for them, and never lived under 
tlie same roof with him, until she attended him 
in a journey in search of health, a short time 
before his death. She died at Bevis Mount, 
Southampton, in April 1755, and was buried 
at Bath Abbey. There is a fine portrait of her 
by Faber after Bank, 1727. 

Her younger sister, Elizabeth, intended for 
a miniature painter, preferred being a singer. 
She studied under Buononcini, and afterwards 
at Paris under Bameau ; but though an excellent 
singer, was said to have been prevented by 
timidity from ever appearing in public.^ A 
fortunate marriage, however, relieved her from 
the necessity of obtaining her own subsist- 
ence, w. H. H. ; with additions from the Did, 
i*f Sal. Biog. 

■ ROBINSON, John, bom 1682, was a 
chorister of the Chapel Royal under Dr. Blow. 
He became organist of St. Lawrence, Jewry, in 
1710 and St. Magnus, London Bridge, in 1713. 
Hawkins, in his Histoiy, describes him as 'a 
very florid and elegant performer on the organ, 
inasmuch that crowds resorted to hear him ' ; 
and elsewhere says : ' In parish churches the 
voluntary between the Pwdms and the first 
Lesson was anciently a slow, solemn movement, 
tending to compose the minds and excite senti- 
ments of piety and devotion. Mr. Robinson 
introduced a different practice, calculated to 
display the agility of his fingeis in allegro 
movements on the comet, trampet, sesquialtera, 
and other noisy stops, degrading the instrument, 
and instead of the full and noble haraiony with 
which it was designed to gratify the ear, tickling 
it with mere airs in two parts, in fact solos 
for a flute and a bass.' On Sept. 30, 1727, 
Bobinaon wss appointed to succeed Dr. Croft 
as organist of Westminster Abbey. He had an 
extensive prsctioe as a teacher of the harpsichord, 
and will be long remembered by his double 
r:hant in Eb. He died April 80, 1762, and was 
liuried, May 18, in the north aisle of Westminster 
Abbey. He married, Sept. 6, 1716, Ann, 

I A 'MlMEoMBMiu )Bn..'»nMWKlai Dnizy Iam. Jan. % ITS, 
M» ArM In 'TWTempcrt.' U la poMlble ttiai thU wm lUisarat 


youngest daughter of William Tumer, Mu8.D. 
She was a singer, and appeared at the King's 
Theatre in 1720 in Domenico Scarlatti's opera 
* Nardso,' being described as * Mrs. Turaer- 
Robinson' to distinguish her from Anastasia 
Robinson, who sang in the same opera. She 
died Jan. 5, and was buried Jan. 8, 1741, in 
the west cloister of Westminster Abbey. Robin- 
son had a daughter, who was a contralto singer 
and the original representative of Daniel In 
Handel's oratorio ' Belshazzar,' 1745, and also 
sang in others of his oratorios. w. h. r. 

ROBINSON, Joseph, was the youngest of 
four brothers, bom and resident in Dublin. 
Their fiither Francis was an eminent professor 
of music, and in 1810 was mainly instrumental 
in founding * the Sons of Handel,' probably the 
earliest society established therefor the execution 
of large works. His eldest son Francis, Mus. D. , 
bom about 1799, had a tenor voice of great 
beauty and sympathetic quality ; was a vicar- 
choral of the two Dublin Cathedrals ; and, at 
the Musical Festival in Westminster Abbey, in 
June 1834, sang a principal part. He died 
Oct 31, 1872. Another son, William, had a 
deep bass of exceptional volume ; while John, 
born about 1812, died in 1844, the organist olf 
both Cathedrals and of Trinity College, had a 
tenor ranging to the high D. The four brothers 
formed an admirable vocal quartet, and were 
the first to make known the German Part-songs 
then rarely heard either in England or Ireland. 

Joseph Robinson, bora August 20, 1815, 
was a chorister of St. Patrick's at the early age 
of eight, and afterwards a member of all the 
choirs, where his fine delivery of recitative 
was always a striking feature. He also played 
in the orchestra of the Dublin Philhannonic. 
But it is as a conductor that his reputation 
is best established. In 1834 he founded the 
'Antient Concert Society,' of which he was 
conductor for twenty-nine years, and which 
ceased to exist soon after his resignation. It 
commenced its meetings in a private house, 
then took a large room, now the Royal Irish 
Academy of Antiquities, and in 1843 had made 
such progress that it purchased and remodelled 
the building since known as the ' Antient Con- 
cert Rooms.' Amongst the last things written 
by Mendelssohn was the instmmentation of his 
*Hear my Prayer' (originally composed for 
voices and organ only), expressly for Mr. 
Robinson to produce at the * Antients.' It did 
not reach him till after the composer's death. 
[See Mendelssohn, vol. iii. p. 146a, note 2.] In 
1887 he became conductor of the * University 
Choral Society,' founded by the students. At 
one of its concerts the music of * Antigone ' was 
given for the first time out of Germany. He 
continued to conduct the Society for ten years. 
[In 1849 he married Miss Fanny Arthur (see 
below).] In 1852, at the opening of the Cork 
Exhibition, Mr. Robinson conducted the music, 




which was on a large scale, and included a new 
cantata by Sir Robert Stewart. In 1853, an In- 
ternational Exhibition was opened in Dublin ; 
there he assembled 1000 performers, the largest 
band and chorus yet brought togetherin Ireland. 

In 1856 efforts were made to revive the 
' Insh Academy of Music/ founded in 1848, but 
languishing for want of funds and pupils. (See 
BoTAL Irish Academy.) Mr. and Mrs. Robin- 
son joined as Professors, and nearly all the Irish 
artists, both vocal and instrumental, who ap- 
peared during their time, owed both training 
and success to their teaching ; and when, after 
twenty years, Mr. Robinson resigned, the insti- 
tution was one of importance and stability. In 
1859, for the Handel Centenary, he gave the 
* ilcs<<iah,' with Jenny Lind and Belletti among 
the ))rincipals. The net receipts amounted to 
£900, an unprecedented sum in Dublin. In 
1865 the large Exhibition Palace was opened by 
the Prince of Wales, and Robinson conducted the 
performance with a band and chorus of 700. 

After the cessation of the ' Antients,' there was 
no Society to attempt systematically the worthy 
production of great works. To remedy this a 
chorus was trained by Robinson, and established 
in 1876 as the * Dublin Musical Society.' The 
last concert conducted by Robinson was on Dec. 
6, 1888, previous to which the members presented 
him with an address and a purse of 100 
jBovereigns. The purse was returned by him 
with warm expressions of gratitude, but with 
the characteristic words, * "While I think a pro- 
fessional man should expect his fair remunera- 
tion, yet his chief object may be something 
higher and nobler — the advancement of art in 
his native city.' The Society was revived in 
1889, under the conductorship of Dr. Joseph 
^mith, but collapsed after some years. He wrote 
A variety of songs, concerted pieces and anthems, 
besides arranging a number of standard songs 
And Irish melodies. In 1881 he married for 
the second time ; he died August 28, 1898. 

In 1849 a young pianist. Miss Fanny Arthur 
(bom Sept 1831), arrived in Dublin from 
Southampton, and made her first successful ap- 
pearance there — Feb. 19, 1849. She had studied 
under Sterndale Bennett and Thalberg. Mr. 
Robinson and she were married July 17 follow- 
ing, and she continued for thirty years to be 
an extraordinary favourite. Her first appear- 
ance in London was at the Musical Union, 
June 26, 1855, when she played Beethoven's 
Sonata in F (op. 24), with Ernst, and received 
the praises of Meyerbeer ; also at the New 
Philharmonic in 1856, whereshe played Mendels- 
sohn's Concerto in D. 

Mrs. Robinson also passed a very active musi- 
cal life, though it was often interrupted by 
nervous illness. In teaching she had a peculiar 
power of infusing her own ideas into others. 
She played from time to time at concerts of a 
high class, and herself gave a very successful 

concert in Paris, attheSalle Erard(Feb. 4, 1864). 
Her pianoforte compositions are numerous and 
gracefuL Her sacred cantata, ' God is Love, ' was 
repeatedly performed throughout the kingdom. 

On Oct. 31, 1879, she met a sudden and tragic 
end, which caused profound regret. H. u'c. d. ; 
with additions from Brit* 3£n8. Biog,y Musical 
Times, Sept. 1898, p. 609, and from W. H. 
Grattan Flood, Esq. [See also an article by Sir 
C. V. Stanford in Comhiil Magcusine,3unelS99.'} 

ROBINSON, Thomas, was author of a curious 
work published at London in folio in 1603, bear- 
ing the following title — The Schoole o/Musicke : 
wherein is taught the perfect method of the true 
fingering of the Lute, Pandora, Orpharion and 
Viol de Oamba. In 1609 he published 'New 
Citharen Lessons.' Nothing is known of his 
biography. w. h. H. 

ROBSON, Joseph, organ - builder. See 
Apollonicon, vol. i. p. 95, and Flight, vol. 
ii. p. 61. 

ROCHE, Edmond, bom at Calais, Feb. 20, 
1828, died at Paris, Dec. 16, 1861, began life as 
a violin-player, first as Habeneck's pupil at the 
Conservatoire, but quickly relinquished music 
for literature. Roche undertook the translation 
of the libretto of 'Tannhauser' for its representa- 
tion at the Op^ra, March 13, 1861, and in a 
preface to his Poisies potthumes (Paris, Ldvy, 
1863) M. Sardou has described the terrible per- 
sistence with which Wagner kept his translator 
to his task. (See Pougin's supplement to 
F^tis.) In Jullien's Michard Wagner, 1887, 
the facts of the case were made public ; it seems 
that Roche, not knowing German, had recourse 
to the services of a friend named Lindau, and 
the translation, when sent to the director of the 
Opera, was rejected, as it was in blank verse ; the 
necessary alteration into rhyfne M'as made by 
Roche, Nuitter, and Wagner in collaboration. 
On this Lindau brought an action against 
Wagner, to enforce the mention of his name as 
one of the translators ; the case was heud on 
March 6, 1861 , a week before the first representa- 
tion of the opera, and it was decided that no 
name but that of Wagner should appear in the 
books. So that Roche had not even the satis- 
faction of seeing his name in print, in connection 
with the work^ for even Lajarte (Bill. Mus. de 
VOpera, iL 230) gives Nuitter as the author of 
the French words. Besides the poems contained 
in the volume cited, Roche contributed critical 
articles to several small periodicals. M. 

ROCHLITZ, JoHANN Friedrich, critic, 
and founder of the Allgemeine musUcal- 
ische Zeittmg, bom of poor parents at Leipzig, 
Feb. 12, 1769. His fine voice procured his 
admission at thirteen to the Thomasschule, 
under the Cantorship of Doles, where he spent 
six years and a half. He b^gan to study 
theology in the University, but want of means 
compelled him to leave and take a tutorship, 
which he supplemented by writing. [For the 




titles of his non-musical works see Riemann's 
Lexikon,'] He also attempted composition, 
and produced a mass, a Te Deum, some part- 
songs for male voices, a setting of Ps. xxiii., 
and a cantata, 'Die VoUendung des £rldeer8.' 
In 1798 he founded the AUgemtine rrvusikaiische 
ZeUung (Brcitkopf k Hartel), and edited it till 
1818, during which period his articles largely 
contributed to the improved general apprecia- 
tion of the works of the three great Austrian 
composers, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, in 
North Germany. The best of these were after- 
wards re-published by himself under the title 
of Fur Freunde dcr Tonkunat, in four vols. 
{1824 to 1882, reprinted later by Dorffel, third 
edition, 1868). It contains, amongst other 
matter, an interesting account of a visit to 
Beethoven at Vienna in 1822. Another im- 
portant work was a collection in three vols. 
(Schott, 1888 to 1840) of vocal music, from 
i>nfay to Haydn, in chronological order, of 
which the contents are given below. The first 
two volumes of the A.M,Z. contain a series of 
anecdotes on Mozart, whose acquaintance he 
made during Mozart's visit to Leipzig ; but 
Jahn, in the preface to his Mozart, has com- 
pletely destroyed the value of these as truthful 
records. Rochlitz was a good connoisseur of 
paintings and engravings. In 1830 he was 
one of the committee appointed by the Council 
of Leipzig to draw up a new hymn-book, and 
some of the hymns are from his own pen. He 
also wrote the librettos for Schicht's 'Ende 
des Gerechten,' Spohr*s 'Last Judgment' and 
' Calvary, ' and for Bierey's opera ' Das Blumen- 
miidchen.' He was a Hofrath of Saxony, and 
died Dec 16, 1842. F. o. 

The following are the contents of the collec- 
tion mentioned above — ' Sammlung vorziiglicher 
Oesangstiicke vom Ursprung gesetzmassiger 
Harmonie bis auf die neue Zeit ' : — 

4L X>au Kjrrte, a i. 'L' 

S. OkcvhMi. KyrtouidChrUtc. 

• 4. 
i. J«aq[iitad«Pria. HriDiiiu.a4 
wqMniiii rafagliun. 

Fixar Pbkiod (lasO-UM) 

Sl DOu 

Mciatan. ct Incmmatia. aA. 
%. Do. Moict. MiMrieonllM Do- 

T. O. Law BcglM Coali. a i. 
8L Do. 8b1t« Seciiift. a4. 

Angdiu pMtorM. 

9. O. Loac 

10. Da MlMrcre, Amplltu. Cor 

mandnm. Ne profloeu. 
Eedde mlhi, etc.. a 8. 

11. C. Gottdini«tL DoniliM qaid 

moltlpUatti. a 4 
19. Ch. de Monica. Kyrie et 

Chrltte. a i. 
U. Do. GlorlA. 
14. T. TftUis. VerlM mc^ a 4. 
10. U 8«nfl. Motet on ■ Choral. 

* Mag leh anglQck.' a 4. 
18. Do. Dcna propltitu esto. a B. 
17. Do. Nano dimittU. a 4. 

Skdvd Pnios (1600-1690) 

OlorU. two cfaotra, a 4. 
3w Dol Pbnl nmt. • S. 
4. Dow O booc Jcra, a 4. 

6. Do. Po|ml« nwna, two ckob*. 

« Do. MartriQl. • Cedro geiitll.' 

7. Do. I«ada antnui mc*. a 4. 
a. O. M. KaainL BtiOM mater. 

• 4. 
t. Do. BsMdi DOS. • 4. 
1«. Do. HaecdlM.aS. 
11. VlttOTta. Joni dttkla. a 4. 
IS. Do. O «Mn f fMrforam. a 4. 

13. F. Aacrte. Adnmaiu. a 4. 

14. Do. CfaTtetna CMtna ert. a 4. 

15. A11««rl MiMfcre, two efaoin. 

1<L OaltrleU. TnezoelsU. BoprKno 
wdo. Traoraoloandchonu, 
a 4. with three honu, two 
trombone* nod violins. 

17. Do. Beaedlctue, three choirs, 


18. BOhm. Brflder. Two Lieder. 

a 4 : D«r twg vertrelbt ; Die 
Naoht iet kommen. 

19. Do. Two Lieder, a 4: Ver- 

leih' una Prleden ; MImm' 
▼on uiia. 

20. Walther. M,\xno grmtiaa. 

• 4. 
SL G«Knfe Martin Lathers, a 4 : 
Mit Priwl mid rreod : Ea 
woU* nna Oott : Nun komin 
der Heiden Hciland ; Christ 
liw: Je ~* ■ * 

S2. Galloe. Eoce qnnmodo mori 

tur Justus, a 4. 
2S. Do. Adorawna, a & 
24. Do. Media vltae. two choirs, 

95. Vulpins. BxultateJnsU, a4. 
98. Do. Surrezit Chrlstns. two 

choirs, • 4. 
97. Walliser. Oaudent IncoelU. 

two choirs, a 4. 

28. Praetorius. BcceDomlnas,aa 


Palestrina. Bt lueamatus, etc. 

(from mass ' Assuntpta 

est'». aS. 
Praetorius. O tos omne*. 

1. Caodnl. Solo and chorus, 
Funeste piamie. 

5. Do. Chums, Biondo aroier. 

3. Carissimi. Becitative and 

ehoma. Turliabuntur (from 
Cantata *Plaiutes des xi- 
prouTds '). 

4. Do. Ardens est oor. four 

soloe and chorus. 
8. Do. O sacrum conviTinm, 
three solo voices. 

6. Do. Cantcmusomncs, chorus 

and socua (Jelta). 
Plorate. a & 

7. BenevoU. Sauctus, four 

choirs, a 4. 

8. Da Chrlste. • 4. 

9. Beraabel. Alleluja. a 4. 

10. Do. Salve raglna. a 4. 

11. A. ScarUtti. Kjrrle, • 4. 

12. Do. Gloria, a fi. 

IS. Do. Vacuum est. Canto solo 
and chorus, with riolius. 

14. Do. flanctus, a 4, and Agnus, 

18u Caldara. Salve reglna, a S. 

16L Da Agnus, alto and tenor. 

17. Da Qui tollU, a 4. 

TmRD PiKioo (1600-1700) 

18. Astona. RUbat 

19. Do. Facnie. 

20. Do. Oquam. 

21. Durante. Kyrle. 

22. Da Begina angelomm. 

23. Da Bequlem aetemam. 

24. Da DomlneJesu. 

88. LottL Crueiflxus, n 6. 

26. Da Qui toUU, a 4. 

27. Da ^mciflxus, • & 

9& MaroeUa Udlr' le orecchie. 
Ps. xllv. a 4. 

29. Da Bt Incamatus, a 4. 

30. Hasler. Pater noster, a 7. 
SL H. SrJiQts. 8eUg siud die 

Tod ten. a 4. 

32. Da Chorus, ChrlstiiaUthlor, 

33. Do. Psalm. Was betrtthst 

84. Da Vaterunser. 

SB. V. Leisring. Trots sey dem 

Tsufel. two choirs, a 4. 
36. Grimm. Gloria, a 8. 
ST. J. J. Fux. Domine Jesn. a 4. 
38. Da Trema la terra^ Coro 

from oratorio ' . 

FktDBTH PnioD (1700-1700) 

1. HandeL Te Deum, in D, 

SS. Hasae. Alto solo. Ad teclama- 

Gloria* tuae. 


9. Da He sent a thick dark- 

23. Da Miserere, and Benignl. 


24. Da Ts Deum. a 4. 

3. Da He ivbuked the Bed Sea. 

28. Gimnn. MaohetdieThUrweit 

4. Da And Israel saw. 

2& Da Tu rex gloriae. a 4. 

8. Do. Behold the I^mb of 

27. Do. Freuet cuch (Tod Jmu). 


2& Do. Wir hler liegeti. Do. 
99. BoUe. Der Herr 1st Ktinig. 

7. Da Thy rebuka 

SO. Do. Welt-Blchter (Tod Abel). 

8. Do. Lift up your heads. 

9. Do. Hear, Jacob's God. 


10. Da Zadok the Priest. 

32. D . r.-. l..-*K?iiiiFiinit«n. 

IL Christoph Bach. Ich lasse 

35. C. IV fc VVwh.. Kt miHtfl' 

dloh nicht. 

1 iiT'liix .iMi. rruinKftgDkaraU 

19. J. & Bach. Nimm' von nns 

34. Dii HrJlttf. L«D .'Lt.trs. A 4. 


36. M. li ylu. HrItoii rw m». 

13. Do. Maehe dich mein Geist. 

3& IX- Ten»-bT»fjiLW, 

14. Da Wir setsen uns mit 

37. Di>. MLs«nu% 

38. LH' CViKi. Dl qxtftnta jvna 

18. Da Wle sloh eln Vatm-. 

\^ IHftm) 

Lobet den Harm. 

39. D< '^■'* !-'".nTstiii. 

1& Zelenka. Cndo. 

40. D " h:r ti! «Ti|pi, a 9. 

17. TUemann. Amen. Lob nnd 

41. Jc .nflriiiB h<« 



18. StOlsel. Gloria. 

42. D< 

19. HomUius. Vater nnaer. a 4. 

43. Pi V ttt^ tialw 

90. PasterwlU. Bequlem. 

21. Hacse. Duet and Chorus, Le 

44. I> ' -1 FL 


48. D«' ^\^\^^\ aint*r. 

ROCK, Michael, was appointed organist of 
St Margaret's, Westminster, June 4, 1802, in 
succession to William Rock, junr., who had 
filled the office from May 24, 1774. He com- 
posed some popular glees — * Let the sparkling 
wine go round ' (which gained a prize at the 
Catch Club in 1794), 'Ben^th a churchyard 
yew,' etc. He died in March 1809. w. h. h. 

William Smith, bom at North Cheam, Surrey, 
on Jan. 5, 1823, and baptized at Morden church. 
The form of his surname by which he was 
known was an older style resumed after 1846. 
He was successively pupil of John Purkis, the 
blind organist, of Stemdale Bennett, and at 
the Leipzig Conservatorium, where he studied 
from 1846 till 1846. He enjoyed the special 
friendship and tuition of Mendelssohn, and 
was with Hauptmann for theory and with 
Plaidy for pianoforte. For some years after his 




return to England, he was active as a teacher 
and performer in London, being regular accom- 
panist at the * Wednesday concerts/ where 
Braham and other eminent singers were to be 
heard. At this period he wrote his most popu- 
lar and beautiful song, * Queen and huntress ' ; 
and his pianoforte editions of classical and other 
operas led the way in popularising that class 
of music in an available form for the use of 
those who could not read full scores ; and in 
his indications of the orchestral instruments 
above the music-staves he did much to point 
the way towards a general appreciation of 
orchestral colour. In the early sixties he left 
London for Torquay on account of his mother's 
health and his own, and on her death in 1876, 
he openly became a member of the Roman 
communion. He had been organist and honorary 
precentor at All Saints' Church, Babbacombe, 
from 1867, and won a high position as a teacher. 
He published, with T. F. Ravenshaw, a * Festival 
Psalter, adapted to the Gregorian Tones,' in 
1863, and * Accompanying Harmonies to the 
Ferial Psalter,' in 1869. These were the first- 
fruits of his assiduous study of ancient music, 
on which he became the first authority of his 
time in England. A couple of valuable text- 
books, on harmony (1881) and counterpoint 
(1882) res^iectively, had a great success, and 
in the latter part of the first edition of this 
Dictionary he wrote a large number of articles 
on musical archaeology generally. In the pre- 
sent day, musical research has been sedulously 
carried on in other countries, and it is inevitable 
that some of his conclusions should have been 
controverted, if not disproved ; but, considering 
the state of musical education at the time he 
wrote, the value of his contributions to such 
subjects as the music of the period which closed 
in 1600, can hardly be exaggerated. He was 
too ardent a partisan to be an ideal historian, 
but his History of Music for Young Students 
(1879) and his larger work A General History 
of Music (1886) contain much that is of per- 
manent value. His Life of Handel (1883) and 
Mendelssohn ^1884) are fine examples of eulo- 
gistic biography, though they are liardly to be 
recommended as embodying a calmly critical 
estimate of either composer. In his larger 
History he showed that he was, nevertheless, 
not above owning himself in the wrong, and 
his recantation of certain excessive opinions 
expressed by him in the Dictionary against 
Wagner's later works was due to true moral 
courage. He conducted a concert of sacred 
music of the 16th and 17 th centuries at the 
Inventions Exhibition of 1885, and in 1891 
gave up Torquay for London, giving lectures at 
the Royal Academy and Royal College of Music, 
and holding a class for counterpoint and plain- 
song at the latter institution. Here he imparted 
the true principles of the ancient music with 
great success to many worthy pupils ; and as a 

singing-master and teacher of the pianoforte his 
method of imparting instruction was remarkably 
successful. As a composer, he never quite freed 
himself from the powerful influences engendered 
by his studies ; the lovely madrigal, * too 
cruel fair,' was judged unworthy of a prize by 
the Madrigal Society on the ground that it was 
modelled too closely on Palestrina ; and liis 
oratorio, *The Good Shepherd,* produced at 
the Gloucester Festival of 1886 under his own 
direction, was found to bear too many traces of 
Mendelssohnian influence to deserve success. 
In 1891, he collaborated with Canon Scott 
Holland in writing the life of his old friend, 
Jenny Lind-Goldschmidt ; an abbreviated edi- 
tion came out in 1898, and with Mr. Otto 
Goldschmidt he wrote a still shorter book, 
Jenjiy Lind, her Focal Art and Culture (partly 
reprinted from the biography). For many yeai>j 
his health had been bad, and he had many 
adverse circumstances to contend ^nth. He 
fought bravely for all that he held best in art, 
and boundless enthusiasm carried him through. 
He died in London, July 2, 1895. {Diet, of 
Nat. Biog. etc.) m. 

RODE, Jacques Pierre Joseph, a great 
violinist, was bom at Bordeaux, Feb. 16, 1774. 
When eight years of age he came under the 
tuition of Fauvel atne, a well-known violinist of 
his native town, and studied under him for six 
years. In 1788 he was sent to Paris. Here 
Punto (or Stich), the famous horn- player, heard 
him, and being struck with the boy's exceptional 
talent, gave him an introduction to Viotti, 
who at once accepted him as his pupil. With 
this great master he studied for two years, 
and in 1790 made his first public appearance, 
when he played Yiotti's 13th Concerto at the 
Theatre de Monsieur with complete success. 
Although then but sixteen years of age, he was 
appointed leader of the second violins in the 
excellent band of the Thefttre Feydeau. In 
this position, appearing at the same time fre- 
quently as soloist, he remained till 1794, and 
then started for his first tour to Holland and 
the north of Germany. His success, especially 
at Berlin and Hamburg, was great. From the 
latter place he sailed for his native town, but 
the vessel was compelled by adverse winds to 
make for the English coast. So Rode came to 
London ; but he only once appeared in public, 
at a concert for a charitable purpose, and left 
England again for Holland and Geiinany . Finally 
he returned to France and obtained a professor- 
ship of the violin at the newly established 
Conservatoire at Paris. He was solo violin 
at the Op^ra until November 1799. In 1799 
he went to Spain, and at Madrid met Boccherini, 
who is said to have written the orchestration 
for Rode's earlier concertos, especially for that 
in B minor. On his return to Paris in 180O 
he was appointed solo-violinist to the First 
Consul, and it was at that period that he 




achieved his greatest success in the French 
capital. In 1803 he went with Boieldieu to 
St. Petersburg. Spohr heard him on his 
passage through Branswick, and was so im- 
I^essed that for a considerable time he made it 
his one aim to imitate his style and manner as 
eloeely as possible. Arrived at the Russian 
capital, Rode met with a most enthusiastic 
reception, and was at once attached to the 
private music of the Emperor with a salary of 
6000 roubles (about £750). But the fatigues 
of life in Russia were so excessive that from 
this period a decline of his powers appears to 
have set in. On his return to Paris in 1808 
his reception was less enthusiastic than in 
former times, and even his warmest friends 
and admirers could not but feel that he had 
lost considerably in certainty and vigour. From 
1811 we find him again travelling in Germany. 
Spohr, who heard him in 1813 at Vienna, tells 
in his Autobiography (i 178) of the disappoint- 
ment he felt at Rode's playing, which he now 
found mannered, and deficient in execution 
and style. 

In Vienna Rode came into contact with Beet- 
hoven, who finished the great Sonata in G, op. 
96, expressly for him. It was played by Rode 
and the Archduke Rudolph, Beethoven's pupil, 
at a private concert, but as far as the violin 
part was concerned, not much to the composer's 
satisfaction. Soon afterwards, at any rate, 
Beethoven requested the Archduke to send the 
violin part to Rode that he might play it over 
before a second performance, and he adds: 
' He will not take it amiss ; certainly not ! 
would to God there were reason to beg his 
pardon for doing so.*^ F^tis's statement that 
Beethoven wrote a Romance for Rode, probably 
rests on a confusion of the G major Sonata 
with the Romanza in the same key. 

In 1814 Rode went to Berlin, married, and 
remained for some time. He then retired to 
his native place. At a later date he made an 
ill-advised attempt to resume a public career. 
But his appearance at Paris proved a complete 
failure, and Mendelssohn, writing from thence 
in April 1825, says that he was fixed in his 
resolution never again to take a fiddle in hand.^ 
This failure he took so much to heart that his 
health began to give way, and he died at 
Bordeaux, Nov. 25, 1830. 

Rode was one of the greatest of all violinists. 
During the earlier part of his career he dis- 
played all the best qualities of a grand, noble, 
pure, and thoroughly musical style. His 
intonation was perfect; Ills tone large and 
imre; boldness and vigour, deep and tender 
feeling, characterised his performances. In 
fact he was no mere virtuoso, but a true artist. 
His truly musical nature shows itself equally 
in his compositions. Although his general 

1 TttMjtT, 14^ €(f Beetkomn, IIL p. 923. 

2 JMe FamUi* JfondclMeAM, 1. p. 14S. 

musical education appears to have been, like 
that of most French violinists, deficient (we 
have already mentioned that Boccherini added 
the simple orchestration to his earlier concertos), 
yet his works, especially his concertos, have a 
noble dignified character and considerable charm 
of melody, while, it need hardly be added, they 
are thoroughly suited to the nature of the 
violin. On the other hand, they hardly show 
high creative power ; of thematic treatment 
there is very little, the form, though not un- 
symmetrical, is somewhat loose, and the in- 
strumentation poor. 

He published ten concertos (three more were 
issued after his death); five sets of quartets; 
seven sets of variations; three books of duos 
for two violins, and the well-known twenty- 
four caprices. 

Of his concertos, the 7th in A minor is 
still in the repertory of some eminent violinists. 
The variations in G major — the same which 
the famous singer Catalani and other celebrated 
vocalists after her have made their chenal de 
hataille — are occasionally heard. But above 
all, his *24 caprices or Etudes' will always, 
along vdth Kreutzer's famous forty caprices, 
hold their place as indispensable for a sound 
study of the violin. 

Although, owing to his life of travel, he had 
but few direct pupils, his influence through his 
example and compositions on the violinists of 
France, and more especially of Germany, was 
very great indeed. Bohm, the master of Joachim, 
and Eduard Rietz, the friend of Mendelssohn, 
both studied under him for some time. p. d. 

RODWELL, George Herbert Bonaparte, 
bom Nov. 15, 1800, brother of J. T. G. Rodwell, 
part proprietor and manager of the Adelphi 
Theatre, London, and author of several dramatic 
pieces, was for many years music-director of 
the Adelphi. On the death of his brother, in 
March 1825, he succeeded to his share in the 
theatre. He was a pupil of Vincent Novello 
and Henry Bisliop, and became in 1828 professor 
of harmony and composition at the Royal 
Academy of Music. He was the composer of 
very many operettas and other dramatic pieces, 
of which the following are the principal : * The 
Flying Dutchman' (Adelphi, 1826); *The 
Cornish Miners' (English Opera- House, 1827) ; 
'The Bottle Imp' and 'The Mason of Buda* 
(partly adapted from Auber's ' Le Magon '), 
1828 ; 'The Spring Lock,' 'The Earthquake,' 
and 'The Devil's Elixir,' 1829; 'The Black 
Vulture,' 1880; 'My Own Lover,' and 'The 
Evil Eye,' 1832 ; ' The Lord of the Isles,' 1884 ; 
'Paul Clifford' (with Blewitt), 1835; 'The 
Spirit of the Bell' (Lyceum, 1835); 'The 
Sexton of Cologne,' 1836; 'Jack Sheppard,' 
1839; and 'The Seven Sisters of Munich,' 
1847. In 1836 he was director of the music 
at Covent Garden, where he brought out many 
adaptations of operas, etc., 'anticipating the 




repertory of Drury Lane ' (Diet, of Nat. Biog.). 
He was author of several farces and other 
dramatic pieces, amongst which were 'Teddy 
the Tiler ' (written in 1830 for Tyrone Power, 
and eminently successful), 'The Ghimney-Piece, ' 
*The Pride of Birth/ *The Student of Lyons,' 
and *My Wife's Out' ; of three novels, *01d 
London Bridge,' * Memoirs of an Umbrella,' and 
' Woman's Love ' ; and of 'The First Rudiments 
of Harmony,' 1831. He composed also two 
collections of songs: 'Songs of the Sabbath 
Eve,' and 'Songs of the Birds' (1827). He 
for many years persistently advocated the 
establishment of a National Opera. He married 
the daughter of Listen, the comedian ; died in 
Upper Ebury Street, Pimlico, Jan. 22, 1852, and 
was buried at Brompton Cemetery. w. h. h. 

ROECKEL, Professor Joseph August, was 
bom August 28, 1788, at Neumbui^g vorm 
Wald, in the Upper Palatinate. He was 
originally intended for the church, but in 1803 
entered the diplomatic service of the Elector 
of Bavaria as Private Secretary to the Bavarian 
Charg^ d'Affaires at Salzburg. On the recall 
of the Salzburg Legation in 1804, he accepted 
an engagement to sing at the Theatre ander- 
Wien, where, March 29, 1806, he appeared as 
Florestan in the revival of ' Fidelio.'^ In 1823 
Roeckel was appointed Professor of Singing at 
the Imperial Opera ; in 1828 he undertook the 
direction of the opera at Aix-la-Chapelle, and 
in the following year made the bold experiment 
of producing German operas in Paris with a 
complete German company. Encouraged by 
the success of this venture, Professor Roeckel 
remained in Paris until 1832, when he brought 
his company to London, and {Hroduced ' Fidelio,' 
' Der Freischiitz,* and other masterpieces of the 
German school, at the King's Theatre ; the 
principal artists being Schrc^er-Devrient and 
Haitzinger, with Hummel (Roeckel's brother-in- 
law) as conductor. In 1835 he retired from 
operatic life, and in 1853 finally returned to 
Germany, where he died, at Anhalt-Cothen, in 
September 1870. 

August, his eldest son, was bom Dec 1, 
1814, at Graz. He was Musikdirector at Bam- 
berg, at Weimar (1838-43), and lastly was 
Musikdirector at the Dresden Opera in 1843-49, 
and so a colleague of Richard Wagner ; being, 
like the latter, involved in the Revolution of 
1848 (he had also witnessed the Paris revolution 
of 1830), he abandoned music and devoted 
himself entirely to politics. He spent thirteen 
years in prison (1849-62), and on his release 
became editor of various newspapers, at Coburg, 
Frankfort, Munich, and Vienna, successively. 
He published an account of his imprisonment 
{SdchserCs Erhebung, etc.). Wagner's letters to 
him were published in 1894, and translated 
into English by Miss K C. Sellar shortly after- 

> For Roeokel'i own MOount of his InteroootM with Beethorea 
MO Thayer. toI. ii. p. SB4. and voL iU. p. 90B. 

wards. From admiration of Wagner's genius, 
Roeckel withdrewanoperaof his own, ' Farinelli,* 
which had been accepted for performance at 
Dresden. See also Praeger's Wagner as I knew 
him, p. 119 ff. He died at Buda-Pesth on 
June 18, 1876. 

Edward, the second sou of Professor Roeckel, 
was bom at Treves on Nov. 20, 1816, and 
received his musical education &om his uncle 
J. N. Hummel. He came to London in 1835, 
and gave his first concert in 1836 at the King's 
Theatre. He subsequently went on a concert- 
tour in Germany, and performed with great 
success at the courts of Prussia, Saxony, Saze- 
Weimar, Anhalt-Dessau, etc. In 1848 Roeckel 
settled in England, and resided at Bath, where 
he succeeded Uie late Henry Field. He died there 
Nov. 2, 1899. He published a considerable 
quantity of pianoforte music. 

Joseph Leopold, the youngest son of Professor 
Roeckel, was bom in London, April 11, 1838. 
He studied composition at Wiirzbui^ under 
Eisenhofer, and orchestration under Gotze at 
Weimar. Like his brother, Mr. J. L. Roeckel 
settled in England, and lives at Clifton ; he is 
well known as a teacher and a voluminous 
composer of songs. His orchestral and instru- 
mental compositions are less well known, but 
his cantatas 'Fair Rosamond/ 'Ruth,* 'The 
Sea Maidens,' 'Westward Ho,' and 'Mary 
Stuart,' 'The Victorian Age' (1887), and many 
others, have been received with much favour. 
The first of these was performed at the Crystal 
Palace in 1871, and a baritone scena with 
orchestra, 'Siddartha,' was produced at the 
Bristol Festival of 1896. A song-cycle was 
brought forward at the same festival in 1902. 
In 1864 Roeckel married Miss Jane Jackson, 
a successful pianist, who did much good work a^ 
a teacher at Clifton, and wrote pianoforte piecen, 
etc. , under the name of Jules de Sivi*ai. She died 
at Clifton on Aug. 26, 1907, aged 73. w. B. s. 

RONTGEN, Engelbkrt, bom Sept. 30, 1829, 
at Deventer in Holland, entered the Conserva- 
torium at Leipzig in 1848, as a pupil of David 
for violin and of Hauptmann for theory. Upon 
graduating at the Conservatorium, Rontgen was 
engaged as a first violin both in the 0]^)era 
orchestra and in the famous Gewandhaus or- 
chestra. In 1869 he became professor of the 
violin at the Conservatorium ; second Conoert- 
meister of the Gewandhaus orchestra, and, ou 
the death of his illustrious master, David, in 
1878, he was made first Concertmeister in his 
place. Rontgen was a fine violinist although he 
never adopted the career of a virtuoso, and his 
careful editing of Beethoven's Quartets proves 
him to have been a scholarly musician. He 
married a daughter of Moritz Klengel, himself 
Concertmeister at the Gewandhaus. He died in 
Leipzig, Dec. 12, 1897.— A. Ehrlich's CeMnrUed 
Violinists ; Bachmann, Le Fiolon ; Lahee's 
Famous Violinists. e. h-a. 




His son, Juuvs, was born at Leipzig, May 9, 
1855, and soon displayed a great gift lor music. 
His pmrents were his first teachers, and he after- 
wards learned from Hauptmann, Richter,Plaidy, 
and Eeinecke. In 1872 he went to Munich, and 
remained there for some time studying counter- 
IK>int and composition under Franz Lachner. 
A tour with Stockhausen in 1873-74, during 
which he played chiefly his own compositions, 
launched him favourably before the world. [He 
now lives in Amsterdam, where he was teacher 
in the Conservatorium for some years before 
succeeding Verhulst as director of the Maat- 
schspp^ tot Bevorderiugder Tonkunst in 1886. 
He was also conductor of the Felix Mentis 
society for the last two years of its existence. 
Sinoe 1898 Bontgen has devoted himself entirely 
to teaching and composition.] His published 
works amount to eighteen, almost all of a 
serious character. They are, for the PF. — a 
duet for four hands, in four movements (op. 16) ; 
two sonatas (opp. 2, 10), a phantasie (op. 8) ; a 
suite (op. 7); a ballade (op. 5), a cyclus of 
pieces (op. 6), and a theme with variations 
(opL 17), etc. etc; a sonata for PF. and violin 
(op. 1) and for PF. and violoncello (op. 3) ; a 
concerto for PF. and orchestra (op. 18) ; a 
serenade for seven wind instruments (op. 14) ; 
' Toskanische Rispetti,' a Liederspiel (op. 9) ; 
nine songs (op. 15) etc. etc. The violoncello 
sonata was played at the Monday Popular 
Ooncert of Feb. 14, 1881, and was well re- 
ceived. G. 

ROGEL, Jos^ Spanish conductor and com- 
poser, bom at Orihuela, Alicante, Dec. 24, 1829 ; 
began music under Cascales and Gil, organist 
and conductor of the cathedral, and made great 
progress, till sent to Valencia by his father to 
study law. The six years which he spent there 
were, however, devoted much more to music than 
to law, under the guidance of Pascual Perez, a 
musician of ability, from whom he learned 
composition and other branches of practical 
music. After completing his legal course and 
taking his degree at Madrid, Rogel was able to 
indulge his taste, plunged into music without 
restraint, and became, or at any rate acted as, 
conductor and composer to several theatres. 
The notice of him in Pougin's supplement to 
F^tis, from which this notice is taken, enumerates 
no fewer than sixty-one zarzuelcu or dramatic 
pieces of his composition, fourteen of them in 
three sets, eight in two acts, and the remainder 
in one act, brides a dozen not yet brought out. 
The titles of the pieces are of all characters, 
ranging from ' Revista de un muerto ' and * Un 
Viage demil demonios' to * £1 General Bumbum.' 
No crittcism is given on the merits of the music, 
but it must at least be popular. o. 

ROGER, EsTiENiYS, an Amsterdam music- 
publisher, who was in a very extensive way of 
bnsinesB from 1696 to 1722. His work is of 
the highest class of music-printiugand engraving, 

and is from copper plates. It is said that he 
was one of the first to introduce the practice 
of punching the notes on the copper as a sub- 
stitute for engraving. Walsh and Hare are 
stated to have taken this idea from him and to 
have used pewter, a cheaper and a more ductile 
metal. He translated the TraiU de la cam- 
position of de Nivers into Flemish (1697). 

Among other works Roger issued, circa 1720, 
a fine edition of Corelli's four sets of Sonatas, 
and also of the same composer's Concertos. 
Several collections of miscellaneous works ai*e 
mentioned in the QitelUnrLexikon, 

Roger either died or gave up business about 
1725 (his last dated publication is 1722), 
leaving as his successor Michel Charles Le C^ne, 
who reissued many of his predecessor's publi- 
cations. F. K. 

ROGER, GusTAYE HiPPOLiTE, eminent 
French singer, bom Dec. 17, 1815, at La 
Chapelle-Saint-Denis, Paris. He was brought 
up by an uncle, and educated at the Lycee 
Charlemagne for the legal profession, but his 
studies were so neglected for an amateur theatre 
of which he was the leading tenor and self- 
constituted manager, that he was at length 
allowed to follow his real vocation. He entered 
the Conservatoire in 1886, and after studying 
for a year under Martin carried off the first 
prizes both for singing and op^ra-comique. 
He obtained an immediate engagement, and 
made his debut at the Op^ra-Comique, Feb. 16, 
1838, as Georges in ' L' Eclair.' To a charming 
voice and distinguished appearance he added 
great intelligence and stage tact, qualities which 
soon made him the favourite tenor of the Parisian 
world, and one of the best comedians of the day. 
Ambroise Thomas composed for him * Le Per- 
raquier de la R^ence ' and ' Mina,' Hal^vy gave 
him capital parts in * Les Mousquetaires de la 
Reine ' and * Le Guitarrero,' and Auber secured 
him for * Le Domino Noir, ' * La Part du Diable, * 
* La Sir^ne, ' and * Hayd^ ' Meyerbeer declared 
him to be the only French artist capable of 
creating the part of John of Leyden. In conse- 
quence, after ten years of uninterrupted success, 
Roger left the Op^ra-Comique for the Academic, 
where on April 16, 1849, he ci'eated an immense 
sensation with Mme. V iardot, in ' Le Proph^te. ' 
His acting was quite as good in tragedy as it had 
been in comedy, but his voice could not stand 
the wear and tear of the fatiguing repertoire he 
had now to undertake. During the next ten 
years, however, he was invaluable at the Op^ra, 
creating new parts in the 'Enfant prodigue,' 
the * Juif errant,' and many more. His best 
creation after John of Leyden, and his last part 
at the Op^ra, was Helios in David's * Hercu- 
lanum' (March 4, 1859). In the following 
autumn he lost his right arm while shooting, 
by the bursting of a gun ; he reappeared with 
a false one, but with all his skill and bravery 
he could not conceal his misfortune, and found 




himself compelled to bid farewell to the Aca- 
demic and to Paris. 

He went onoe more to Qermany, which he 
had been in the habit of visiting since 1850, 
and where he was invariably successful, partly 
owing to his unusual command of the language. 
After this he sang in the principal provincial 
theatres of France, and in 1861 reappeared at 
the Op^ra-Gomique in his best parts, especially 
that of Georges Brown in 'La Dame Blanche,' 
but it was evident that the time for his retire- 
ment had arrived. He then took pupils for 
singing, and in 1868 accepted a professorship 
at the Conservatoire, which he held till his 
death, Sept. 12, 1879. 

Roger was of an amiable and benevolent dis- 
position. He talked well, wrote with ease, and 
was the author of the French translation of 
Haydn's * Seasons,' and of the words of several 
romances and German Lieder. His book, Le 
Garnet d^un tdruyr (Paris, Ollendorff, 1880), is a 
portion of his autobiography. It contains an 
account of his visits to England in 1847 (June), 
and 1848 (June-No v.), when he sang at the 
Royal Italian Opera, and made an artistic tour 
in the provinces with Mile. Jenny Lind, and 
other artists. o. c. 

ROGERS, Benjamin, Mu8.D., son of Peter 
Rogers, lay-clerk of St. George's Chapel, Wind- 
sor, was bom at Windsor in 1614. He was 
a chorister of St George's under Dr. Giles, 
and afterwards a lay -clerk there. He suc- 
ceeded Jewett in 1639 as organist of Christ 
Church, Dublin, where he continued until the 
rebellion in 1641, when he returned to Windsor 
and obtained a lay-clerk's place there ; but 
on the breaking up of the choir in 1644 he 
taught music in Windsor and its neighbourhood, 
and obtained some compensation for the loss of 
his appointment. In 1653 he composed some 
airs in four parts for violins and organ, which 
were presented to the Archduke Leopold, after- 
wai-ds Emperor of Germany, and favourably 
received by him. In 1658 he was admitted 
Mus.B. at Cambridge. (See Carlyle's Oliver 
Cromwell^ v. 248, 244 (People's edition).) In 
1 660 he composed a * Hymnus Euoharisticus ' 
in four parts, to words by Dr, Nathaniel Ingelo, 
which was performed at Guildhall when Charles 
II. dined there on July 5.^ About the same 
time he became organist of Eton College. On 
Oct 21, 1662, he was reappointed a lay -clerk 
at St George's, Windsor, his stipend being 
augmented by half the customary amount ; and 
he also received out of the organist's salary £1 
per month as deputy organist On July 22, 
1664, he was appointed Informator Choristarum 
and organist of Magdalen College, Oxford. On 
July 8, 1669, he proceeded Mus.D. at Oxford. 
In Jan. 1685 he was removed from his place at 
Magdalen College on account of irregularities 

> The hymn wmidiflinvnt from that, bMring the flame title, which 
Rofeni afiprwftMfl net for Magdalen OoUege. Oxford. 

(see West's Ca£k, Org., p. 120), the College, how- 
ever, assuring to him an annuity of £30 for life. 
He survived until June 1698, on the 21st of 
which month he was buried at St Peter-le- Bailey. 
His widow, whom the College had pensioned 
with two-thirds of his annuity, survived him 
only seven months, and was laid by his side 
Jan. 5, 1699. — Rogers composed much church 
music ; four services are printed in the collections 
of Boyce, Rimbault, and Sir F. Ouseley ; another, 
an Evening Verse Service in G, is at Ely in MS. 
Some anthems were printed in *Cantica Sacra,' 
1674, and by Boyce and Page ; and many others 
are in MS. in the books of various cathedrals 
and college chapels. Four glees are contained 
in Playford's 'Musical Companion,' 1673, and 
many instrumental compositions in 'Courtly 
Masquing Ayres,' 1662. [Some MS. organ 
compositions are in the library of the Royal 
College of Music, and Mr. J. S. Bumpus possesses 
a volume in the handwriting of Dr. Philip Hayes, 
containing the whole of Rogers's compositions 
for the church.] His ' Hymnus Eucharisticus * 
(the first stanza of which, commencing 'Te Denm 
Patrem colimus,' is daily sung in Magdalen 
College Hall by way of grace after dinner, and 
is printed in the Appendix to Hawkins's Hiatory) 
\b sung annually on the top of Magdalen tower 
at five in the morning of May 1 in lieu of a 
requiem which, before the Reformation, was 
performed in the same place for the soul of 
Henry VII. His service in D and some of his 
anthems, which are pleasing and melodious in 
character, are still sung in cathedrals, w. h. h. 

ROGERS, John, a famous lutenist, bom in 
London, was attached to the household of 
Charles II. in 1661-63. He lived near Alders- 
gate, and died there about 1668. w. h. h. 

ROGERS, Sib John Leman, Bart.,bom April 
18, 1780, succeeded his father in the baronetcy 
in 1797. He became a member of the Madrigal 
Society in 1819, and in 1820 was elected its 
permanent President (being the first so ap- 
pointed), and held the office until 1841, when 
he resigned on account of ill-health. He com- 
posed a cathedral service, chants, anthems, 
madrigals, glees, and other vocal music. [See 
HuUah's Part Music, Class A, and Vocal 
Scores.] He was an ardent admirer of the 
compositions of Tallis, and by his exertions an 
annual service was held for several years in 
Westminster Abbey, the music being wholly 
that of Tallis. He died Dec. 10, 1847. w. h. h. 

ROGERS, Roland, Mus.D., bom at West 
Bromwich, Staffordshire, Nov. 17, 1847, where 
he was appointed oi^nist of St Peter's Church 
in 1858. He studied under Mr. S. Grosvenor, 
and in 1862 obtained by competition the post 
of organist at St John's, Wolverhampton. In 
1867 he similarly obtained the oi^nistshtp 
of Tettenhall parish church, and in 1871 was 
appointed organist and choirmaster of Bangor 
Cathedral, a post which he resigned at the end 




of 1 891 . He took the Oxford degree of Mus. B. 
in 1370, and that of Mus.D. in 1875. Dr. 
Bogers's published works are * Prayer and Praise/ 
a cantata, a prize cantata, * The Garden * 
(Llandndno, 1896), Evening Services in Bb 
and D, Anthems, Part-songs, Organ Solos, and 
Songs ; a Symphony in A, a Psalm * De Pro- 
fnndis,' and several Anthems and Services are 
still in MS. w. b. s. 

ROGUES' MARCH, THE. Originally a mili- 
tary quickstep, which from some cause haa 
become appropriate to use when offenders are 
drummed oat of the army. When, from theft, 
or other crime, it is decided to expel a man 
from the regiment, the buttons bearing the 
regimental number, and other special decora- 
tions, are cut from his coat, and he is then 
marched, to the music of drums and fifes play- 
ing 'The Rogues' March,' to the barrack gates, 
and kicked or thrust out into the street. The 
ceremony still continues at the present day. 
The writer, though he has made diligent search, 
cannot find traces of the tune before the middle 
of the 18th century, although there can be but 
little doubt that the air, with its association, 
liad been in use long before that time. About 
1790, and later, a certain more vocal setting 
of the air was used for many popular humorous 
songs. • 'Robinson Crusoe,' 'Abraham New- 
land,' and the better-known * Tight little 
Island,' are among these. The latter song, as 
*The Island,' was written by Thomas Dibdin 
al)out 1798, and sung by a singer named Davies 
at Sadler's Wells in that year. 

The original * Rogues' March * stands thus — 

It is found in many 18th-century collections of 
fife and flute music ; the above copy is from 
*The Compleat Tutor for the Fife,' London, 
printed for and sold by Thompson k Son, 8vo, 
circa 1759-60. F. K. 

ROHR FLUTE (Rohrflote). See Flute- 
woBK, vol. ii. pp. 68-9. 

ROI DE LAHORE, LE Opera in five acts, 
libretto by Louis Gallet, music by Jules Mas- 
senet. Ptoduoed at the Grand Opera, Paris, 
April 27, 1877, and at Govent Garden, Royal 
Italian Opera, June 28, 1879. 

ROI DES VIOLONS—* King of the violins ' 
— a title of great interest as illustrating the 
stmggle between Art and Authority. On Sept 

14, 1321, the mAiestriers or fiddlers of France 
formed themselves into a regular cori>oration, 
with a code of laws in eleven sections, which 
was presented to the Prevdt of Paris, and by 
him registered at the Ch&telet. The Confra- 
ternity, founded by thirty-seven jongleurs and 
jonglercsses, whose names have been preserved, 
prospered so far as in 1330 to purchase a site 
and erect on it a hospital for poor musicians. 
The building was begun in 1381, finished in 
1335, and dedicated to St Julien and St. 
Genest The superior of this * Confr^rie of St. 
Julien des m^n^triers' was styled 'king,' and 
the following were * Rois des m^n^triers ' in the 
14th century : — Robert Caveron, 1388 ; Copin 
du Brequin, 1349 ; Jean Caumez, 1387 ; and 
Jehan Porte\dn, 1392. 

In 1407 the musicians, vocal and instni- 
mental, separated themselves from the mounte- 
banks and tumblers who had been associated 
with them by the statutes of 1821. The new 
constitution received the sanction of Charles 
YI., April 24, 1407, and it was enacted that 
no musician might teach, or exercise his pro- 
fession, without having passed an examination, 
and been declared suffisant by the *Roi des 
m^nestrels' or his deputies. These statutes 
continued in force down to the middle of the 
17th century. History, however, tells but 
little about the new corporation. The only 
' rois ' whose names have been preserved in the 
charters are — Jehan Boissard, called Verdelet, 
1420 ; Jehan Facien, the elder, and Claude de 
Bouchai*don, oboes in the band of Henri III., 
1575; Claude Nyon, 1590; Claude Nyon, 
called Lafont, 1600 ; Frangois Rishomme, 
1615 ; and Louis Constantin, *roi' from 1624 
to 1655. Constantin, who died in Paris 1657, 
was a distinguished artist, violinist to Louis 
XIII., and composer of pieces for strings in five 
and six parts, several of which are preserved in 
the valuable collection already named under 
Philidor, vol. iiL p. 708. 

In 1514 the title was changed to *roi des 
m^nestrelsdu royaume. ' All provincial musicians 
were compelled to acknowledge the authority of 
the corporation in Paris, and in the 1 6th century 
branches were established in the principal towns 
of France under the title of * Confr^rie de St 
Julien des men^triers.' In Oct. 1658, LouisXIV. 
confirmed Constan tin's successor, Guillaume 
Dumanoir I., in the post of * Roi des violons, 
maltres a danser, et joueurs d'instruments tant 
haut que bas,' ordaining at the same time that 
the 'Roi des violons' should have the sole 
privilege of conferring the mastership of the art 
throughout the kingdom ; that no one should 
be admitted thereto without serving an ap- 
prenticeship of four years, and paying sixty 
livres to the ' roi,' and ten livres to the masters 
of the Confr^rie ; the masters themselves paying 
an annual sum of thirty sous to the corporation, 
with a further commission to the * roi ' for each 




pupil. The masters alone were privileged to 
play in taverns and other public places, and in 
case this rule were infringed, the *roi' could 
send the offender to prison and destroy his 
instruments. This formidable monopoly ex- 
tended even to the King's band, the famous 
'twenty -four violons,* who were admitted to 
office by the ' roi ' alone on payment of his fee. 
[See ViNOT-QUATRB Violons.] 

So jealously did Guillaume Dumanoir I. 
guard his rights, that in 1662 he commenced an 
action against thirteen dancing-masters, who, 
with the view of thro wring off the yoke of the 
corporation, had obtained from Louis XIV. 
permission to found an * Academic de danse.' 
The struggle gave rise to various pamphlets,* 
and Dumanoir was beaten at all pointo. He 
bequeathed a difficult task to his son Michel 
Guillaume Dumanoir II., who succeeded him as 
'roi' in 1668, and endeavoured to enforce his 
supremacy on the instrumentalists of the 
Academic de Musique, but, as might have been 
expected, was overmatched by LuUy. After 
his difficulties with the director of the Op^ra, 
Dumanoir II., like his father, came into collision 
with the dancing- masters. In 1691 a royal 
proclamation was issued by which the elective 
committee was abolished, and its place filled by 
hereditary officials, aided by four othera ap- 
pointed by purchase. Against this decree the 
corporation and the thirteen membera of the 
Academic de danse protested, but the Treasury 
was in want of funds, and declined to refund 
the purchase money. Finding himself unequal 
to such assaults Dumanoir resigned in 1693, and 
died in Paris in 1697. He delegated his powers 
to the privileged committee of 1691, and thus 
threw on them the onus of supporting the claims 
of the Confreriis over the clavecinists and organ- 
ists of the kingdom ; a i)arliamentary decree 
of 1695, however, set free the composers and 
professors of music from all dependence on the 
corporation of the nUrUtruirs, This struggle 
was several times renewed. When Pierre 
Guignon (bom 1702, died 1776), a good 
violinist, and a member of the King's chamber- 
music, and of the Chapel Royal, attempted to 
reconstitute the Confr^rie on a better footing, 
it became evident that the musicians as a body 
were determined to throw off the yoke of the 
association. Guignon was appointed 'Roi des 
violons' by letters patent, June 15, 1741, was 
installed in 1742, and in 1747 endeavoured to 
enforce certain new enactments, but a parlia- 
mentary decree of May 30, 1750, put an end 
to his pretended authority over clavecinists, 
organists, and other serious musicians. The 
corporation was maintained, but its head was 

1 Of theM the principal are StahUftrntant da rAeadimie ro^ale 
de danee [ale] m la vUh <f« Pari*, awe %m tfteoown Acadimitu^ 
pour proumr que la danef, tiaru »a vlus nobU partie, n'a pa* beeoin 
de* ingtrumna* de mutique. eC eu'OIe ett en tout almlument indi- 
pendante du eUtlon (Pftrls. vm, 4to). and Le mariage de lamuatque 
etdela danee. eantenant la ripnnee [sic] au Mw» de* treixe prUendua 
aeadimieien* touokant* eet deux art* (Puia, 1664. 12ino). 

obliged to be content with the title of ' Roi et 
maitre des menetriers, joueurs d'instrumenta 
tant haut que has, et hautbois, et communaute 
des mattres a danser.' Roi Guignon still pre- 
served the right of conferring on provincial 
musicians the title of ' lieutenants generaux et 
particuliers ' to the ' roi des violons,' but even 
this was abrogated by a decree of the Conseil 
d']6tat, Feb. 13, 1773. The last *roi des 
violons ' at once resigned, and in the follo>ving 
month his office was abolished by an edict of 
the King dated from Versailles. 

This hasty sketch of a difficult subject may 
be supplemented by consulting the following 
works : Abrig4 historique de la JUnestrandie 
(Versailles, 1774, 12mo) ; StcUtUs et r4glemenU 
dee maUres de danse et joueurs dHnstrumeTUs 
. . . registry au FarUfnefU le SS AoM 1669 
(Paris, 1753) ; RemeU d^ddils, arrHs du ConseU 
da roif lettres paieiUes^ . . . g?i faveur des 
musiciens du Hoyaume (Ballard, 1774, 8vo) ; 
and Les InstrumetUs A arckett by A. Vidal (L 
and ii. Paris, 1876, 1877, 4 to), which last con- 
tains nearly all the necessary information. G. c. 

ROI D'YS, LE. Opera in three acts, text 
by Iklouard Blan, music by ^ouard Lalo, pro- 
duced at the Opera -Comique, Paris, May 7, 
1888, and at Covent Garden, July 17, 1901. 

ROI L'A DIT, LE. Opera-oomique in thi^ 
acts, text by Edra. Gondinet, music by Leo 
Delibes ; produced at the Opera-Comique, Paris, 
May 24, 1873, in Englisli at Prince of Wales's 
Theatre, by the Royal College of Music, Dec. 
13, 1894. 

ROI MALGRlfe LUI, LE. Oi)^ra-comique iu 
three acts, text by Emile de Najao aud Paul 
Burani, music by Emmanuel Chabrier ; pro- 
duced at the Opera-Comique, Paris, May 18, 

ROITZSCH, F. August, bom Dec. 10, 1805, 
at Gruna, near Gorlitz, won a high reputation 
as a careful editor of old music, and more es- 
})ecially of Bach's instrumental compositions, 
in the valuable cheap editions of the firm of 
Peters. He died at Leipzig, Feb. 4, 1889. M. 

ROKITANSKY, Hans, Fkkiheer von, bom 
March 8, 1835, at Vienna, eldest son of Carl 
Freiherr von Rokitansky (1804-78), an eminent 
medical professor. He studied singing chiefly 
at Bologna and Milan, and first appeared in 
England at concerts in 1856. In 1862 ho 
made his d^but at Prague in ' La Juive,* and 
fulfilled a very successful engagement there of 
two years. In 1863 he sang the same part 
at Vienna, in 1864 obtained an engagement 
there, and was a member of the opera company 
for many years, retiring in 1892. His voice 
was a basso -profondo of great compass and 
volume, very equal in all its range ; he had a 
commanding presence, and was an excellent 
actor. His operas include ' La Juive,' ' Robert 
le Diable,' ' Les Huguenots,' ' Don Juan,' ' Zan- 
berfiote,* 'Guillaume Tell,' 'Le Proph^te,' 




* AidA, ' * Faiist, ' * Vestale, * * Medea, ' and Wagner's 
openu. On Jime 17, 1865, he reappeared in 
London at Her Majesty's as Marcel with very 
great sncoess, and then sang there and at Drury 
Lane for four oonsecutiye seasons, and was 
greatly esteemed. He played with success as 
Rooco, Sarastro, Leporello, II Commendatore, 
Oroyeso, Falstaff, Osmin (June 30, 1866, on 
production in Italian of Mozart's 'Entfuh- 
rung '}, and Padre Guardiano in * La Forza del 
Destine,' June 22, 1867. He returned for the 
seasons of 1876 and 1877 in some of his old 
parts, and played for the first time the King 
in 'Lohengrin,' and Giorgio in *I Puritani.' 
He retired from public life at the end of 1894, 
and is now a professor in the Vienna Conser- 
▼atorinm. a. c. 

ROKITANSKY, Victor. A younger brother 
of the above, and a fashionable singing-master 
at Vienna. Bom July 9, 1836. From 1871 
to 1880 he filled the post of Professor of Singing 
at tlie Gonservatorium of Vienna ; he published 
Udxr Sanger und Singtn in 1894, and died in 
Vienna, July 17, 1896. a. o. 

ROLFE & CO., pianoforte makers. William 
Rolfe w^as at 112 Gheapside in 1796 as a music- 
seller and publisher of minor musical works, 
also as maker of musical instruments. Before 
this date he was partner in a small music- 
imblishing firm, Culliford, Rolfe, k Barrow, at 
the same address, about 1790. With Samuel 
Davis, Rolfe took out a patent for improve- 
ments in pianofortes on Jan. 31, 1797, and his 
pianofortes had some degree of reputation. His 
bnainesB continued nntU 1806, when the firm 
was William Rolfe k Sons, and in 1813 they 
had additional premises at 28 London Wall. 
Rolfe k Sons (or Co.) remained in Gheapside 
for many years. In 1850 the number had been 
changed to 61, and the London Wall premises 
to 81 and 82. They removed to 12 Great 
Marlborough Street (1869), and then (1878) 
to 11 Orchard Street. During the eighties 
their place of business was at 6 Lower Seymour 
Street, but after 1890 the writer can find no 
traces of them. f. k. 

ROLL, in dramming, is a tremolo effect on 
the side-drum, produced by a certain varied 
method of playing according to the kind of roll 
desired. Tlie first practice of this is called 
' daddy mammy,' which, commencing deliber- 
ately, with a long stroke for each syllable, 
gradually increases in speed until the beats are 
merged into one continuous roll. The 'long 
roll ' is an alternate beat of two with the left 
stick, followed by two with the right. The 

* five stroke roll ' is two with the left, two 
with the right, one with the left, two with the 
right, two with the left, and one with the 
right ; or more briefly — l lbb.l;rrll.r. 
The ' seven stroke roll ' is — L l R B l l . r. The 

* nine stroke roll ' is — l lrbllbr.l followed 
by a short rest, and rrllrrll..r. Rolls 

on the timpani are made by the simple altema- 
nation of strokes with the two sticks. See 
Drum. f. k. 

ROLL-GALL. See Military Sounds ani> 

ROLLA, Alessandro, violinist and com- 
ix>ser, bom at Pavia, April 22, 1757. He first 
studied the pianoforte, but soon exchanged it 
for the violin, which he learned under Renzi 
and Gonti. He had also a great predilection 
for the viola, and wrote and performed in 
public concertos for that instrument. In 
1782-1802 he was leader of the band at Parma, 
and it was there that Paganini was for some 
months his pupil. [See Paganini.] In 1802 
he went to Milan as leader and conductor of 
the opera at La Scala, in which position he 
gained a great reputation. He became in 
1805 a professor at the Gonservatorio of Milan, 
and died in that town, Sept 15, 1841, aged 
eighty -four. His compositions, now entirely 
forgotten, had considerable success in their 
time ; they consist of a large number of violin 
duets, some serenades, trios, quartets, and 
quintets for stringed instruments, and con- 
certos for the violin and for the viola, as well 
as songs. (See the QueUen-LexHam.) His sou 
and pupil, Antonio, violinist, was bom at 
Parma, April 18, 1798 ; from 1823 till 1885 
was leader of the Italian Opera band at Dresden, 
and died there. May 1 9, 1 837. He published con- 
certos and other solo pieces for the violin, p. d. 

ROLLE. A Qerman musical family. The 
father, Ghristian Friedrich, was town musi- 
cian of Quedlinburg and of Magdeburg in 1721, 
and died there in 1751. Of his three sons, 
Ghrirtian Garl, bom at Quedlinburg in 1714, 
was Gantor of tiie Jerusalem Ghurch, Berlin, 
about 1760, but was apparently of no account. 
He had sons, of whom Friedrich Hein- 
RICH left a biography of his father ; while 
Ghristian Garl (the younger) succeeded him 
as Gantor. 2. A second son is mentioned, but 
without name. 3. The third, Johann Hein- 
rich, was bom at Quedlinburg, Dec. 23, 1718, 
and at an early age began to play and to write. 
He held the post of organist at St. Peter's, 
Magdeburg, in 1732 when only fourteen years 
old (Qtiellen-Lexikon). He was at the Leipzig 
University in 1736, and migrated to Berlin in 
hopes of some legal post ; but this failing he 
adopted music as his career, and about 1740 
entered the Gourt chapel of Frederick the Great 
as a chamber musician (viola player). There 
ho remained till 1746, and then took the 
organist's place at the Johanniskirche, Magde- 
burg, as town musician, worked there with 
uncommon zeal and efficiency, and died at the 
age of sixty-seven, Dec. 29, 1 785. His industry 
seems almost to have rivalled that of Bach him- 
self. He left several complete annual series of 
church music for all the Sundays and Festivals ; 
cantatas for Easter, Whitsuntide, and Ghristmas, 




of which m&ny are in tlie Royal Library at 
Berlin ; five Passions, and at least sixty other 
large church compositions. Besides these there 
exist twenty-one large works of his, of a nature 
between oratorio and drama, such as ' Saul, or 
the power of Music,' * Samson,' 'David and 
Jonathan,' *The Labours of Hercules,' 'Orestes 
and Py lades,' 'Abraham on Moriah,' 'The 
Death of Abel,' etc. The last two were for 
many years performed annually at Berlin, and 
were so popular that the editions had to be 
renewed repeatedly. In addition to these he 
left many songs and compositions for organ, 
orchestra, and separate instruments. (See the 
QiuUen-LexUcon for list) All have now as 
good as perished ; but those who wish to know 
what kind of music they were, will find a 
specimen in Hullah's ' Vocal scores,' 'The Lord 
is King.' It has a good deal of vigour, but 
no originality or character. Others are given 
in the collections of Sander and Rochlitz, and 
a set of twenty motets for four voices was pub- 
lished at Magdeburg by Rebling (1 851-66.) g. 

ROLLI, Paolo Antonio, an Italian poet, a 
Florentine, who was employed by the managers 
of the Italian opera to supply the libretti for 
several of the operas put before the English public 
in the early years of the 18th century. It is 
said that he was originally a pastry-cook, but 
coming to England about 1718, his productions 
pleased the public, and he became much noticed. 
In 1727 he issued a small book of canzonets 
and cantatas, with the music, dedicated to the 
Countess of Pembroke. At a later date he set 
up as teacher of the Italian language, and left 
England for Italy in 1744. Two stanzas of 
his poem, ' Se tu m' ami,' were set by Pei^golesi, 
and three by J. J. Rousseau ; and his whole 
book of canzonets and cantatas was adapted 
to new music by William De Fesch about 
1745-46, and published with a fi*esh dedication 
to Lady Frances Erskine. f. k. 

ROMANCE (Germ. Jiatnaivsc), A term of 
very vague signification, answering in music to 
the same term in poetry, where the character- 
istics are rather those of personal sentiment and 
expression than of precise form. The Romanze 
in Mozart's D minor PF. Concerto differs (if it 
diiTers) from the slow movements of his other 
Concertos in the extremely tender and delicate 
character of its expression ; in its form there is 
nothing at all unusual : and the same may be 
said of Beethoven's two Romances for the violin 
and orchestra in G and F (opp. 40 and 50), and 
of Schumann's 'Drei Romanzen' (op. 28). 
Schumann has also affixed the title to three 
movements for oboe and PF. (op. 94), and to a 
well-known piece in D minor (op. 32, No. 3), 
just as he has used the similar title, ' in Legen- 
denton. ' The Romance which forms the second 
movement of his symphony in D minor, is a 
little poem full of sentimental expression. 

In vocal music the term is obviously derived 

from the character or title of the words. In 
English poetry we have few ' romances,' though 
such of Moore's melodies as ' She is far from the 
land where her young hero sleeps ' might well 
bear the title. But in France they abound, and 
some composers (such as Puget and Panseron) 
have derived nine -tenths of their reputation 
from them. * Partant pour la Syrie ' may be 
named as a good example, well known on this 
side the water. Mendelssohn's ' Songs without 
Words' are called in France 'Romances sans 
Paroles.' o. 

ROMANI, Felice, a famous Italian littera- 
teur, bom at Genoa, Jan. 31, 1788. He was 
educated for the law, but soon forsook it for 
more congenial pursuits, and was in early life 
appointed to the post of poet to the royal 
theatres, with a saUry of 6000 lire. Tlie fall 
of the French government in Italy drove him 
to his own resources. He began with a comedy, 
* L' Amante e l' Impostore,' which was very suc- 
cessful, and the forerunner of many dramatic 
pieces. But his claim to notice in a dictionary 
of music rests on his opera-librettos, in which 
he was for long the favourite of the Italian com- 
posers. For Simone Mayr he wrote ' Medea ' 
(1812), ' La Rosa biauca e la Rosa rossa,' and 
others; for Rossini, 'Aimiliano in Palmira,' 
and * II Tureo in Italia ' ; for Bellini, * Bianca 
e Faliero,' 'La Straniera,' * La Sonnambula,' 
*Il Pirata,' 'Norma,* * I Capuletti,' and ' Beatrice 
di Tenda'; for Donizetti, 'Lucrezia,' 'Anna 
Bolcna,' * L* Elisir d' amore,* and 'Parisina* ; 
for Mercadante, ' II Conte d' Essex ' ; for Rioci, 
' Un Avventura di Scaramuccia ' ; and many 
others, in all fully a hundred. As editor for 
many years of the GazzeUa PievwtUeaCf he was 
a voluminous writer. 

In the latter part of his life he became blind, 
and was pensioned by government, and spent 
his last years in his family circle at Moneglia, 
on the Riviera, where he died full of years and 
honours, Jan. 28, 1865. o. 

ROMANO, one of the names (derived from 
his birthplace) of a certain Aleasandro, who 
was also known under the name of Alessandro 
DELLA Viola from his favourite instniment — 
a composer and performer on the viola, was bom 
at Rome about the year 1530. His published 
works include a set of madrigals, Venice, 1554 
(Royal College of Music, etc.); five-part madrigals, 
lb, 1565 ; two books of Canzoni Napolitane for 
five voices (Venice, 1572 and 1575) ; a set of 
motets in five parts (Venice, 1679). A five- 
part madrigal by him, ' Non pur d ' almi splendori, * 
is published in the 'Libro terzo dello Muse' 
(Venice, Gardano, 1561). [See the Qxullcn- 
LexikoTiy a.v. Alessandro.J P. D. 

ROMANTIC is a term which, with its anti- 
thesis Classical, has been borrowed by music 
from literature. But so delicate and incorporeal 
are the qualities of composition whioh both 
words describe in their application to music, and 




HO arbitrary has been their use by different 
writers, that neither word is susceptible of very 
precise definition. The best guide, however, to 
the meaning of ' romantic ' is supplied by its 
etymology. The poetic tales of the Middle 
Ages, written in the old Romance dialects, were 
called Romances. In them mythological fables 
and Christian legends, stories of fairyland, and 
adrentares of Oruaaders and other heroes of 
chivalry, were indiscriminately blended, and the 
fantastic figures thus brought together moved 
in a dim atmosphere of mystic gloom and re- 
ligious ecstasy. These mediseval productions 
had long been neglected and forgotten even by 
acholara, when, about the close of the 18th 
century, they were again brought into notice 
by a group of poets, of whom the most notable 
were the brothers August Wilhelm and Friedrich 
voD Schlegel, Ludwig Tieck, and Friedrich 
NoTalis. They set themselves to rescue the old 
romances from oblivion, and to revive the spirit 
of medisval poetry in modern literature by the 
example of their own works. Hence they came 
to be caUed the Romantic School, and were thus 
distinguished from writers whose fidelity to rules 
and models of classic antiquity gave them a claim 
to the title of Classical 

It was not long before the term Romantic was 
introduced into musical literature ; and it was 
understood to characterise both the subjects of 
certain musical works and the spirit in which 
they were treated. Its antithetical significance 
to the term Classical still clung to it ; and 
regard to perfection of form being often subordi- 
nated by so-called romantic composers to the 
object of giving free play to the imaginative and 
emotional parts of our nature, there grew up 
around the epithet Romantic the notion of a 
tendency to depart more or less from the severity 
of purely classical compositions. But, in truth, 
no clear line divides the romantic from the 
classical. As we shall endeavour to show, the 
greatest names of the Classical school display 
the quality of romanticism in the spirit or ex- 
pression of some of their works, ^ while, on the 
other hand, the compositions of the Romantic 
school are frequently marked by scrupulous 
adherence to the forms of traditional excellence. 
Again, as the associations of the word Classical 
convey the highest meed of praise, works at 
first pronounced to be romantic establish, by 
general recognition of their merit, a claim to be 
considered classical. What is * romantic ' to-day 
may thus grow, although itself unchanged, to 
be * classical ' to-morrow. The reader will thus 
understand why, in Reichardt's opinion, Bach, 
Handel, and Gluck were classical, but Haydn 
and Uozart romantic ; why later critics, in 

> TnmaaikmM ot nradoal romantlctom existed In fact lotig 
befope the woid eamc into use. To onr modem earn, now conMiooa 
of this ipedal quality. tx«ee* are olearly diecemiblei. Ae examplee 
«• may take J. & Baai'e praludoe Moa. 14 and 18 in the second book 
ot Vbt * Wohltcmperlrtes Clavier.' or the Arioeo 'Am Abend da ee 
kaUe wmr ' from the Matthew ftselon. Alao many paeaaees from 
Gloek'sa " 

presence of the fuller romanticism of Beethoven, 
placed Haydn and Mozart among the classical 
composers ; and why Beethoven himself, in his 
turn, was declared to be classical. 

The propriety of applying the term Romantic 
to operas whose subjects are taken from romantic 
literature, or to songs where music is set to 
romantic words, will not be questioned. And 
from such works it is easy to select passages 
which present romantic pictures to the mind, as, 
for instance, the Trumpet passage on the long 
Bb in the bass in the great Leonore overture, 
the three horn notes in the overture to * Oberon,* 
or the three drum notes in the overture to ' Der 
Freischiitz.' But in pure instrumental music 
the marks of romanticism are so fine, and the 
recognition of them depends so much on sym- 
])athy and mental predi8]x>sition, that the 
question whether this or that work is romantic 
may be a subject of interminable dispute among 
critics. Sometimes the only mark of romanti- 
cism would seem to be a subtle effect of in- 
strumentation, or a sudden change of key, 
as in the following passage from the Leonore 
Overture : — 


Another example from Beethoven is 8upi»lied 
by the opening bars of the PF. Concerto in G 
major, where after the solo has ended on the 
dominant the orchestra enters 7)p with the chord 
of B major. The whole of the slow movement 
of this Concerto is thoroughly romantic, but 
])erhaps that quality is most powerfully felt in 
the following passage : — 

TuttL Bolo. r"™!^ 

Yet so subtle is the spell of its presence hero 
that it would be difficult to define where its 
intense romanticism lies, unless it be in the 
abrupt change both in key (A minor to F major), 
and in the character of the phrase, almost 
forcing a scene, or recollection, or image, upon 
the hearer.^ Indeed, romantic music possesses 
in the highest degree the power of evoking in 
the mind some vivid thought or conception — 
as for instance, in a passage from the Adagio of 
the Ninth Symphony, where a sudden transition 
into D|^ seems to say, * Yanitas vanitatum, omnia 
vanitas' ; and again in the 'Eroica,' where at 
the end of the Trio, the long holding notes and 
peculiar harmony in the horns seem to suggest 
the idea of Eternity : — 

9 iter's definition mar well be applied to thin example : ' The 
eeeenoe of romantidsm is the blending of strangeness with the 





Horns. ^ 

That there are times when music has a fuller 
and wider range of meaning than language, and 
defies expression in words, might be illustrated 
by many passages in Beethoven's B flat trio or 
.the last five sonatas. But with regard to the 
•choice of examples we must remind the reader 
that, where the standpoint of criticism is almost 
wholly subjective, great diversities of judgment 
^ara inevitable. 

It was not until after the appearance of the 
<works of Carl Maria von Weber, who lived in 
close relation with the romantic school of litera- 
ture, and who drew his inspirations from their 
writings, that critics began to speak of a 
'romantic school of music' Beethoven had 
by this time been accepted as classical, but in 
.addition to Weber himself, Schubert and after- 
wards Mendelssohn, Schumann, and Chopin were 
all held to be representatives of the romantic 
school. Widely as the composers of this new 
school differed in other respects, they were alike 
in their susceptibility to the tone of thought and 
feeling which so deeply coloured the romantic 
literature of their time. None of them were 
strangers to that weariness of the actual world 
around them, and those yearnings to escape 
from it, which pursued so many of the finest 
minds of the generations to which they belonged. 
To men thus pi-edisposed, it was a relief and 
delight to live in an ideal world as remote as 
I>ossible from the real one. Some took refuge 
in medieeval legends, where no border divided 
the natural from the supernatural, and where 
nothing could be incongruous or improbable ; 
.some in the charms and solitudes of nature ; 
and others in the contemplation of peace and 
beatitude beyond the grave. But in all there 
was the same impatience of the material and 
mundane conditions of their existence, the same 
longing to dwell in the midst of scenes and 
images which mortals could but dimly see 
through the glass of religious or poetic imagina- 
tion. As might have been expected of works 
produced under such influences, indistinctness 
of outline was a common attribute of compositions 
of the romantic school. The hard, clear lines 
of reality were seldom met with in them, and 
the cold analysis of pure reason was perpetually 
eluded. It was equally natural that the creations 
of minds withdrawn from contact with the 
actual world and wrapt in their own fancies, 
should vividly reflect the moods and phases of 
feeling out of which they sprang — that they 
should be, in short, intensely subjective. Nor 
was it surprising that when impatience of 
reality, indistinctness of outline, and excessive 

subjectivity co-existed, the pleasures of imagina- 
tion sometimes took a morbid hue. Such 
conditions of origin as we have been describing 
could not fail to affect the forms of composition. 
It was not that the romanticists deliberately 
rejected or even undervalued classic models, 
but that, borne onward by the impulse to give 
free expression to their own individuality, Uicy 
did not suffer themselves to be bound by forms, 
however excellent, which they felt to be inade- 
quate for their purpose. Had the leaders of 
the romantic school been men of less genius, 
this tendency might have degenerated into 
disregard of form ; but happily in them liberty 
did not beget license, and the art of music was 
enriched by the addition of new forms. * The 
extremes,' says Goethe, speaking of the romantic 
school of literature, 'will disappear, and at 
length the great advantage will remain that a 
wider and more varied subject-matter, together 
with a freer form, will be attained.' Goethe's 
anticipations were equally applicable to music 

Among masters of the romantic school, 
Weber stands second to none. In youth he 
surrendered himself to the fascination of literary 
romanticism, and this early bias of his mind 
was confirmed in later years by constant inter- 
course at Dresden with Holtei, Tieck, E. T. A. 
Hoffmann, and other men of the same cast of 
thought. The subjects of Weber's operas were 
selected exclusively from romantic literature, 
and the * Romantic Opera, ' of which Germany has 
so much reason to be proud, owed to him its 
origin and highest development, although the 
names of Spohr,^ Marschner, Lindpaintner, 
Kreutzer, Lortzing, and others are justly asso- 
ciated with it The romantic effects which 
Weber could produce in his instrumentation are 
indisputable, and never, even in the least of his 
pianoforte works, did he cease to be romantic 

Though Weber holds the first place in the 
opera of the romantic school, he was surpassed 
in other branches of composition by his contem- 
porary, Franz Schubert. Pure and classic as 
is the form of Schubert's symphonies and 
sonatas, the very essence of romanticism is dis- 
closed in them. His unrivalled wealth of 
melody was the gift of romanticism. It gave 
him also a certain indefiniteness and, as it were, 
indivisibility of ideas, which some critics have 
judged to be a failing, but which were in fact 
the secret of this strength, because they enabled 
him to repeat and develop, to change and then 
again resume his beautiful themes and figures 
in long and rich progression, without pause 
and without satiety. None have known, as he 
knew, how to elicit almost human sounds from a 
single instrument — as for instance, in the well- 
known passage for the horn in the seoond 
movement of the C major Symphony, of which 
Schumann said that ' it seems to have come 

1 Th«M point*, and flpohr'ii claim to priority of Inrvntlon of ih<> 
Somaiitio opera. ar» diicuncd in Opbka. rol. ill. p. 4M. etc. 




to us from another world.' Many glorious 
passages might he pointed out in this Symphony, 
the romanticism of which it would he difficult 
to surpass ; for instance, the second suhject in 
the first morement, the beginning of the work- 
ing out in the Finale, etc etc In Song Schu> 
hert stands alone. Even from boyhood he had 
steeped his- soul in romantic poetry ; and so 
expressiTo is the music of his songs that they 
require no words to reveal their deeply romantic 
character. Few were the thoughts or feelings 
which Schubert's genins was unable to express 
in music. ' He was ' (to quote Schumann again) 
' the deadly enemy of all Philistinism, and after 
Beethoven the greatest master who made music 
his vocation in the noblest sense of the word.' 

Schumann's own enmity to Philistinism was 
not less deadly than that of Schubert, and roman- 
ticism was its root in both men. So strongly 
did Schumann resent the popularity of Herz, 
Hiinten, and other Philistines, whose works 
were in vogue about the year 1880, that he 
founded the Davidsbund to expose the hollow- 
nesB of their pretensions. And equally dissatis- 
fied with the sliallow and contracted views of 
the musical critics of that day, he started his 
Keue ZeUaehrift fitr Musik to vindicate the 
claims of music to freedom from every limitation, 
except the laws of reason and of beauty. Even 
in childhood Schumann was an eager reader of 
romantic literature, and the writings of Hoffmann 
and Jean Paul never lost their charm for him. 
He told a oorreepondent that if she would rightly 
understand his ' Papillons,' op. 2, she must read 
the last chapter of Jean Paul's Flegeljahre ; and 
from Hoffmann he borrowed the title of ' Kreis- 
leriana.' It was not, however, the imaginary 
sufferings of Dr. Ereissler, but the real deep 
melandioly of Schumann's own soul, which ex- 
pressed itself in these noble fantasias. Though 
perfect in form, they are thoroughly romantic in 
thought and spirit. Not less romantic were the 
names he gave to his pianoforte pieces. These 
names, he said, were scarcely necessary — * for is 
not music self-sufficing ? does it not speak for 
itself ?•— but he admitted tliat they were faithful 
indexes to the character of the pieces. The 
clearest tokens of the same source of inspiration 
niay be found in his Fantasie, op. 17, which bears 
as its motto a verse from Schlegel. In the last 
part a deeply moving effect is produced by the 
abrupt change of key in the arpeggios from the 
chords of G to A and then to F. But changes 
of key were not his only resource for the produc- 
tion of romantic effects. Excepting Beethoven, 
none have illustrated the power of rhythm so 
well as Schumann. He often imparts a strange 
and entirely novel significance to commonplace 
or familiar phrases by syncopated notes, by put- 
ting the emphasis on the weak part of the bar, 
or by accents so marked as to give the impres- 
sion of a simultaneous combination of triple and 
common time. These strong and eccentric 

rhythms appear in all his works ; and the frequent 
directions Marcato assai or Molto marccUo show 
what stress he laid upon emphasis. The influence 
of Jean Paul may be traced also in Schumann's 
sometimes grave and sometimes playful humour. 
Many of his pianoforte pieces are marked fnit 
HumcT or mit vUlem HuTiwr. And in this 
respect he is inferior only to Beethoven, of whoso 
' romantic humour ' he so often speaks in his 
OesammelU Schriflen, The romantic bias of 
Schumann's mind was not less e\ndent in his 
treatment of Oriental subjects. The colouring 
of his * Paradise and the Peri,' and of his * Bilder 
aus Osten,' is \'ividly local. And of his songs 
we may cite the ' Waldesgesprach ' (op. 89, No. 3) 
as an example of the purest essence of romance. 
Full as the poem is in itself of romantic feeling 
and expression,* the music interprets the words, 
rather than the words the music. 

The romantic spirit found a less congenial 
abode in the happy, equable disposition, and 
carefully disciplined imagination of Mendels- 
sohn ; but his genius was too sensitive and 
delicate to remain unaffected by the main 
currents of his age.^ Take, for example, the 
first four chords in the overture to' A Midsummer 
Night's Dream.' And could it indeed be 
possible to illustrate Shakespeare's romantic 
play in music with fuller success than Mendels- 
sohn has done ? The overtures * The Hebrides,' 
'Melusine,' and 'Calm Sea and Pixyspcrous 
Voyage,' are likewise full of the brightest 
qualities of romanticism. 

Not unlike Mendelssohn was William Stem- 
dale Bennett ; and the points of resemblance 
between them were strict regard to form, clear- 
ness of poetic thought, and cultivated refine- 
ment of taste. Romantic, too, Bennett certainly 
was ; as may at once be seen in his overtures, 
*The Naiads' and *The Wood Nymphs.' So 
tranquil, clear and perfect in detail are most of 
Bennett's compositions, so delicate was the 
touch which fashioned them, that they have 
been likened to the landscapes of Claude Lor- 
raine. Yet there were rare moments when 
Bennett's habitual reserve relaxed, and to the 
inspiration of such moments we may ascribe the 
romantic passages which occur in his beautiful 
'Paradise and the Peri' and 'Parisina' over- 

Notice of the modem German composers on 
whom the stamp of Schumann is so unmistak- 
able, would lead us too far, but the names of 
Robert Franz and Adolf Jensen cannot be 
omitted. Some of the tenderest and most 
delicate attributes of romanticism are to be 
found in their songs, as for instance in the 
* Dolorosa ' cycle of the latter composer. Peter 
Cornelius's spirit moves inadifferentatmosphere ; 
a poet himself, he casts a pecnliar and magic 

1 In dearrlUnff to Retcluurdt'i dan^ter the sueeewof her father^* 
'Morgengenng' at the Rhine Fcwtival, Mondelmohn adds, 'At the 
words Vnd $ehUch in diatir Naeht the niotic heuoine* ao roinaiitie 
and poetical that ererr time I hear it. I am more touched aiid 




spell of romance over his music. Waguer we 
pass by, because he cannot be counted among 
the followers of the romantic school, and, 
within tlie limits of this article, it would be 
impossible to show the points wherein he 
differs from all former romanticists. We may, 
however, designate one of the greatest of modem 
composers as one of the greatest romanticists ; and 
it is no disparagement to the individuality of 
Johannes Brahms to say that he is in many 
respects the disciple of Schubert and Schumann. 
The romanticism of such productions as the 
beautiful romances from Tieck's ^Magelone' 
(op. 33) or the cantata * Rinaldo ' (op. 50) is of 
course visible at a glance, and there are many 
other songs in which the presence of romantic 
sensibility is felt throughout. For Instance in 
one of liis most exquisite songs* ' Immer leiser 
wii-d mein Schlummer,' the phrase ' Eh' die 
Drossel singt im Wald' reaches a point of 
romantic emotion difticult to describe. In 
Brahms's greater works the romanticism seems 
sometimes veiled, but there are passages in his 
chamber -music and symphonies where this 
quality in its deepest sense resides. As examples, 
the romanticism of which could hardly be 
surpassed, we may cite the slow movement of 
the A major pianoforte quartet and the opening 
of the last movement of the C minor symphony ; 
or the last part of the first movement of tlie 
D major symphony (seventy-three bare before 
the end, where the horns enter and the strings 
are kept in the low register) ; or the andante 
of the third symphony in F, where the different 
instruments softly call to each other, as if from 
another world after the passionate working-uj) 
twenty-seven bars before the close. 

Chopin holds a solitary position in romantic 
art No school can claim him wholly for its 
own, and the best poetic gifts of the French, 
German, and Sclavonic nationalities were united 
in him. 'Chopin,' says Liszt, 'refused to be 
bound by deference to rules which fettered the 
play of his imagination, simply because they 
had been accepted as classical.' But the classic 
training and solid studies of his youth, combined 
with his exquisite taste and innate refinement, 
preserved him from abuse of the liberty which 
he was determined to enjoy. The mental 
atmosphere of his life in Paris may be felt in 
his works. In hatred of whatever was common- 
place and ordinary, he was one with the French 
romantic school ; but unlike them he would 
not allow originality alone to stand in his com- 
lx>sitions. Beauty there must always be to 
satisfy him ; and he would have recoiled from 
the crudities and extravagances which disfigure 
some works of the French romantic period. So 
uniformly romantic was Chopin in every stage of 
his career, that it would be impossible to illustrate 
this quality of his music by extracts. Among 
the Sclavonicand Scandinavianraces theromantio 
element is especially marked ; a study of the 

poetic creations of Tchaikovsky and Grieg will 
illustrate this. 

The French romantic school of literature w^as 
of later date than the German, and was con- 
siderably affected by it. The general features 
of the two schools were very similar, but the 
French authors wrote oven more than the 
German in the medisval and mystic vein, and 
were more prone to unhealthy exaggeration. 
In France, moreover, the antagonism between 
the romantic and classical schools was carried to 
a pitch that had no parallel in Germany. The 
completeness and universality of the empire 
which classic example and tradition had gained 
over the educated public of France intensified 
the revolt against them, when at last it anived. 
The revolt was as widespread as it was uncom- 
promising : there wasnot a field of art or literature 
in which the rebel flag of the new school was 
not unfurled, and a revolutionaiy temper, in- 
flamed perhaps by the political stoi-ms of that 
time, was manifest in all that they did. In 
the false simplicity and sickly sentimentality, 
in the stilted diction and threadbare forms of 
expression affected by the reigning school, the 
insurgent authors had indeed much to provoke 
them. But in the vehemence of their reaction 
against such faults they were apt to fall into 
an opposite extreme ; and thus, finish of form, 
clearness of outline, and coherent sequence of 
thought are too often absent from their works. 

With respect to music, Berlioz is the typical 
name of the renaissance of 1830 ; but Liszt, on 
whom the French school exercised so strong an 
influence, may be associated with him. So far 
were these composers and their countless fol- 
lowers borne by the revolutionary impulse, that 
they did not shrink at times from a total rejection 
of the old traditional forms in their instrumental 
music ; but it cannot be said that very valuable 
results were obtained by their hardihood. They 
chose indeed romantic subjects for musical repre- 
sentation, as Weber and Schumann had done, 
but there the resemblance ceased. They aimed 
not, as the earlier masters did, to reproduce the 
feelings stirred in them by external objects, but 
rather to present the objects themselves to the 
minds of an audience. 

To this kind of music, the term programme- 
music has been applied, and we may here perhaps 
fitly show wherein it differs from romantic music, 
with which there is a tendency in the present 
day to confound it In reality a distinct line 
divides the two. Romantic music implies an 
emotional and imaginative atmosphere, com- 
bined with an idealistic, as distinct from an 
imitative presentment of whatever theme may be 
associated with the music. Programme-music 
avowedly endeavours to depict and imitate the 
actual scenes and sounds so literally that no 
doubt is left in the mind of the hearer as to 
what the composer desired to represent or re- 
produce. Neither emotional nor imaginative 




qualities are essential to it. Romantic music 
does not necessarily desire to call up a given 
pcture, bnt to indnoe a mental attitude. Un- 
conscionsly the romantic composer may have 
viitteD passages which eroke as clearly, bat not 
in so limited a degree, some mental image in the 
mind of the hearer. The composer has stimu- 
lated the imagination of his hearer, and left it 
free to conjure up what it wills. Herein lies 
the diiference between the two schools. Indi- 
fidnalism or subjectivity, the characteristic mark 
of the romantic movement in philosophy and 
Hterature, asserts itself as distinctively in music. 
Programme or pictorial music stands on a lower 
plane. It is purely imitative work on the com- 
poser's part ; it gives no scope for, and makes 
no demands upon the imagination of the hearer. 
An undoubted loss of romantic effect was the 
consequence of this method. It produced in 
the younger French romanticists an excessive 
realism, which too readily sacrificed artistic 
beauty to origmality and vivid representation. 
Nor can we deny the frequent obscurity and in- 
coherence of their compositions, though we are 
unable to acquiesce in the imputation so often 
fastened upon them that their romanticism was 
merely the veil of ignorance, and that they 
violated rules because they knew no better. As 
a matter of fiatct, even those among them who 
pushed extravagances to the farthest point were 
thorough masters of the strictest rules and 
severest forms of musical composition. 

To sum up, in conclusion, our obligations to 
the masters of the romantic school, we must 
admowledge that they saved music from the 
danger with which it was at one time threatened, 
of being treated as an exact but dry and cold 
sdeooe ; that they gave it a freer and more 
elastic form ; that they developed the capabilities 
and technique of various instruments ; that 
being themselves always filled with a deep 
reverence for their art they have added, by their 
own genius and labour, many a noble master- 
piece to the treasures of music. ^ a. h. w. 

ROMBERG. One of those musical families 
of whom, from the Bachs downwards, so many 
are encountered in Germany. The founders 
were Anton and Heinrioh, a pair of insepar- 
able brothers, who dressed alike, and lived 
together in Bonn. They were still alive in 
1792. Another Anton, a bassoon-player, 
bom in Westphalia, March 6, 1742, lived at 
Dinklage (Duchy of Oldenburg), gave concerts 

1 For tlM fongolai: artkto the followiac irarks hxv been ran- 
wltedi-SrhimiMin. Uuammat* tekri/tmn Uast. Chopin; Hoe- 
tinAr, Dte Ufmrm dmr formaUn Attthtttk', Kftater, Popuidrt 
r«f(fftf#«: Lft Mkb. MmObaibtlkt BtyMtn-kOpftx Wutebwtkl. 
a>wiiwii, Wdier. llAX T.. C. M. 9. Waberi HoAnann. Krtidert. 
mm; flaatter. JMMrv *• BemtuUitmt; M. MeUiShirift f. Mwlk, 
18MJ»'. KtaU. ChmraUtrUffn Broekhana, OM>Mr»a«<mj/«etom ; 
, 9mrHkh» mat 0mA«; Mendel. leBttm; Brendel, 

Tnrifrtfw ifrr riirifr: Mara. Jfitftt «to X mm u h m ten JahrtamderU ; 
KMIte. OtatklekU *$r MhaOtx Weltsmann. 0«M*<eM« dn Ctavier. 
«ME»: lel—Mim. rm Baeh H$ WafHtr; Letters from Dr. Zopff 
vad Dr. Litf vte. See aleo Prof. V. Kleeks's article on Romantlcinn, 
iDjriiiileainMi.De(»mberiagB; rtA. ri. ot tha O^ffitrd Hiatorv cf 
Mmtte {Tha »ammntle fertiod). hy B. Danorenther: The quarteHp 
amlmt fer Oetobcr IMS. ppl S5T-74: and Daniel Gracory ICaMn'i 
Aotk 0r<v to^arakau. and 7%$ Rpmaiitie (^mpomru 

VOL. rr 

at Hamburg, and died in Dec. 14, 1814, living 
long enough to play a concerto for two 
bassoons with his youngest son Anton, born 
1777. His eldest son, Bexnhabd, born Nov. 
12, 1767, at Dinklage, is justly regarded as 
head of the school of German violoncellists. 
When only fourteen he attracted considerable 
attention in Paris during a visit there with hie 
father ; from 1790 to 179S he was in the band 
of the Elector of Cologne at Bonn, at the same 
time with Ferdinand Ries, Beicha, and the two 
Beethovens. During the French invasion he 
occupied himself in a professional tour in Italy, 
Spain, and Portugal, and was well received, 
especially in Madrid, where Ferdinand VII. 
accompanied him on the violin. His cousin 
Andreas went with him, and on their return 
through Vienna late in 1796, they gave a 
concert at which Beethoven played (Thayer, 
ii. 16). After his return Bemhard married 
Catherine Ramcke at Hamburg. From 1801 
to 1803 he was a professor in the Paris Con- 
servatoire, and we next find him in the King's 
band at Berlin. Spohr (AtUcb, i. 78) met him 
there at the end of 1804, and played quartets 
with him. Perhaps the most remarkable fact 
he mentions is that after one of Beethoven's 
early quartets (op. 18) Romberg asked how 
Spohr could play 'such absurd stuff' (baroekes 
Zeug), It is of a piece with the well-known 
anecdote of his tearing the copy of the first 
Rasonmowsky quartet from the stand and 
trampling on it. 

The approach of the French forces in 1806 
again drove Romberg on the world, and in 
1807 he was travelling in South Russia, but 
retomed to Berlin, and was Court-Capellmeister, 
1815-19, when he retired into private life at 
Hamburg. [In 1814 he visited England, 
giving a concert under the patronage of Prince 
Blucher and the Hetman of the Cossacks, at 
Willis's Rooms, June 27. A. f. h.] In 1822 
he went to Vienna, in 1825 to St. Petersburg 
and Moscow, to Frankfort in 1836, and in 
1839 to London^ and Paris, where his Method 
for the Violmullo (Berlin, Trautwein, 1840) 
was adopted by the Conservatoire. He died 
at Hamburg, August 13, 1841. 

The great importance of B. Romberg both as 
composer and executant arises from the fact 
that he materially extended the capabilities 
of the violoncello. His celebrated concertos 
may be said to contain implicitly a complete 
theory of violoncello playing, and there are 
few passages known to modem players the 
type of which may not be found there. Pi*ob- 
ably no better knowledge of the finger-board 
could be gained than by studying these con- 
certos. Although they are now seldom played 
in public, being somewhat too old-fashioned 

« He doei not seem to have played on thii ooeasion ; Irat a slisht 
trace of hla vreaence U perhaps diKO%'eFable in an oTertnreof nii 
nephew's, which doses the Phtlhamonic progxanune of June 17. 




to hit the taste of modern artists and audiences, 
they are yet of considerable merit as composi- 
tions, and contain passages of distinct grace 
and charm. It may be gathered from the 
character of his compositions, that his tone 
was not so full and powerful as that of artists 
who confine themselves more to the lower 
register of the instrument, and to passages of 
less complication. As an indication that this 
view agrees with that which prevailed during 
his lifetime, we find him for instance spoken of 
as follows by a correspondent of the Allgemeine 
Jdu8ikali8C?ie Zeitung for 1817, who had heard 
him play at Amsterdam : — 'The visit of B. Bom- 
berg had long been eagerly looked for. The 
immense reputation which preceded him caused 
his first concert to be crowded to excess. He 
played a concerto ('die Beiseauf den Bemhards- 
berg ') and a capricdo on Swedish national airs. 
In regard to tiie perfection and taste of his 
performance, to the complete ease and lightness 
of his playing, our great expectations were far 
exceedeid — but not so in respect of tone — this, 
especially in difficult passages, we found much 
weaker than the powerful tone of our own 
Rauppe, and indeed scarcely to compare with 
it.' At a second concert Romberg played his 
well-known Military Concerto, and the same 
view was reiterated. 

Bemhard Romberg composed violoncello 
solos of various kinds ; string quartets ; PF. 
quartets ; a funeral symphony for Queen Louise 
of Prussia ; a concerto for two violoncellos 
(Breitkopf k Hartel), his last work ; and operas 
— 'Die wiedergefundene Statue,' words by 
Qozzi von Schwick (1790), and 'DerSchiffbruch' 
(1791, Bonn), 'Don Mendooe,' with his cousin 
Andreas (Paris), 'Alma,' 'Ulysses und Circe* 
(July 27, 1807), and ' Rittertreue,* three acts 
(Jan. 31, 1817, Berlin). His son Karl, also 
a violoncellist, bom at St. Petersburg, Jan. 
17, 1811, played in the court band there from 
1832 to 1842, and afterwards lived at Vienna. 

Anton Romberg, the father of Bemhard, had 
a brother Gerhabd Heinrich, bom August 
8, 1745, a clarinet-player, and Musikdirector 
at Munster, who lived with him for some time 
at Bonn, and had several children, of whom 
the most celebrated was Andreas Jakob, a 
violinist, bom April 27, 1767, at Vechta, near 
Miinster. When only seven he played in public 
with his cousin Bemhard, with whom he re- 
mained throughout life on terms of the closest 
friendship. At seventeen he excited great 
enthusiasm in Paris, and was engaged for the 
Concerts Spirituek (1784). In 1790 he joined 
his cousin at Ponn, played the violin in the 
Elector's band, and accompanied him to Italy 
in 1793. In Rome they gave a concert at the 
Capitol (Feb. 17, 1796) under the patronage 
of Cardinal Rezzonico. Andreas then made 
some stay in Vienna, where Haydn showed 
great interest in his first quartet In 1797 he 

went to Hamburg,- and in 1798 made a tour 
alone, in 1800 he followed Bemhard to Paris, 
and composed with him 'Don Mendooe, ou le 
Tuteur portugais.' The opera failed, and the 
success of their concerts was but partial, so 
Andreas left for Hamburg, where he married, 
and remained for fifteen years. He next became 
Court-Capellmeister at Gotha, where he died, 
in very great destitution, Nov. 10, 1821. 
Concerts were given in various towns for the 
benefit of his widow and children. The uni- 
versity of Kiel gave him a degree of Doctor of 
Music. He composed six symphonies, quartets, 
quintets, and church music ; a Te Deum, Psalms, 
a Dixit, Magnificat, and HaJleli^jah, in four, five, 
eight, and sixteen parts ; several operas — ' Das 
graue Ungeheuer' (1790, Bonn), 'Die Macht 
der Musik ' (1791), ' Der Rabe,' operetta (1792). 
'Die Groflsmuth des Scipio,' and 'Die Rninen 
zu Paluzzi,' — the two last not performedL His 
best-known work is the music for Schiller's ' Laj 
of the Bell,' which kept its place in concert 
progranmies for many years. His music is 
solid, but not original, being too closely modelled 
on Mozart His larger works are well known 
in England. ' The 'Dransient and the Eternal, ' 
'The Harmony of the Spheres,' 'The Power of 
Song,' and a Te Deum (in D), as well as 'The 
Lay of the Bell,' are all published with English 
words by Novello. His Toy-symphony is now 
and then played as an alternative to Haydn's, 
and was chosen for performance by an extra- 
ordinary company, embracing most of the great 
artists of London, May 14, 1880. Two sons, 
Cyprian and Heinrioh are mentioned in the 
Allg, mimkcUiache ZeUung, [The former, a 
violoncellist, pupil of his unde, was bom at 
Hamburg, Oct 28, 1807, and died there Oct. 
14, 1865 ; he made concert -tours, became a 
member of the court orchestra of St. Petersburg, 
and published compositions for his instrament. 
Riemann's Lexikon.'] Andreas's brother Bal- 
THASAR, bom 1775, and educated for a violon- 
cellist, died aged seventeen. His sister Therese, 
bom 1781, had a considerable reputation as a 
pianist. F. o. 

ROME. The early music schools of Rome, 
from the time of St Sylvester to that of Pales- 
trina, were so closely connected with the papacy 
that their history, as far as it is known, may be 
read in the article Sistine Choir. 

Whether or not Guido d'Arezzo founded a 
school of singing at Rome in the first half of the 
11th century is only a matter of coQJecture ; the 
probabilities are in favour of the theory, as it 
is known that Guido si)ent a short time, at least, 
at the capital about the year 1032, and that 
the then Pope John XIX. was so delighted with 
his method of teaching singing that he urged 
him to take up his residence in Rome, an in- 
vitation which only ill-health prevented Guido 
from accepting. (See vol. ii. p. 256.) In any 
case there can be no reasonable doubt that the 




papal choir received many valuable hints from 

The Sistine Chapel was not the only one which 
had a school or college of music attoched to it, 
thoagh it was by far the earliest In 1480 
Siztos lY. proposed the formation of a * cappella 
mosicale ' in connection with the Vatican, dis- 
tinct from theSistine ; his idea was not, however, 
realised till the time of Julius II., when the 
* Cappella Giulia* was founded (in 1518) for 
twelve singers, twelve scholars, and two masters 
for music and grammar. Arcadelt was the first 
'Maestro de* Putti' (in 1539), Palestrina the 
first ' Maestro della cappella della basilica 
VaticaDa'(1551-54); amongcelebrated 'maestri' 
in later days were Tommaso Bai (1718- 
1715), and Domenico Scarktti (1715-19). 
The * Cappella musicale nella protobasilica di 
& Giovanni in Laterano ' was founded in 1585 
by Cardinal de Onpis ; one of the earliest 
'Maestri de' Putti' was Lasso (1541); Pales- 
trina held the office of 'Maestro di cappella' 
here after his exclusion from the Vatican chapel 
(1555-61). The 'Cappella di Musica nella 
basilica Liberiana' (or Sta. Maria Maggiore) 
was founded about the same time as the Lateran 
chapel, and numbers among its maestri Pales- 
trina (1561-71), Giov. Maria Nanini (1571- 
1575), and Alessandro Scarlatti (1708-9). 

Beades these exclusively ecclesiastical schools, 
others were established by private individuals. 
The first man who is known to have kept a 
public music school at Borne was a certain 
Gaudio Mell, whose school is supposed to have 
been founded about the year 1589 ; and among 
his earliest pupils were Palestrina, Giovanni 
Animnccia, and Giovanni Maria Nanini. In 
1549, Nicola Vioentino, the would-be restorer 
of the ancient Greek Modes, opened a small 
private school at Borne, into which a few select 
pupils were admitted, whom he endeavoured to 
indoctrinate with his musical views. But it 
was not till a quarter of a century later that a 
(mblic music school was opened by an Italian. 
Whether it was that Nanini was inspired by 
his master's example, or, which is still more 
likely, was stirred by the musical agitation of 
the day, is of little importance ; but it is certain 
that the year to which the opening of his 
school is attributed was the same which saw 
the foundation of the order of Oratorians, who 
in the person of their leader, St Filippo Neri, 
were then doing so much for the promotion of 
music Kanini soon induced his former fellow- 
jiupil, Palestrina, to assist him in teaching, and 
he appears to have given finishing lessons. 
Among their best pupils were Felice Anerio and 
<iregorio Allegri. After Palestrina's death, 
Nanini associated his younger brother Ber- 
nardino with him in the work of instruction, 
and it was probably for their scholars that they 
^Tote jointly their treatise on counterpoint. 
Giovanni Maria dying in 1607 was succeeded by 

Bernardino, who was in his turn succeeded by his 
pupil and son-in-law Paolo Agostini. It must 
have been this school that produced the singers 
in the earliest operas and oratorios of Peri, 
Caccini, Monteverde, Cavaliere, Gagliano, etc. 
In the second quarter of the 17th century a 
rival school was set up by a pupil of B. Nanini, 
Domenico Mazzocchi, who, with his younger 
brother Virgilio, opened a music school, which 
was soon in a very flourishing condition ; this 
was due in a great measure to the fact that the 
masters were themselves both singers and com- 
posers. Their curriculum differed but slightly 
from that of the Palestrina - Nanini school. 
In the morning one hour was given daily to 
practising difficult passages, a second to the 
shake, a third to the study of literature, and 
another hour to singing with the master before 
a mirror ; in the afternoon an hour was occupied 
in the study of the theory of music, another in 
writing exercises in counterpoint, and another 
in literature ; theremainder of the day (indoors) 
was employed in practising the harpsichord and 
in composition. Outside the school the pupils 
used sometimes to give their vocal services at 
neighbouring churches, or else they went to 
hear some well-known singer ; at other times 
they were taken to a spot beyond the Porta 
Angelica to practise singing against the echo 
for which that neighbourhood was famous, tn 
1662 Pompeo Natale kept a music school, at 
which Giuseppe Ottavio Pitoni, the reputed 
master of Durante and Leo, learnt singing and 
counterpoint G. A. Angelini-Buontempi, a 
pupil of the Mazzocchis, writing in 1695, says 
that Fedi, a celebrated singer, had opened the 
first school exclusively for singing at Bome. 
His example was soon followed by Giuseppe 
Amadori, with equal success ; the latter was a 
pupil of P. Agostini and no doubt had not 
entirely forgotten the teachings of the old 
school ; but by the end of the 17th century 
its traditions were gradually dying out, to be 
replaced by the virtuosity of the 18th century. 

We must now retrace our steps and give some 
account of the most important musical institution 
at Bome of past or present time— the ' Congre- 
gazione dei Musici di Boma sotto l' invocazione 
di Sta. Cecilia.' It was founded by Pius V. 
in 1566, but its existence is usually dated ft*om 
1 584, when its charter was confirmed by Gregory 
XIII. ; almost all the masters and pupils of the 
Palestrina-Nanini school enrolled their names 
on its books, and their example has been since 
followed by over 4000 others, including every 
Italian of note, and in the 19th century many 
illustrious foreigners, such as John Field, 
Wagner, Liszt, Goimod, etc. etc 

Tbe officers originally appointed were a 
Cardinal Protector, a * Primicerio * or president, 
usually a person of high position, a ' Consiglio 
dirigente' of four members (representing the 
four sections— -composition, the organ, singing. 




and instramental miiBic), a Secretary, a Chan- 
cellor, twelve OounselloTB, two Prefects, etc. ; 
there were also professors for almost every 
branch of music ; Oorelli was head of the 
instrumental section in 1700. Those qualified 
for admission into the institution were chapel- 
masters, organists, public singers, and well- 
known instrumentalists. By a papal decree 
of 1689 all musicians were bound to observe 
the statutes of the Academy ; and by a later 
decree (1709) it was ordained that its licence 
was necessaiy for exercising the profession. 
Soon after this the Congregation began to suffer 
from an opposition which, though covert, was 
none the less keenly felt ; and in 1716 a papal 
decree unfavourable to * the institution was 
passed. In 1762 it was flourishing again, for 
in that year we find that a faculty was granted 
to the cardinal protector, to have the general 
direction of all ecclesiastical music at Rome. 
By another decree of 1764, it was enacted that 
none but those skilled in music should be in 
fhture admitted as members. The entrance- 
fee was, as it has continued to be, a very small 
one. The demands made upon members were 
also very slight At first they were only ex- 
pected to assist, by their compositions or per- 
formances, in the grand annual festival in 
honour of the patron saint Towards the close 
of the 17th century were added one or two 
annual services in memoiy of benefactors ; in 
1700 a festival in honour of St. Anna, and in 
1771 a 'piecola festa di Sta. Cecilia.' 

The Congregation originally took up its 
quarters at t£e College of Bamabites (afterwards 
Palazzo Chigi) in the Piazza Colonna, where they 
remained for nearly a century ; thence they 
moved to the Convent of Sta. Maria Maddalena, 
and again to another college of Bamabites 
dedicated to San Carlo a CatinarL Here they 
resided for the greater part of two centuries, 
and, after the temporary occupation of premises 
in the Via Ripetta, finally, in 1876, settled at 
their present quarters, formerly a convent of 
Ursuline nuns, in the Via dei Greci. Besides 
the hostility which the Congregation had to 
undergo, as we have seen, fh)m outsiders, at 
the banning of the 18th century — which was 
repeated in another form as late as 1886 — it 
has had its financial vicissitudes. Indeed at 
the end of the 18th, and beginning of the 19th 
century, the funds were at a veiy low ebb, from 
which they have been gradually recovering. 
The institution was dignified with the title of 
Academy of Gregory XVI. in 1889. Two yeare 
later Rossini's 'Stabat Mater' was performed 
for the first time in Italy in its entirety by 
the members of the Academy. Pius IX., who 
became Pope in 1846, though he founded several 
other schools for singing, such as that of 'S. 
Salvatore in Lauro,' did little more for the 
Academy than to bestow upon it the epithet 
'Pontificia.' [During the early years of his 

reign two attempts were made to found a Liceo 
musicale or music-school in connection vrith. the 
Academy. The first, in 1847, received en- 
couragement and sympathy from the pontiff, 
but efforts to obtain a government subddy for 
the purpose failed owing to the political disturb- 
ances of 1848-49. Another endeavour by Pro- 
fessor Filippo Bomia in 1857 had no better 
result It was not until 1869, when two young 
associates of the institute, Giovanni Sgambati 
and Ettore Penelli, opened gratuitous classes 
for pianoforte and violin on the premises of the 
Aocademia that a practical start was made in 
this direction. In the following year the two 
professors sought and obtained from Cardinal 
Di Pietro, Protector of the Accademia, official 
sanction for their venture. This was given in 
a decree, dated May 23, 1870, establishing the 
classes on a recognised footing as belonging to 
and dependent upon the institution. The 
fresh departure received further impetus later 
in the same year. Soon after the &I1 of the 
pontifical government in September, the asso- 
ciates of the Aocademia, now a * Royal ' institu- 
tion, expressed in general assembly unani- 
mous approval of the classes, and entrusted a 
provisional committee with Professor Bomia at 
its head with the task of formally constituting 
a Liceo Musicale. 

From this period the energies of the Acca- 
demia, which until now had been little more 
than a body of examiners and licentiates, be- 
came oentreid in the new development, and its 
history identified with that of the daughter- 
institute of which the classesformed by Sgambati 
and Penelli were the nucleus, and of which, 
therefore, they are rightly considered the 
founders. The provisional committee remained 
in office until 1875, when its duties were taken 
over by the Accademia's newly constituted 
Council of Direction, of which Comm. Emilio 
Broglio was president. Meanwhile the music- 
school had been rapidly growing. Sgambati 
had engaged three assistants for pianoforte 
teaching, Alessandro Oreini with a sub-professor 
had opened classes for singing, and violoncello 
and brass instroments were being taught by 
Ferdinando Forino and Vedasto Vecchietti. 
At length after seven years of careful prepara- 
tion the Liceo Musicale was formally constituted 
under the direction of a * Commissions discipli- 
nare ' and a * Comitate tecnioo,' with a staff of 
twenty-nine professors. The new institute was 
launched on March S, 1877, in the presence of 
the Crown Prince and Princess (Umberto and 
Margherita) of Italy. 

The Aocademia now occupied itself with the 
compilation of a Statute for the Liceo, and in 
accordance with the wishes of the Govemment 
the 'Commissions disciplinare' was substituted, 
in 1886, by an administrative council. On this 
the Govemment, the Province of Rome, and 
the Municipality, as contributors to the main- 



teiianoe of the liceo, were represented, while 
its Director was nominated by the Accademia 
itsell The first to oocnpy the newly created 
poet was Comm. Filippo Marchetti, who vacated 
the presidential chair of the Accademia to under- 
take it. 

In 1907 the Liceo had 225 students and 
a professorial staff of about forty. In the first 
twenty -five years of its existence instruction 
was given to 1387 pupils, of whom 415 received 
diplomas. Every branch of practice and theory 
is taught, besides Italian literature and the 
history of music. The charge for instruction 
is so low (five francs a month) that tuition is, 
to all intents and purposes, free. The Liceo 
receives yearly subsidies from the Government 
(£1600), from the Province of Rome (£320), 
and from the Municipality (£1200). .Airange- 
ments are now pending to place it directly under 
the Government, and its professors will then 
enjoy the distinction, highly prized in Italy, 
of State officials. Professors Sgambati and 
Penelli, after thirty-eight years, still take an 
active part in examining and teaching. The 
director is Comm. Stanialao Falchi, who suc- 
ceeded Comm. Marchetti in 1901. 

To its premises in the Via dei Greci the 
Accademia, assisted by contributions from the 
Government and Queen Margherita, has added 
a spacious concert-hall with an organ, opened 
in 1895. Here, during winter and spring, 
pQbHc orchestral and chamber concerts are 
given. The library also constitutes an in- 
creasingly important branch of its influence. 
Originally small, the collection of books and 
MSS. was increesed by the musical library of 
Gregory XVI. bequeathed in 1846. It was 
still fixrther enriched in 1875 by the Orsini 
collection, and later by the musical works which 
had f<»rmerly belonged to the dissolved monas- 
teries. In 1882 were added copies of all 
modem musical publications since 1500, so 
that Uie Accademia now possesses one of the 
largest and most important musical libraries in 
Italy (see voL ii p. 714a). The books having 
been removed to the ground floor, the library 
and reading-room are l£e more easily accessible 
to the public The Accademia still enjoys 
royal patronage, and the King of Italy is its 
honorary president, whOe the Conte di San 
Martino is at the head of its Council of Direction. 

Quite apart from the Accademia, which with 
its Lioeo is the musical centre of Rome, much 
has been done for the improvement of the 
popular taste in music For this the municipal 
ordiestra, under Signer Alessandro VesseUa, 
has been chiefly responsible. Concerts are given 
weekly during the greater part of the year at 
the Argentina theatre. Formerly, popular 
audiences in Rome were for the most part in- 
tolerant of music which was not Italian. Thanks 
to the courage and perseverance of Signer 
Yeanlla this is the case no longer. His pro- 

grammes, open to composers of aU nationalities, 
have familiarised the Roman public with classi- 
cal and modem works — Bach, Haydn, Beet- 
hoven, Mozart, Mendelssohn, Berlioz, Liszt, 
Wagner, Tchaikovsky, and Elgar being often 
associated with Rossini, Verdi, Puccini, and 
Mascagni. As an operatic centre, however, 
Rome lacks the prestige of Milan and Naples. 

Ecclesiastical music in the Italian capital still 
leaves much to be desired, the excellent ideals 
of Pius X. being as yet &r from any wide 
realisation. Divine service is sometimes ac- 
companied by devout and careful singing, as at 
the church of Santa Maria dell' Anima and at 
St. John Lateran under Maestro Filippo Capocci; 
but artistic performances are unhappily rare, 
and organ -playing is, too generally, careless 
and vulgar. J a. h-h. ; vrith additions in square 
brackets by H. a. w. 

ROMEO AND JULIET. A subject often 
set by opera composers ; e,g. — 

1. Rom^o et Juliette ; three acts ; words by 
de S^gur, music by Steibelt. Th^tre Feydeau, 
Paris, Sept. 10, 1798. 

2. *Giuliettae Romeo.' Opera seria in three 
acts, words by Giuseppe Foppa, music by Zin- 
garelli Produced at the Scala, Milan, Jan. 80, 

3. ' Giulietta e Romeo,' three acts, words by 
Romani, music by Yaccaj. Produced at the 
Teatro della Canobbiana, Milan, Oct 81, 1825 ; 
King's Theatre, London, April 10, 18S2. 

4. * I Capuletti ed i Montecchi,' in three 
acts ; libretto by Romani, music by Bellini. 
Produced at Venice, March 11, 1880. It was 
written for the two Crisis and Rubini. King's 
Theatre, London, July 20, 1838. 

5. 'Les Amants de Tyrone, ' five acts, text 
and music by the Marquis d'lvry (under the 
pseudonym of Richard Yrvid), written in 1864, 
performed privately in 1867, and publicly at 
the Salle Ventadour, Oct 12, 1878. At Covent 
Garden, May 24, 1879. 

6. * Rom^ et Juliette,' in five acts ; words 
by Barbier and Carr^, music by Gounod. Pro- 
duced at the Th^tre Lyrique, April 27, 1867. 
In London, at Covent Garden, in Italian, July 
11, 1867. 

7. In addition to these it has been made the 
subject of a work by Berlioz, his Fifth Symphony 
— * Rom^ et Juliette. Symphonic dramatique 
avec choeurs, solos de chant, et prologue en 
r^citatif choral, op. 1 7. ' Dedicated to Paganini. 
The words are Berlioz's own, versified by Emil 
Deschamps. It was composed in 1839, and 
I>erformed three times consecutively at the 
Conservatoire, first on Nov. 24, 1839. In 
England the First Part (four numbers) was 
executed under Berlioz's direction at the New 
Philharmonic Concerts of March 24, and April 
28, 1852, and the entire work by the Philhar- 
monic Society (Cusins), March 10, 1881. 

8. A symphonic poem by Tchaikovsky was first 




performed at the Musical Society in Moscow, 
March 4, 1870. It was published by Bote & 
Boch in the following year, and was afterwards, 
(in 1881) issued in a curtailed and revised 
form. 6. 

ROMER, Emma, soprano singer, pupil of Sir 
George Smart, born in 1814, made her first 
appearance at Govent Garden, Oct. 16, 1830, 
as Glara in 'The Duenna.' She met with a 
favourable reception, and for several years 
filled the position of prima donna at Govent 
Garden, the English Opera-House, and Drury 
Lane, with great credit. In 1852 she took 
the management of the Surrey Theatre, with 
a company containing Miss Poole and other 
good singers, and brought out a series of operas 
in English. Miss Romer was rarely hearid in 
the concert -room, but appeared at the West- 
minster Abbey Festival in 1834. She was the 
original singer of the title-parts in Bamett's 
' Mountain Sylph * and ' Fair Rosamond.' Her 
performance of Amina in the English version 
of Bellini's 'Sonnambula' was much admired. 
She married a Mr. Almond, and died at Mar- 
gate, April 14, 1868. w. h. h. 

RONALD, Landon. See Russell, Henbt. 

RONCONI, DoMENico, was born July 11, 
1772, at Lendinara-di-Poleaine in Venetia. He 
first appeared on the stage in 1 797 at La Fenice, 
Venice, and obtained great renown both as a 
singer and actor, there and in other Italian 
cities, sang in Italian opera at St. Petersburg 
(1801-5), was dii-ector of the Italian opera in 
Vienna in 1809, sang in Paris in 1810, and 
was engaged at Munich in 1819-29, becoming a 
teacher of singing there. He founded a vocal 
school in 1829 at Milan. He died at St. Peters- 
burg, April 13, 1836. Of his three sons, 

Felice, bom in 1811, at Venice, under the 
direction of his father devoted himself to in- 
struction in singing, and became a professor 
in 1837 at Wurzburg, at Frankfort, and, in 
1844-48, at Milan. He was similarly engaged 
for some years in London, and finally at St. 
Petersburg, where he died Sept. 10, 1875. He 
was the author of a method of teaching singing, 
and of several songs. His elder brother, 

Giorgio, the celebrated baritone, was bom at 
Milan, August 6, 1810. He received instmc- 
tion in singing from his father, and began his 
dramatic career in 1831, at Pa via, as Arturo 
in 'La Straniera.' He played in some of the 
small Italian cities, then at Rome, where 
Donizetti wrote for him * II Furioso,' * Torquato 
Tasso,' and * Maria di Rohan,' in which last, as 
the Duo de Chevreuse, he obtained one of his 
greatest triumphs — also at Turin, Florence, and 
Naples, where he on Oct. 8, 1837, married 
Signorina Elguerra Giannoni, who, according 
to some accounts, had recently sung with success 
at the Lyceum and King's Theatres, London. 
He began his career in England at Her Majesty's, 
April 9, 1842, as Enrico in 'Lucia,' and was 

well received during the season in that chai'acter 
and in those of Filippo (* Beatrice di Tenda '), 
Beloore( *L' EUsir'), Baisilio, Riccardo ( ' Puritani'), 
Tasso, etc. In the last opera his ^^ife played 
with him, but neither then, nor five years later 
as Maria di Rohan, did she make the least im- 
pression on the English public. He then made 
a provincial tour with her, Thalberg, and John 
Parry. In the winter he played at the Italiens, 
Paris, with such success that he was engaged 
there for several subsequent seasons, and at one 
time was manager of the theatre, and was also 
engaged at Vienna, Pesth, Madrid (where he 
was manager), Barcelona, and Naples. He re- 
appeared in England, April 13, 1847, at Govent 
Garden, as Enrico, and also played Figaro 
(' Barbiere'), May 8, De Chevreuse on the pro- 
duction in England of * Maria di Rohan,' and 
the Doge on the production of Verdi's * I due 
Foscari,' June 19, in which *by his dignity 
and force he saved the opera . . . from utter 
condemnation' (Chorley). 'There are few 
instances of a Toice so limited in compass (hardly 
exceeding an octave), so inferior in quality, so 
weak, so habitually out of tune. . . . The 
low stature, the features, unmarked and 
commonplace when silent, promising nothing 
to an audience, yet which could express a 
dignity of bearing, a tragic passion not to be 
exceeded, or an exuberance of the wildest, 
quaintest, most whimsical, most spontaneous 
comedy. . . . These things we have seen, 
and have forgotten personal insignificanoe, 
vocal power beyond mediocrity, every dis- 
qualification, in the spell of strong real sensi- 
bility ' (lb. ). There have been few such examples 
of terrible courtly tragedy as * Signer Ronooni's 
Chevreuse — the ])olished demeanour of his earlier 
scenes giving a fearful force of contrast to the 
latter ones. . . . ' (lb.) He sang at the Italian 
Opera every season until 1866 inclusive, ex- 
cepting in 1855 and 1862. His parts included 
Don Juan, Papageno, Leporello, Masetto, lago, 
Podest^ (' La Gazza Ladra '), Isidore (' Matilda 
di Shabran '), Nabucco, Faust (Spohr), Rigoletto, 
Lord Allcash ( * Fra Diavolo ') , Dandolo ( * Zampa' ), 
Barberino (' Stradella'), and Crispino (' Crispino 
e laGomare '), etc. His Rigoletto was unrivalled, 
but his Don Juan was a disappointment. He 
sang in America (1866-74) with great success^ 
and on his return to Eivope he became a teacher 
of singing at the Conservatorio at Madrid. In 
1863 he founded a school of singing at Granada. 
He died at Madrid, Jan. 8, 1890. A warm 
appreciation of his powers appears in Santley's 
Student and Singer. 

Sebastiano, the other son, also a baritone, 
bom May 1814, at Venice, received instruction 
from his father and the elder Romani, and 
made his first appearance in 1886, at the Teatro 
Pantera, Lucca, as Torquato Tasso, in which 
part throughout his career he made one of his 
greatest successes. He enjoyed considerable 




popnlarity in his own country, at Vienna, and 
in Spun, Portugal, and America, as an able 
artiat in the same line of parts as his brother 
— unlike him in personal appearance, being a 
tall thin man, but like him in the capabiUty 
of his face for great variety of expression. He 
appeared in England on Deo. 17, 1836, at the 
Lyceum, as Caidenio in Donizetti's * Furioeo,' 
and also sang for a few nights at the King's 
Theatre, aa well as at the Philharmonic, Feb. 
27» 1837. He reappeared in 1860 at Her 
Majesty's, as Bigoletto, Masetto, and Griletto 
{* Prova d* un Opera Seria *). He retired from 
public life after a career of thirty-five years, and 
settled in Milan as a teacher of singing. ^ A. c. 

RONDEAU. A French name for a short 
poem of six or eight lines, containing but two 
rhymes, and so contrived that the opening and 
cloaiDg lines were identical, thus forming as it 
were a circle or round. The name has come to be 
used in muaic for a movement constructed on a 
somewhat corresponding plan. [SeeRoKDO.] o. 

RONDO (Fr. Rondeau). A piece of music 
having one principal subject, to which a return 
is always made after the introduction of other 
matter, so as to give a symmetrical or rounded 
form to the whole. 

From the simplicity and obviousness of this 
idea it will be readily understood that the 
Rondo-form was the earliest and most frequent 
definite mould for musical construction. For 
a full tracing of this point see Form, vol. ii. 
p. 74, etc. In fact the First Movement and the 
Rondo are the two principal types of Form, 
modifications of the Rondo serving as the 
skeleton for nearly every piece or song now 
written. Marx {Allgemeine Jfusikkhre) dis- 
tingttiahea five forms of Rondo, but his descrip- 
tion is involved, and, in the absence of any 
acknowledged authority for these distinctions, 
scarcely justifiable. 

Starting with a principal subject of definite 
form and length, the first idea naturally was to 
preaerve this unchanged in key or form through 
the piece. Hence a decided melody of eight 
or sixteen bars was chosen, ending with a fhll 
close in the tonic. After a rambling excursion 
through several keys and with no particular 
object, the principal subject was regained and 
an agreeable sense of contrast attained. Later 
on there grew out of the free section a second 
subject in a related key, and still later a third, 
which allowed the second to be repeated in the 
tonic. This variety closely resembles the first- 
movement form, the third subject taking the 
place of the development of subjects, which is 
rare in a Rondo. The chief difierence lies in 
Uie return to the fint subject immediately after 
the second, which is the invariable characteristic 
of the Rondo. The first of these classes is the 
Rondo from Couperin to Haydn, the second 

1 W« an iDiMitod to hln and Mr. J. C. Griffith of Sydney for 
vaet cf tko abov* InfonnnUon wlttk ngud tohli funily. 

and third that of Mozart and Beethoven. The 
fully developed Rondo- form of Beethoven and 
the modem composers may be thus tabulated : — 

^<^*"^ 0«^..,K 

latsub. (domi- Istsub. Snisab. Ut8nb.^;^"|^r- Cloda. 
nant). (tonic). 

In the case of a Rondo in a minor key, the 
second subject would naturally be in the rela- 
tive migor instead of in the dominant. 

One example — perhaps the clearest as well 
as one of the best known in all music — will 
suffice to make this plan understood by the 
untechnical reader. Taking the Rondo of 
Beethoven's * Senate Path^tique' (op. 13) we 
find the first subject in G minor : — 


this is of 1 7^ bars in length, and ends with a full 
close in the key. Six bara follow, modulating 
into Eb, where we find the second subject, which 
is of unusual proportions compared with the first, 
consisting as it does of three separate themes : — 





After this we return to the first subject, which 
ends just as before. A new start is then made 
with a third subject (or pair of subjects) in 



this material is worked out for twenty-four bars 
and leads to a prolonged passage on a chord of 
the dominant seventh on G, which heightens 
the expectation of the return of the first subject 
by delaying it. On its third appearance it is 
not played quite to the end, but we are skilfully 
led away, the bass taking the theme, till, in 
the short space of four bars, we find the whole 
of the second subject reappearing in G major. 
Then, as this is somewhat long, the first subject 
comes in again for the fourth time and a Coda 
formed from the second section of the second 
subject concludes the Rondo with still another 
' positively last appearance ' of No. 1. 

Beethoven's Rondos will all be found to 
present but slight modifications of the above 
form. Sometimes a * working-out ' or develop- 
ment of the second subject will take the place 




of the third subject, as in the Sonata in £ 
minor (op. 90), but in every case the priacipal 
subject will be presented in its entirety at least 
three times. But as this was apt to lead to 
monotony — especially in the case of a long 
subject like that in the Sonata just quoted — 
Beethoven introduced the plan of varying the 
theme slightly on each repetition, or of break- 
ing off in the middle. It is in such delicate 
and artistic modifications and improvements as 
these that the true genius shows itself, and not 
in the complete abandonment of old rules. In 
the earliest example we can take — the Rondo 
of the Sonata in A (op. 2, No. 2) —the form of 
the opening arpeggio is altered on every recur- 
rence, while the simple phrase of the third and 
fourth bars 

In the Rondo of the Spnata in £b (op. 7) again, 
we find the main subject cut short on its second 
appearance, while on its final repetition all 
sorts of liberties are taken with it ; it is played 
an octave higher than its normal place, a free 
variation is made on it, and at last we are 
startled by its being thrust into a distant key 
— Etj. This last effect has been adopted by 
many a composer since — Chopin in the Rondo 
of his E minor Pianoforte Concerto, for instance. 
It is needless to multiply examples : Beethoven 
shows in each successive work how this apparently 
stiff and rigid form can be invested with infinite 
variety and interest; he always contradicted 
the idea (in which too few have followed him) 
that a Rondo was bound in duty to be an eight- 
bar subject in 2-4 time, of one unvarying, 
jaunty, and exasperatingly jocose character. 
The Rondo of the £b Sonata is most touchingly 
melancholy, so is that to the Sonata in £ minor 
(op. 90), not to mention many others. There will 
always remain a certain stiffness in this form, 
owing to the usual separation of the subject 
from its surroundings by a full close. When 
this is dispensed with, the piece is said to be 

in Rondo-form, but is not called a Rondo (e,g, 
the last movement of Beethoven's Sonata op. 2, 
No. 8). 

Modem composers, like Chopin, with whom 
construction was not a strong point, often omit 
the central section, or third subject, together 
with the repetition of the first subject which 
accompanies it, and thus what they call a 
Rondo is merely a piece on the plan of a French 
overture ; that is to say, having produced all 
his material in the first half of the piece, the 
composer repeats the whole unchanged, save 
that such portions as were in the Dominant 
are, in the repetition, given in the Tonic 
Chopin's ' Rondeau brillant ' in £b, the ' Adieu 
h. Yarsovie ' — ^indeed all his Rondos— show this 
construction. f. c. 

RONZI. [See Bbonis, de, vol. L p. 278.] 
ROOK£, WILLIAM Michael, son of John 
Rourke, or O'Rourke, a Dublin tradesman, was 
bom in South Great George's Street, Dublin, 
Sept. 29, 1794. His bent for music, which 
displayed itself at an early age, was sternly 
discouraged by his father, who wished him to 
follow his own avocation, but before he was 
sixteen, he was, by his father's death, left free 
to follow his own inclination. He studied, 
almost unaided, so assiduously, that in 1813 
he took to music as a profession (having alterod 
the form of his name), learned counterpoint 
under Dr. Cogan, a Dublin professor, and 
became a teacher of the violin and pianoforte. 
Among his pupils on the former instrument 
was Balfe, then a boy. In 1817 he was 
appointed chorus-master and deputy leader at 
the theatre in Crow Street, Dublin, and soon 
afterwards composed a polacca, 'Oh Gkny, in 
thy brightest hour, ' which was sung by Braham, 
and met with great approbation. [In 1818 he 
composed his first opera, ' Amilie ' (see below), 
and in 1822 he removed to England,, where he 
became choros-master at Dnjry Lane Theatre, 
under Tom Cooke, and, in 1830-38, leader at 
Vauxhall, under Sir Henry Bishop, w. h. o. F.] 
A few years later he removed to England. In 
1826 he was leading oratorios at Birmingham, 
and in the same year came to London, and 
sought the appointment of chorus-msster at 
Drary Lane, and established himself as a teacher 
of singing. His opera, ' Amijie, or The Love 
Test,' after he had waited many years for an 
opportunity of producing it, was brought out 
at Covent Garden, Dec. 2, 1887, with decided 
success, and at once established his reputation 
as a composer of marked ability. He imme- 
diately commenced the composition of a second 
opera, and on May 2, 1839, produced at Covent 
Garden ^Henrique, or. The Love Pilgrim,' which, 
although most favourably received, was with- 
drawn after five performances on aooonnt of a 
misunderstanding with the manager. He com- 
IKwed two more entitled 'Cagliostro,' and * The 
Valkyrie,' which have never been performed. 




He died Oct 14, 1847, and was buried in 
Brompton Cemetery. w. h. r. 

ROOT. The classification of the chords which 
lonn the atractoral material of modem harmonic 
music is attained bj referring them to what are 
called their roots ; and it is mainly by their 
use that these harmonic elements are brought 
into intelligible order. 

As long as the purely polyphonic system was 
in full force, ihe chordal combinations were 
merely classified according to recognised degrees 
of consonance and dissonance, wi^out any clear 
idea of relationship : but as that system merged 
by degrees into tiie harmonic system, it was 
fonnd that fresh principles of classification wore 
indispensable ; and that many combinations 
which at first might appear to have quite a 
distinct character must somehow be recognised 
as haying a common centre. This centre was 
fonnd in an ultimate bass note, namely, the 
bass note of the complete chord in what would 
be considered its natural or first position ; and 
this was called the Root, and served as the 
common indicator of all the various portions of 
the complete chord which could be detached, 
and their test of closest possible relationship. 
Farther, these roots were themselves classified 
acoovding to their status in any given key ; and 
by this means a group of chords whidi were 
related to one another most closely by having 
the same root, might be shown to be related 
severally and collectively to the group which 
belonged to another root ; and the degree of 
relationship could be easily and clearly ascer- 
tained aocxnding to the known nearness or 
remoteness of the roots in question. By this 
means the whole harmonic basis of a piece of 
music can be tested ; and it must be further 
noted that it is only by such means that the 
structural principles of that kind of music 
which has been called * absolute ' because of its 
dissociation from words, is rendered abstractedly 

Theprindpleupon which modem Instrumental 
Music has been developed is that a succession 
of distinct tunes or recognisable sections of 
melody or figures can be associated by the 
orderly distribution of harmonies and keys in 
such a manner that the mind can realise the 
concatenation as a complete and distinct work 
of art. It is obvious that fine melodic material 
is a vital point ; but it is not so obvious that 
where the dimensions of the work are such that 
a continuous flow of melody of a uniform charac- 
ter is impossible, the orderly arrangement of the 
materials in successions of keys and harmonies 
is no less vital. The harmonic structure requires 
to be clearly ascertainable in works of art which 
are felt to be masterpieces of form^ and to be 
perfectly understood and felt by those who 
attempt to follow such models : hence, in dis- 
cussing the structure of works of this kind, the 
frequent use of such terms as Tonic, or Domi- 

nant or Subdominant harmony, which is only 
a short way of describing harmony of which 
these respective notes are the roots. 

The simplest and most stable of complete 
combinations in music are the chords consisting 
of a bass note with its third and perfect fifth ; 
and of these the bass note is considered the 
root. In most cases such a root is held to be 
the fundamental sound of the series of harmonics 
which an essential chord may be taken to 
represent. For instance, the chord of the 
migor third and perfect fifth on any note is 
supposed to represent the ground tone or 
generator with two of its most distinct and 
characteristic lower harmonics ; and whatever 
be the positions of the individual notes in respect 
of one another, they are stiU referred to this 
ground-tone as a root Thus the chord GBD 

(a) (6)5*T (c) 

(a) would be taken to be the representative of 
the ground-tone G with its second and fourth 
hamionics (6); and every transposition or 
' inversion ' of the same notes, such as BDG, or 
DGB in close or open order (as in c), or even 
lesser portions to which the implication of a 
context would afford a clue, would be referred 
alike to this same root. If F be added (ct) to 
the above chord it may be taken to represent 
the sixth harmonic (6), and similar ' inversions ' 
of the component )X)rtions of the chord will 
similarly be referred to the note G. If A be 
added further above the F of the preceding 
chord, producing G6DFA (as in <;), that is 
commonly taken as a yet more complete repre- 
sentation of the group of harmonics generated 
by the sounding of G, of which it is the eighth ; 
and, as before, all the different jtortions which 
could be intelligibly isolated, and all the trans- 
positions of its component notes, would be still 
referable to the one root G. If Ab had been 
taken instead of Atl, the same general explana- 
tion would hold good, though the special 
question might remain open whether it was a 
representative of the 16th harmonic, which is 
four octaves from the fundamental sound, or 
an artificial softening of the clear and strong 
major ninth, Alj. Some theorists carry the 
same principles yet further, and include the 
C above A, and even the E and E^ above that 
in the group which represents the harmonic 
series of G, calling them respectively the 




eleventh and major and minor thirteenths of 
that note. 

The discords contained in the above series 
are frequently styled fundamental from this 
supposed representation of the group of har- 
monics generated by their fundamental or root, 
note ; they are characterised among discords by 
the peculiar freedom of the notes of which they 
are composed, on both sides. It will be observed 
that they are all members of the Diatonic series 
of the key of C, major or minor ; and as G, 
their root note, is the Dominant of that key, 
they represent the scope of what is called the 
Dominant harmony of C, which of course has 
its counterpart in every other key. No other 
note than the Dominant serves to this extent 
as the root of chords of this class which are 
Diatonic. The Tonic, for instance, can only 
supply the third and fifth, and even the minor 
seventh is a chromatic note. Nevertheless this 
chromatic choi-d and the ninths which are built 
upon it are commonly used as if they belonged 
to the key of ; and the same remark applies 
to the similar discords founded on the Super- 
tonic root (as D in the key of C) ; and these 
are most readily intelligible through their close 
connection as Dominant harmony to the Domi- 
nant of C. 

The roots of the various combinations which 
are arrived at by modifying the intervals of 
such distinct and essential harmonies as the 
above, are of course the same as those of the 
unmodified harmonies. Thus the I'oots of 
suspensions are the same as those of the har- 
monies upon which they are said to resolve, 
because they are modifications of that which 
follows in its complete state, and not of that 
which precedes ; and the same applies to the 
combinations produced by adventitious notes, 
such as appoggiaturas and the like. 

The combinations which arise from the simul- 
taneous occurrence of ordinary passing notes 
must find their root in the chord which precedes, 
as that has possession of the field till new 
harmony presents itself. 

From these considerations it will be obvious 
that a very considerable variety of apparently 
different combinations are referable to a single 
root. In fact a great portion of music is built 
upon very few roots ; many examples of good 
popular music especially do not exceed the 
limits of Tonic and Dominant harmony with 
an occasional move as far as the Subdominant, 
and next to no modulation. £ven in works 
which belong to the domain sometimes dis- 
tingmshed as high art, a great deal is often done 
within very narrow limits. For instance, the 
whole of the first sectionof a violin and pianoforte 
sonata of Mozart's in A is based on six successive 
alternations of Tonic and Dominant harmony, 
and modulation to the new key for the second 
section is effected merely by the Dominant and 
Tonic harmony of that key. 

Notwithstanding the importance which at- 
taches to a clear understanding of the classifica- 
tion of chords according to ^eir roots, there 
are some combinations upon whose derivation 
doctors disagree ; and it must be confessed that 
the theory of music is yet far from that complete 
and settled stage which would admit any hope 
of a decisive verdict in the matter at present. 
In such circumstances variety of opinion is not 
only inevitable but desirable ; and though the 
multitude of counsellors is a little bewildering 
there are consolations ; for it happens fortun- 
ately that these differences of opinion are not 
vital. Such chords, for instance, as augmented 
sixths have so marked and immediate a con- 
nection with the most prominent harmonies in 
the key, that the ascertainment of their roots 
becomes of secondary importance ; and even 

with the chord which silands as V* I in the key 


of C for instance (/), it is not so indispensable 
to decide whether G or F or D is the root, or 
whether indeed it is even a double-rooted chord, 
because, among other reasons, the very attention 
which has been called to it and the very charac- 
teristics which have made it difficult to classify 
have given it a prominence and a unique indi- 
viduality which relieves it of the need of being 
assigned to any category ; and even when it is 
an important factor in the harmonic structure, 
the process of analysis need not be rendered 
doubtful, because its actual position in the key- 
is so thoroughly realised. Other disputed points 
there are having reference to roots, which are 
even of less importance. For instance, whether 
what is called an augmented fifth is really an 
augmented fifth or a minor thirteenth ; or 
whether the augmented octave which Mozart 
uses with such marked emphasis in the third 
bar of the Allegro in the overture to *Don 
Giovanni ' is properly a minor ninth, as some 
maintain — since happily the roots would be 
the same in both cases. c. h. h. p. 

ROOT, Geobge Frederick, an American 
popular composer, bom at Sheffield, Mass., 
U.S.A., August 30, 1820. He studied under 
Webb of Boston, and afterwards in Paris in 
1850. He was a music-publisher in Chicago 
in 1859-71. He was associated with Lowell 
Mason in popularising music in American 
schools, etc., and had a musical doctor's degree 
conferred on him at the Chicago University. 
He died at Barley's Island, August 6, 1895. He 
wrote various cantatas, such as *The Flower 
Queen,' 'Daniel,' and others, but is best known 
as composer of certain songs much sung during 
the American Civil War, as, *The Battle-Cry 
of Freedom,' * Just before the Battle, Mother,' 
but his composition of the spirited * Tramp, 
tramp, tramp, the boys are marching,' now almost 
better known as 'God save Ireiand/ should 




entitle him to rank among the makers of Hying 
national music His son, Frederick Wood- 
XAN Root, bom at Boston, June 13, 1846, 
has done naefol work aa a teacher of singing, 
both individually and in large classes. f. k. 

ROPARTZ, J. Guy, bom at Quingamp 
(Cotes du Kord), June 15, 1864, was a pupil 
of Dubois and Massenet in the Paris Con- 
serratoire, and afterwards studied with C^r 
Franek. Though his life has been chiefly 
devoted to composition he has, since 1894, 
directed the Conservatoire of Nancy with great 
success, and has given a strong impulse to the 
symphony concerts in that town. His dramatic 
works include two pieces in one act, * Le Diable 
ooaturier ' and ' Marguerite d'Ecosse ' ; he has 
written incidental music for 'Pechenr d'Islande ' 
(Loti and Tieroelin), played in Paris, 1893 ; 
' Paysages de Bretagne ' (written for a ' theatre 
d'ombrea chinoiaes'), 'Les Landes,' 'Marie 
endormie,' and five short pieces, a ' Marche de 
tete,' three 'Airs de ballet,' a suite in four 
movements called *I Hmanche breton, ' a symphony 
on a Breton chorale, a 'Serenade,' etc., and 
among his smaller published works which have 
been brought to a hearing are a string quartet 
and a ' fantaisie ' for strings, some church music 
(Psalm xxxvi for choir, organ, and orchestra), 
songs, and pieces for organ and for piano, g. f. 

RORE, CiPRiANO DE, composer of the Venetian 
school, bom at Mechlin (or possibly Antwerp) 
about 1516. He studied under Willaert, > chapel- 
master of St. Mark's, Venice, and was probably 
in early life a singer in that cathedral. In 1542 
he brought out his first book of madrigals a 5, 
and in 1550 his first book a 4 appeared, a work 
long held in fiivour,^ and for the next seven or 
eight years published continually.^ About 1 550 ^ 
he appears to have left Venice for the court of 
Hercules II., Duke of Ferrara, and for some 
years we hear nothing of him.^ [In 1558 he 
was given leave of absence to visit his parents 

> bf tf tie-pM* * Fkntcaie « Reoerchftrl. etc. . compoati lU lo Booell. 
A. VvJcUut « aprimmo tmo Dtteapoto, etc.. Venetlls. 1M8 ' (Brit. Hoe. 

> Ttm P^tts libcmrr •! BnuMh containa Imperfeot eoptes of three 
editteM. lasa, Ism. and IMS. The edltloti In the BrlUah M uaeom te 

3 TbalbUovinf list of book* of moteta and DUkdrlgAlaU taken from 
PMia'a gJOiyyjiHi. BtiMT'a BOUofrtvMe. the quMen-Lexlton. and 
the MtfalogiMa oi tha Brltiah M uaeom and F6Ua llbtarlaa. Some 
nwtain «atk bT other compoaer a . but In all oaaea th«7 bear 
CIptlaDo'a name, and be la the chief eontrlbator. The date given la 
tbat c4 the annpoaed flist edition :— 

Mit^U. Bk. L aS^ Venleau 1M4 (Brit M na.): bk. li. a 4aiid S.Venice. 
Im: irtUm, Btrnvr-) : bk. Ui. a 8, Venice. 1649 (Eltnar). 

it^drtgaU. Bk.Lal,Venic«.lM2;bk.ll.a6.VenIce.l544(Brit. 
NoL. the OMOM.i:«aaeii|ivea 100 aa the flrat edition); bk. ill. a 5. 
Vesica. 1941. The 1MB edition 4n Brit. M ua. ; bka. iv. and t. (1S67 
and IMQ. (Tha Afth book eontaina an ode to the Duke of Parma. 
aad fro«i fb* evanfta of the oompoaei'a life «• may aaaame thu 
veloBc lo be one of hia lataat pumicatlona.) Por the flrat book of 
Budrlgala • 4. aee above ; the aeoond waa printed in 1S67. and in 
lag caaagoaa a aalertlon of the fonr and flva-part madrinla, aa *Le 
rire ttoaaaMi.* etc A laige number of the foiir*part madrivala were 
temght oat la aeore In 1977. 

Oiaiaarti madHfaU. Bk. i. a B. 1M4 (Brit Mna.; the word ' ri- 
tfampato'on titie-paje ahowathat thU la not the flrat edition). The 
ftnt book waarvpatetedaa lata aa lN8(P<ti8Ubtmr7)' Bnmeyhaa 
ioaartad oae avmber in hia INitory. 

I In thia jmr a reprint of hia flrat book of madrlgala waa brought 
oat at PariBfa. 

* ExooBt the pabiiAtloa of two Puaiona (Ftoia 1897) with the 
feUowiag eariooa titlea: 'Pkaaio D. N. J. Chrlati in qua anluc 
Jahaanea eaaaoa tatrodncltur cum quatuor vociboa' and 'Paaaio 
. . . Inoaalntrodtieantar JenuetJndaeloanantea.cnradaabQaet 
lex TBcfaaa.* 

at Antwerp, and soon afterwards visited the 
court of Margaret of Austria, Governess of the 
Netherlands, whose husband, Duke Ottavio 
Famese, engaged him as his maestro di cappella 
at Parma.] On the death of Willaert he was 
appointed his successor, Oct. 18, 1568. He 
resigned this position almost immediately, and 
returned to the court of Parma in July 1664, 
where he died, in the autumn of 1565, at the 
age of forty-nine. He was buried in the cathedral 
of that city, and the following epitaph gives an 
authentic sketch of his life :— 

Cypriano Roro, Flandro 

Artis Musicae 

Viro omnium peritisaimo, 

CtHuB noinen famaque 

Nee vetustate obrui 

Nee oblivione delerl potent, 

Hercales Ferrariens. Ducis II. 

Delude Venetonim, 


Octavi Farnesi Pariuae et Placentiae 

Dads II Chorl Praefecto. 

LudovicuB fhiter, ilL et haeredes 

Moestifisimi po«iierunt. 

Obiit anno mdlxv. aetatis vero suae xlix. 

The position to which Rore attained at St. 
Mark's, and the rank as a musician which con- 
temporary writers assigned him, point to his 
having been something of an innovator, and a 
really original composer. His sacred and secular 
compositions were frequently reprinted, and 
were included in many collections of the time.* 
(See the Quellen-Lexikon for these and for MS. 
copies.) We know that they were held in high 
esteem in the court chapel at Munich, and were 
constantly performed there under Lassus's direc- 
tion.^ Duke Albert of Bavaria caused a superb 
copy of Rore's motets to he made for his library, 
where it remains to this day, with a i)ortrait of 
the composer on the last page, by the court 
painter Mielich. j. r. s.-b. 

ROSA (ROSE), Carl August Nicolas, bom 
at Hamburg, March 22, 1842, was educated 
as a violin-player and made such progress as to 
be sent to the Leipzig Conservatoriimi, which he 
entered in 1859. [He afterwards studied at the 
Paris Conservatoire, and obtained the post of 
concertmeister at Hamburg in 1863.1 In 1 866 
he came to England and appeared as a solo 
player at the Crystal Palace on March 10. 
After a short stay in London he joined Mr. 
Bateman in a concert- tour in the United States, 
and there met Madame Parepa, whom he married 
at New York, in Feb. 1867. His wife's success 
on the stage led to the formation of a company 
under the management and conductorship of 
Mr. Rose, which, during its early campaigns 
could boast such names as Parepa, Wachtel, 
Santley, Ronconi, and Formes among its artists. 

Early in 1871 Mr. Rose — who by this time 
had changed his name to Rosa to avoid mistakes 

< Petta mentiona a book of Clprlano'a niaaaes, a 4, B, 6 (Veniev, 
1666) on the authority of Drandiua'a BibHothwa Claattea. Thia i% 
probably * Liber MiMarum ' a 4. S. 6 (Venice, 1366) to which Cipriano 
only contribute* the flrat nuua ' Dnulce memoyre.' 

7 Dtacorsi delll tnomphi. etc. nelle noaae dell' Uloatr. duca OugL 
etc da Maaaimo Trojano (Monaco. Berg. 180S;. 




in pronunciation — returned to England \pith 
his wife, and then made a lengthened visit to 
Egypt for health. After this they again returned 
to London, but only for the lamented death of 
Madame Parepa-Rosa, which took place Jan. 21, 
1874. Mr. Rosa, however, was resolved, not- 
withstanding this serious blow, to test the 
fortunes of English opera in London, and on 
Sept. 11, 1875, he opened the Princess's Theatre 
with a company including Miss Rose Hersee as 
prima donna, Mr. Santley, and other good 
singers. He closed on Oct. 30, having pro- 
duced 'Figaro,' 'Faust,' **The Porter of Havre '^ 
(Cagnoni), *Fra Diavolo,* 'Bohemian Girl,* 
* Trovatore,* ♦' The Water-Carrier' (Cherubini), 
and ' Siege of Rochelle.' 

The season of 1876 was undertaken at the 
Lyceum (Sept. 11-Dec. 2). It included 'The 
Water-Carrier ' ; ' The Lily of Killamey ' (with 
additions ; * Sonnambula ' ; ' Faust ' ; ♦ ' Giralda ' 
(Adam) ; ' Bohemian Girl ' ; ♦' Flying Dutch- 
man ' ; ' Zampa ' ; ' Trovatore ' ; ' Montana ' ; 
♦'Joconde'(Nicol6); 'Fidelio'; 'Fra Diavolo'; 
♦' Pauline ' (Cowen) : ' Porter of Havre. ' The 
next season was at the Adelphi Tlieatre (Feb. 
ll-April 6, 1878). It included ♦' The Golden 
Cross,' by Briill ; 'The Merry Wives'; 'The 
Flying Dutchman'; 'The Lily of Killamey,' 
and others of those already named. For the 
fourth season Mr. Rosa took Her Majesty's 
Theatre, Jan. 27 -March 22, 1879), brought out 
♦'Rienzi,' ♦'Piccolino' (by Gniraud), and 
♦'Carmen,* and played 'The Golden Cross,* 
' Huguenots,' * Lily of Killamey,* etc. etc. His 
fifth season was at the same theatre (Jan. 10- 
March 6, 1880^; *' Mignon * (Thomas), 
♦'Lohengrin,* and *'Aida' were all produced 
for the first time in English ; and ' The Taming 
of the Shrew ' (Goetz), * Carmen,' ' Rienzi,' etc., 
were performed. In 1882 a season was given 
at Her Majesty's Theatre, from Jan. 14 to 
March 11. * Tannhauser ' and Balfe's ♦* Painter 
of Antwerp * (* Moro ') were produced, and Mme. 
Valleria joined the company. For the season 
of 1883 (March 26-April 21) the company 
moved to Drary Lane, which was its London 
centre until 1 8 8 7 . Thomas's ♦ ' Esmeralda * and 
Mackenzie's ♦'Colomba' were produced, and 
Mme. Marie Roze appeared as 'Carmen,' etc. 
In 1884 (April 14-May 10) Stanford's ♦'Canter- 
bury Pilgrims* was the only new work pro- 
duced. In 1885 (April 6-May 80) Thomas's 
♦'Nadeshda' and Massenet's 'Manon' were 
given. In 1886 (May 23~June 26) Mackenzie's 
♦'Troubadour,' and in 1887 (April 7-June 11) 
Corder's ♦'Nordisa* were the novelties. In 
1888 'Robert the Devil,' 'Tlie Puritan's 
Daughter,' 'The Star of the North,' and 'The 
Jewess' were produced ; and on Jan. 12, 1889, 
Planquette's 'Paul Jones* at the Prince of 
Wales's Theatre, London. o. 

1 Tb« uUri«k prvflxed to th«M nMn«i rignlflM tb&t fh« workf 
h»A not been befors prodnoed In Englaad, at l«Mt in Englisb. 

Aft^er the death of Carl Rosa, which took 
place in Paris, April 80, 1889, the company 
began to lose a little of the prestige it had 
formerly exgoyed. An amalgamation with 
Harris, which had just been entered into at 
the time of Rosa's deatli, had no very artistic 
results, although a few works of importance 
were given from time to time. It must of 
course be remembered that the chief influence 
of such a company is in the provinces rather 
than in London, and as a mle, from this time, 
the first performances of the Carl Rosa prodnc- 
tions took place away from London. Cowen's 
♦' Thorgrim ' was the main attraction of a Dnuy 
Lane season in 1890 ; and the production of 
MacCnnn's ♦'Jeanie Deans* in Edinburgh took 
place in November 1 894. In December 1 894, the 
company again laid I^ondon musicians under a 
great obligation, by producing ♦' Hansel and 
Gretel ' with Mozart's early ♦* Bastien et Bas- 
tienne' at Daly's Theatre. In 1896 the same 
theatre was occupied for a short series of miscel- 
laneous performances. 1897 was an eventful 
year in the life of the company, and in ita 
oouxse permission was granted to prefix the 
word ' Royal ' to the name. In January ' Die 
Meistersinger ' was given at the Gamck Theati'e ; 
in April, Puccini's ♦' La Boh^e' was introduced 
to England at Manchester, and in October they 
gave a season at Covent (>arden (opening with 
the work just named), in the course of which 
MacCunn's ♦'Diarmid* was produced. After 
♦' Siegfried * (1898) the enei^ of the company 
failed for some time. A series of performances 
of ' popular * operas at the Lyceum in 1899 was 
attended by no remarkable success ; but in 
November 1 900, at the Coronet Theatre, Netting 
Hill, they introduced Gounod's ♦* Cinq Mars,' 
and in the following week, at the Brixton 
Theatre, gave Goldmark's ♦'Heimchen am 
Herd' to the English public. In the fol- 
lowing October they gave 'Siegfried,' and in 
April 1902, Giordano's ♦' Andr^ Chenier* was 
given for the first time in England. The 
oompany*s record is an honourable one, and its 
influence on English music cannot be denied ; 
with rather higher aims, its prestige might have 
been kept up at the same level that was attained 
during the founder's lifetime, but the usual 
temptation to beat successful rivals on their own 
ground, and to present the ' popular ' operas in 
ultra-' popular * style, was too strong to be quite 
resisted, and the result has been that the most 
artistic productions have perhaps been suspected 
by the cultivated amateurs who were the com- 
pany's best patrons in former times. M. 

ROSA, Salvator, was bom at Arenella, near 
Naples, July 21, 1615. His father Vito Antonio 
de Rosa sent him to be educated at the college 
of the padri SomaschL He soon began to study 
music, and became an expert player of the lute, 
improvising accompaniments and interludes to 
his own verses. His ambition to go to Rome 




and devote himself seriously to painting seemed 
on the iN»nt of being fulfilled in 1685, when he 
Tisited Borne for the first time. But becoming 
ill, he returned to Naples at the end of six 
months, and there became a pupil of the painter, 
Aniello Falcone, until 1637. Then sgain he 
went to Borne, and accompanied a friend, 
Hercorio, in the service of the Cardinal 
Brancacoio, to Yiterbo, where he received a 
oomnuasion to paint an altar-piece. 

Altera visit to Naples, he was again in Rome 
in 1638 until September 1640, when he went 
to Florence to take an appointaient as painter 
to the court of the Medid, a post he held for 
nearly nine years. During this time he met 
Filippo lippi, poet and jiainter, and Cesti, the 
musieian, and wrote La Stregct, to which 
Cesti composed the music, and H LainerUo^ 
later on set to music by Bandini It was prob- 
ably towards the end of 1640 that he wrote 
the satire La musieaf a violent attack on the 
depraved taste shown in Italian church music 
It was not published till some years after Boss's 
death, and evidently caused much agitation. It 
was answered with a bitterness almost equal to 
its own by ICattheson in his MUhridat toider 
den Oift tiner welsehen Sail/re^ ffenanjit la 
Musica, Hamburg, 1749 ; in which a German 
translation of the satire is given, with pages of 
comments and annotations. The six satires, 
La Musiea, La Poesia, La PUiura, La 
Cfuerra, La Babilonia, and L* Invidia, written 
by Bosa between 1640 and 1669, were probably 
&8t published in Bome in 1695 ; the title-page, 
without date, and with Amsterdam falsely in- 
dicated as the printing place, is as follows: 
Satire di Salvador Rosa dtdieaJU a aettano. In 
Amsterdam pres9o Severo Prothanuuiix, 12mo, 
p. 161. It was followed by numberless un- 
authorised editions. The first dated edition 
of 186 pages was printed in Amsterdam by 
J. F. Benuod in 1719, the second edition is 
dated 1781, and the third 1790. In 1770 there 
was an edition Con note diA.M, Salvini, printed 
at Florence, but with Amsterdam on the title- 
page ; this was reprinted in 1781, 1784, and 

Rosa on leaving Florence was in Volterra for 
a time, and then returned to Rome in February 
1649. The year 1647 was certainly passed 
peaceably in Tuscany, in spite of the legend 
which has it that Rosa was at Naples during 
the insurrection in July 1647, and was one of 
the ' oompagnia della morte ' under the leader- 
ship of the painter Falcone. To begin with, no 
such company existed, and secondly, there are 
letters p r e s e rved, written by Rosa to his friend 
Maffei, one from Pisa, on Jan. 9, 1647, and 
another from Florence, on Sept 26, 1647, in 
which the tumults at Naples are not even 
alluded to (Cesareo, Foesie e lettered 1892, 
p. 55). In 1650 Rosa again visited Florence, 
Pisa, and Siena, returning to Rome in December, 

where he worked at his painting, finding relaxa- 
tion in writing songs to which either he or his 
friend Cavalli, then in Rome, composed the 

Rosa died in Rome on March 15, 1678, at 
the age of fifty-eight, and was buried in the 
church of Santa Maria degli Angioli alle Terme 
di Diocleziano. 

Little of Rosa's music is known, with the ex- 
ception of the songs published in the ' Gemme 
d'antichitii' and other modem collections. His 
position, however, was one of some musical 
interest. A personal friend of some of the leading 
composers of.the time — Cavalli, Cesti, Bandini 
and others — he was so far in touch with the 
new ideas just germinating, as to adopt the 
method of writing for a single voice with hasao 
coniinuo accompaniment. 

In 1770 Dr. Bumey acquired from a great- 
grand-daughter of Rosa, occupying the same house 
on the Monte Santa TrinitJi in Rome in which 
he had lived and died, a musical manuscript in 
Rosa's handwriting, containing, besides airs and 
cantatas by Cesti, Rossi, etc., eight cantatas 
written and composed by Rosa himself. The 
airs are melodious and vivacious, and have a 
good deal of charm. Bumey (SisL qf Music, 
iv. pp. 165-8) gives the music of a certain 
number of them ; they were also included by 
N. d' Arienzo in his paper on Rosa in the Rivista 
Mus, Hal. 1894, i. 389. 

The better-known airs are * Vado ben spesso,' 
printed by Dr. Crotch in Specimens of Various 
Styles, 1808. Edited by H. Bishop in ' Gemme 
d'antichit^,' No. 26, and in La seuola antica, 
No. 24, also in Marx's Oluck wnd die Oper, 
1868. BeUage, No. 2. 'Star vicino,' edited 
by W. H. Callcott, * Gemme,' No. 27. And 
* Selve voi che,' edited by J. Pittmann, London, 
1878. A manuscript copy of the latter is in 
the Vienna Imperial Library, No. 19,242 in 
Mantuani's catalogue. c. 8. 

ROSALIA (Germ. Fetter Michel, SchusUr- 
fleck). A form of melody, vocal or instmmental, 
in which a figure is repeated several times in. 
succession, transposed a note higher at each 

The name is derived from an old Italian 
Canto popolare, ' Rosalia, mia cara,' the Melody 
of which is constracted upon this principle. 

The well-known German Volkslied, 'Gestem 
Abend war Vetter Michel da,' begins with a 
similar repetition, and hence the figure is 
frequently called in Germany, * Vetter Michel.' 
These titles, as well as that of ' Schusterfleck ' 
— a cobble — ^are of course given to it in derision 
— for writers on composition regard its frequent 
introduction as indicative of poverty of inventive 
power. Nevertheless, it is frequently employed 
by the great masters, with charming effiect, as 




may be seen in the Minuet in Handel's 
* Ariadne,' in which it will be observed that 
the figure is suffered to appear three ^ times 
only in succession. Almost all great writers 
have imposed this limit upon its employment, 
experience having proved that a fourfold re- 
petition generally tends to render the passage 
wearisome. Strikingly effective instances of 
threefold repetition will be foimd, in Mozart's 
Requiem, at the words 'Ingemisoo tamqiu&m 
reus'; in Spohr's 'Last Judgment,' at *The 
grave gives up its dead ' ; and in a remark- 
ably forcible passage in the * Rigaudon ' from 
Rameau's *Dardanus.' Still, this restriction 
is frequently disregarded. Vallerano has left 
a Canon,^ which ascends a Tone higher at each 
repetition, ad infinitum ; and the resulting 
effect is far from inharmonious, though the work 
must be regarded rather as a musical curiosity 
than a serious composition. 

Closely allied to this figure is another, in 
which the leading phrase is transposed one or 
more notes lower at each repetition ; as in 
*Habbiam vinto* from Handel's *Scipio,' in 
which the transposition proceeds by thirds. 

Here, again, the figura breaks off after a 
threefold reiteration ; and, in two cases in 
which Mozart has employed the same device, 
in his Requiem ~at the words <Qui Mariam 
absolvisti,' and 'Oro supplex et acclinis ' — it is 
relinquished after the second enunciation. [For 
a fivefold repetition see the Branle given under 
Form, vol. iL p. 75a.] This kind of imitation 
is, indeed, subject to exactly the same form of 
treatment as the true Rosalia ; though it would 
be inexact to call it by that name, and equally 
so to apply the term to the regular ascents or 
descents of a sequence — as constantly exhibited 
in the fugues of Seb. Bach ; or to those of vocal 
divisions — as in 'Every Valley,' or Rossini's 
* Quis est homo ' ; or to the scene, in * Tann- 
hauser,' in which the stanzas of ' Dir tone 
Lob ' are sung a note higher at each repetition. 

Schumann was accused of writing Rosalie 
usque ad natufeam. He does employ them 
very frequently : but often — as in the opening 
of his *Arabeske* (op. 18) — with an effect 
which true genius alone could have dictated. 
This is not the place for a detailed criticism of 
Schumann's principles of composition: but 
when— as in a bitter article, by Joseph Rubin- 
stein, which appeared in BayrevUher BliUUr — his 
masterly use of this particular device is made 

I Sometimes ailed ' Le« troli B4v<hreiioe*.' 
^ Reprinted in toL 1. of dementi's Practical Barmonp. 

to serve as an excuse for its unqualified con- 
demnation, as a 'vicious monotony-producing 
repetition of musical phrases on related 
degrees, which the student of composition 
loves to introduce in his first exercises,' we 
naturally revolt from a conclusion so illogical. 
That a form which neither Handel, nor Mozart, 
nor Beethoven, nor any other great writer has 
disdained to employ, can possibly be, in its 
own nature, * vicious, ' we cannot believe. With 
equal reason might we condemn the * monotony- 
producing' effect of a regular figure. It is, 
indeed, quite possible to make such a figure 
monotonous to the last degree ; yet nearly the 
whole of Beethoven's * Andante in F ' (op. 34), 
is founded on the rhythmic form of the first 
four notes of the opening subject. The truth 
is, that, in the hands of a great master, all 
such devices are made productive of pure and 
beautiful effects ; while all are ' vicious ' when 
viciously misused. w. s. r. 

ROSAMOND. An opera by Joseph Addison, 
music by Thomas Clayton ; produced at Dmry 
Lane Theatre on March 4, 1707, but only ran 
three nights. 

Thomas Augustine Ame, many years later, 
took the libretto for one of his early musical 
efforts ; and produced a work that bore con- 
siderable promise of his future excellence. 

His setting of the opera was given at the 
Little Theatre in the Haymarket, on March 7, 
1733. F. K. 

(Rosamond, Princess of Cyprus). A romantic 
play in four acts ; written by Wilhelmine 
Christine von Chezy, the overture and incidental 
music by Franz Schubert (op. 26). Produced 
at the Theatre an-der-Wien, Vienna, Dec. 20, 
1823, and only performed twice. The music 
as then played is as follows : — 

* 1. Overture (D minor). 

t 2. Entr'acte between Acts I and 2 (B minora 
t 8. Ballo (B minor), and Andante un pooo assai (O). 
4. Entr^acte between Acts 2 and 8 (D). 

* 6. Romance for soprano, *Der Vollmond strabit* 

(P roinorX 

* 6. Chorus of Spirits. 

* 7. Entr'acte between Acts 8 and 4 (B^). 
8. Shepherds' Melody. 

* 9. Shepherds' Chorus. 
♦10. Huntsmen's Chorus, 
til. Air de Baliet (0). 

The overture played at the performances was 
published in 1827, for PF. four hands, by 
Schubert himself, as op. 52, under the title of 
* Alfonso und Estrella' (now op. 69> The 
overture (in C), known as the 'Overture to 
Rosamunde' (op. 26) was composed for the 
melodrama of the < Zauberharfe,' or Magic Harp 
(produced August 19, 1820), and was published 
by Schubert with its present name and opus- 
number for PF. four hands, in 1828. The 
pieces marked have been published — those 
marked with * by Schubert himself, as op. 29 ; 
those marked with + more recently. For parti- 




enlars see Kottebohra's Thematic Catalogue, 
pp. 46, 84. The £ntr*acte in B minor is one of 
the finest of all Schubert's works ; the Bomanoe, 
the Entr'acte No. 7, the Shepherds' Melodyi 
and the Air de Ballet (in O), are all admirable, 
the Shepherds' Melody for two clarinets especi- 
ally chaiacteristic The second Trio to the 
Entr'acte No. 7 was previously composed, in 
May 1819, as a song, ' Der Leidende.' g.^ 

ROSE or KNOT (Fr. i&3>saa ; Fr. and Germ. 
Rosette ; Ital. Jioaa). The ornamental device or 
scutcheon inserted in the sound-hole of the belly 
of stringed instruments, such as the lute, guitar, 
mandoline, dulcimer, or harpsichord, serving 
not only a decorative purpose, but-— in the 
Netherlands especially — as the maker's * trade 
mark. ' In the harpsichord and spinet there was 
usually but one sound-hole with its rose ; but 
owing to the origin of these keyboard instruments 
from the psaltery, their analogy with the lute, 
and the fact of the Roman lutes having three, 
several sound-holes were sometimes perforated. 
In fact, a harpsichord dated 1581 was seen in 
Italy by the eminent art critic, Mr. T. J. Gullick, 
which possessed no less than five, each with a 
rose inserted. From the analogy above referred 
to, the old Italian harpsichord makers named 
the bottom of the instrument * cassa armonica ' 
(sound-chest) ; as if its office were like that of 
the back of the lute or viol, while the belly was 
the * piano armonioo ' (sound-flat).' The Flem- 
ings, retaining the sound-hole, doubtless adhered 
more or less to this erroneous notion of a sound- 
ehest The Hitchoocks in England (1620 and 
later) appear to have been the first to abandon 
it; no roses are seen in their instruments. 
Kirkman in the next century still adhered to 
the rose and trade scutcheon, but Shudi did 
not. In the Oiomaie de* IMterali cF Italia 
A'enice, 1711, torn, v.), Scipione Maffei, re- 
ferring to Cristofori, who had recently invented 
the pianoforte, approves of his retention of the 
principle of the rose in his ordinary harpsichords, 
although contemporary makers for the most 
part had abandoned it But Cristofori, instead 
of a large rose, to further, as he thought, the 
resonance, used two small apertures in the front 
Under the head Rifckers will be found illustra- 
tions of the rose or rosace, as used by those great 
makers. a. j. h. 

ROSE OF CASTILE. An opera in three 
acts ; compiled by Messrs. Harris & Falconer 
(from *Le Muletier de TolWe'), music by M. W. 
Balfe. Produced at the Lyceum Theatre (Pyne 
and Harrison), London, Oct. 29, 1857. o. 

ROSE OF PERSIA, THE. Comic opera in 
two acts, libretto by Basil Hood, music by 
Arthur Sullivan, produced at Savoy Theatre, 
Nov. 29, 1899. 

> [Sb^ O«orn Grove, with duiMteriatic modaaty, here omlta all 
Kfcrenee to tbe tMt tli»t be hinueU diaoovered the micring portions 
ofthem^c. B«m foL iL p. %K7b, mad h^fra, p. dOla.} 

2 In modern ItaUaa we mare freqnentlr meat wltia ' tompacno,' 
' tavob •nnoai'*,' sod ' fondOb' manning * helly.' or ' aonnd-board.' 

Daniel, Church musician and organist The 
exact date of his birth is not known. He 
received his early musical education as one of 
the children of the Chapel Royal ; though 
whether before 1660, under Captain Cook, or 
after that date, under Pelham Humfrey, is un- 
certain. He is stated subsequontiy to have 
studied under Dr. John Blow and Henry Purcell. 
He was organist of Gloucester Cathedral from 
1679 to 1681, of Winchester Cathedral from 
1682 to 1692, of Salisbury Cathedral from 1692 
to 1 698, was appointed organist and Vicar-choral 
of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, in the year 
1698, and organist and stipendiary of Christ 
Church Cathedral, Dublin, in the same year. He 
retired from the organistship of St. Patrick's in 
1719 in favour of his son Ralph, but remained 
organist of ChristChurch until his death in 1727. 
He married Ann, daughter of the Rev. Thomas 
Washboume, D.D., who survived him, and by 
whom he had several children, including his 
sons Thomas and Ralph, who were also distin- 
guished musicians. There appear to have been 
Roseingraves in Ireland before Daniel Rosein- 
grave's time, as mention is made in the Chapter 
Acts of Christ Church of a lease from the 
Dean and Chapter to one Ralph Roseingrave in 

Daniel Roseingrave succeeded Robert Hodge 
as organist of St Patrick's. Hodge, who resignwl 
the post 6t organist, was thereupon appointed 
* Master of the song to the Quire,' apparently 
as a solatium for losing the post of organist 
The arrangement does not appear to have been 
a happy one, for in 1699 we find a Chapter 
Act in the following words : ' The said Dean 
and Chapter having received information that 
Mr. Hodge and Mr. Rosingrave, two of the 
Vicars-choral, gave each other very scurrilous 
language in Christ Church, Dublin, and after 
went together to the taveme and there fought, 
upon which the said Hodge and Roseingrave 
were ordered to appear before the said Dean and 
Chapter to answer in their places touching such 
their misdemeanours. And upon hearing what 
they could severally say for themselves touching 
the matter. And it thereupon appearing to the 
said Dean and Chapter that Mr. Roseingrave was 
ye first and chief aggressor, and that also the 
said Mr. Hodge was to blame. It was thereupon 
ordered by the aforesaid Dean and Chapter tiiat 
the said Mr, Daniell Roseingrave should forth- 
with pay into the hands of ye steward of the 
said Vicars choralls the sums of three pounds 
and the said Mr. Hodge the sume of 20s. sterling 
for a penall mulct for such their offences, the 
same to be disposed of as the said Dean shall 
think fitt, and that the said Mr. Roseingrave 
should then and there beg publick pardon of the 
said Mr. Hodge for the scurillous language hee 
gave him as aforesaid, which was accordingly 
done in the presence of the said Dean and 




Chapter. ' Robert HodgCi it may be mentioned, 
had previouslj, when organist of Wells Cathe- 
dral (1686), been corrected and admonished for 
breaking windows. 

At Christ Church Cathedral Roseingrave 
appears to have been equally combative. By 
a Chapter Act in 1700 the Dean and Chapter, 
on hearing the Petition of Daniel Roseingrave 
complaining of assault by Mr. Thomas Finell, 
'ordered on hearing the Petition of Daniel 
Roseingrave and examination of several witnesses 
that the said Daniel Roseingrave and Thomas 
Finell be and are hereby suspended ab officio 
et beneficio ' ; and further ordered * that from 
henceforth no Vicar or Stipendiary of this 
Church do wear a sword under the penalty of 
expulsion.' This suspension was subsequently 
removed on payment of 'mulcts' by the offend- 
ing parties. 

By his will, dated Oct. 21, 1724, Daniel 
Roseingrave left the house in Peter Street, 
Dublin, in which he then dwelt, to his ' second 
son Ralph,' ^ to whom he also left the residue 
of his property, subject to his providing an 
annuity of £20 for his (Daniel's) wife, the said 
Ann Roseingrave. To his ' eldest son Thomas ' 
he only left five shillings. Daniel Roseingrave 
died in 1727, at Oolden Lane (the same street 
where, fifty -five years later, John Field was born), 
and was buried in the churchyard of St Bride's 
Church. His widow died in 1782-8, and was 
buried in the old churchyard in St. ' Patrick's 

Although Daniel Roseingrave seems to have 
written a great deal of church music, and is 
highly spoken of as a composer by Burney and 
Hawkins, very little of his music is now extant. 
One of his anthems, * Lord, Thou art become 
gracious,' is preserved in manuscript in the 
library of Christ Church, Oxford, and another, 
* Haste Thee, Lord,' in the Bodleian library. 
Mr. J. S. Bumpus has autograph scores of four 
other anthems of his. 

By a Chapter Act of Christ Church, Dublin, 
dated Dec. 15, 1699, it is ordered 'that the Proc- 
tor do x)ay unto Mr. Daniel Roseingrave three 
pounds as a gratuity for his writing three services 
and two Creeds for the use of the Church. Un- 
fortunately all traces of these compositions have 
long since disappeared. L. M'c. l. d. 

ROSEINGRAVE, Thomas (1690 to 1766), 
the second son of Daniel Roseingrave, was bom 
at Winchester in 1690. At the age of seven 
he came with his father to Dublin, and from 
him received his early education in music. 
Thomas Roseingrave entered Trinity College, 
Dublin, in 1707, and his then age is given in 

> Although In hifl will Dsuiel doMiibM Baiph u his ' Moond wm,' 
hia eldest son wm Davicl Boibivoratb. Juxior. who vms born at 
Wtnehestwln 168B, entered Trinity College. DuUln. in 170S, obtatned 
a schoUrahlp In 1709, and took ont his B.A. degree In 1707. He 
was, doahiless, the ' young Boseingrave' who appears by the College 
Register to have been appointed organist of Trinity College Chapel 
in ITOB, «• In that year Thomas was only fourteen, and Balph still 
yonnger. In 1707 he was given leave of absence for one year, ' In 
order to Improve himself m music' He had probably died some 
years before 1794. the date of his father's wilL 

the College Register as sixteen. He did not) 
however, proceed to his degree in Arts. 

In a Chapter Act of St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
dated 14th December 1709, it is ordered by the 
Dean and Chapter 'that whenever Thomas 
Roeseingrave sonn of Daniell Roseingrave, the 
present o]^;anist of the said Cathedrall, being 
minded to travell beyond seas to improve 
himself in the art of music, and that hereafter 
he may be useful and serviceable to the said 
Cathe(&all, yt tenne guineas be by the Proctor 
of the said Canonry given him as a guift from 
the said Canonry towards bearing his charges.' 
He went to Italy in 1710, and at Venice made 
the acquaintance of the ScarlattiB, Alessandro 
and Domenico. For the latter he appears to 
have formed a great admiration. Burney 
(History of Muaie, iv. p. 268) says, that he 
* followed him to Rome and Naples, and hardly 
ever quitted him while he remained in Italy, 
which was not till after the Peace of Utrecht, 
[1718], as appears by an anthem which he 
composed at Venice in 1718, '' Arise, shine, for 
thy light is come." ' The manuscript of this 
anthem, which he wrote with orchestral aooom- 
paniment, is preserved in the Tudway collection 
(Harl. MS. 7842). Burney says of it, 'There 
is much fire in the introductory symphony, 
which is of a very modem cast' How long 
he continued abroad is not exactly known, but 
in 1720 we find him in London, where he 
produced, at the Haymarket Theatre, Domenico 
Scarlatti's opera, 'Narciso,' with two additional 
songs and two duets of Roseingrave's oikh 

As a composer and organist he appears to 
have been held in high estimation, his powers 
of reading at sight and of improvising being 
especially dwelt on by his contemporaries. 

Burney says : ' In his younger days, when 
he enjoyed tlie mens sana in eorpore sano, he 
was regarded as having a power of seizing the 
parts and spirit of a score, and executing the 
most difficult music at sight, beyond any 
musician in Europe.' 

In 1725 he was appointed the first organist 
of St. Gteorge's, Hanover Square. There were 
seven other competitors, all of whom had to 
give a performance on the organ before Dr. 
Greene, Dr. Pepusch, and Mr. Galliard, who 
acted as judges. Burney says that Roseingrave's 
performance of the set pieces was by no means 
good, but that when he was asked to improvise 
on given themes, he * treated the subjects with 
such science and dexterity, inverting the order 
of notes, augmenting and diminishing their 
value, introducing counter subjects, and treating 
the themes to so many ingenious purposes, that 
the judges were unanimous in declaring him the 
victorious candidate.' 

Archdeacon Coxe, in his Anecdotes of George 
Frederick Handel and John Christopher Smithy 
speaking of Roseingrave at this time says : — 




* His reputation was at this period so high that 
on commencing teaching he might have gained 
one thousand pounds a year, but an unfortunate 
event reduced him to extreme distress. Among 
Roseingraye's scholars was a young lady to 
whom he was greatly attached, and whose 
atfections he had gained, but her father, who 
iutended to give her a large fortune, did not 
approve of her marrying a musician, and forbade 
Roseingrave his house. This disappointment 
aflected his brain, and he never entirely re- 
covered the shock. He neglected his scholars 
and lost his business. He lived upon fifty 
pounds per annum, which his place produced, 
and was often in indigence. He was perfectly 
rational upon every subject but the one nearest 
hii heart ; whenever that was mentioned he 
was quite insane.' 

About the year 1737 he was compelled to 
give up the organistship, and lived for some 
time at Hampstead. Thence in about the 
beginning of 1753 he removed to Dublin, 
where he probably lived with his nephew, 
William Roseingrave, a son of Kalph's, who 
was bom in 1725 and at this time (1753) held 
the Office of Chief Chamberlain of the Exchequer 

Mrs. Delany, in her memoirs, under date 
Jan. 12, 1753, writes : — * Mr. Roseingrave, who 
was sent away from St. George's Church on 
account of his mad fits, is now in Ireland, and 
at times can play very well on the harpsichord ' 
{Carreapondetux, iii. 194). Faulkner's l>vblin 
Journal of Feb. 3, 1753, contains an announce- 
ment that 'the celebrated Opera of "Phaedra 
and HippoUtns," composed by Mr. Roseingrave 
lat«ly arrived from London, will be jjerformed 
at the Great Music Hall in Fishamble Street, and 
conducted by himself on Tuesday the 6th of 
March. Between the acts Mr. Roseingrave will 
perform Scarlatti's ''Lessons on the Harpsi- 
chord, "with his ovm additions, and will conclude 
with bis celebrated ' ' Almand. " ' And in the same 
Journal of Feb. 27, we read: — 'Yesterday 
there wbs a public rehearsal of Mr. Roseingrave's 
0{)era of " Phaedra and Hippolytus" at the great 
Musie Hall in Fishamble Street, to a numerous 
audience, which met the higliest applause, the 
connoiflBenrs allowing it to exceed any musical 
performance ever exhibited here, in variety, 
taste, and number of good songs. ' One wonders 
if the writer of this notice had been at the 
production of the ' Messiah ' in the same hall 
eleven years earlier. 

Two anthems of Thomas Roseingrave (' Great 
is the Lord ' and ' One Generation ') are 
included in the manuscript collection of 
Anthems in the Library of the Royal College 
of Music. He was an enthusiastic admirer 
of Palestrina, and is said to have adorned 
the walls of his bedroom with scrape of paper 
containing extracts from the works of that 


He died on June 26, 1766, and is buried in 
the churchyard of St. Patrick's Cathedral, in 
the same grave with his brother Ralph. The 
inscription on the tombstone adds that he died 
in the 78th year of his age, ' a most celebrated 
musician and accomplished man.' Although 
an inscription added to this tombstone at a later 
date (1802) states that his wife, Mrs. Jane 
Roseingrave, is also buried there, this is incor- 
rect, as the Jane Roseingrave in question was 
the wife of the before -mentioned William 
Roseingrave, who died in 1780, and is buried 
in an adjoining grave. Thomas Roseingrave 
does not appear to have been married. 

The most important of his published com- 
positions are : — Fifteen Voluntaries and Fugues 
for the organ or harpsichord ; six double Fugues 
for the organ or harpsichord ; the Opera 
' Phaedra and Hippolytus ' ; eight suits of 
lessons for the harpsichord or spinet ; six 
cantatas (Italian words) ; the additional songs 
and duets sung with Scarlatti's Opera 'Narciso' ; 
and twelve solos for the German flute with 
thoroughbass for the harpsichord. He edited 
the ' Forty -Two Suits of Lessons for the Harpsi- 
chord by Domenico Scarlatti,' prefixing an intro- 
ductory movement in G minor. l. m'c. l. d. 

ROSEINGRAVE, Ralph (about 1695 to 
1747), the youngest son of Daniel Roseingrave, 
was bom at Salisbury, and received his musical 
education from his father. In 1718-19 Daniel 
Roseingrave petitioned the Dean and Chapter 
of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, to allow him 
to resign the post of organist in favour of his 
son Ralph, who appears to have been forthwith 
appointed Vicar-Choral, but did not formally 
succeed his father as organist until 1726. On his 
father's death in 1727 he also succeeded him a£ 
organist of Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, at 
a salary of fifty pounds per annum. He appears 
to have written a good deal of church music 
Eight of his Anthems and two Services in C and 
F are ])reserved at Christ Church, and some of 
them are still sung there. Another anthem of 
his, * O God of Truth,' is published in Hullah's 
Part Music, and an old organ book in the 
possession of Mr. J. S. Bumpus contains a 
Service of his in F with a setting of the 
Benedicite. He died in 1747, and is buried 
in the churchyard of St. Patrick's Cathedral. 
The headstone mentions that his wife Sarah, 
who died in 1746, and four of their children, 
are buried with him, as are also, his mothei 
Ann Roseingrave, and his brother Thomas. 
Ralph Roseingrave is sometimes mentioned as 
having taken part as a soloist in the production 
of the 'Messiah' on April 13, 1742, but Dr. J. C. 
Culwick, in his pamphlet on the original Word 
Book ofllandeVa 'ifes9uiA'(1891), points out the 
improbability of his having done so. l. m 'c. l. d. 

ROSELLEN, Henri, son of a PF. maker, 
bom in Paris, Oct. 13, 1811 ; took second 
PF. prize at the Conservatoire, 1827, and first 





harmony do. 1828. Was a pupil and imitator of 
Herz. He published nearly 200 works for PF., 
including a 'Methode de Piano' (Heugel), a 
collection of progressive exeroises entitled 
' Manuel des Pianistes ' {Ibid,), a trio for piano 
and strings, and many separate pieces of draw- 
ing-room character, one of which, a Reverie 
(op. 32, No. 1), eiyoyed an extraordinary popu- 
larity for many years over the whole of Europe. 
He died in Paris, March 18, 1876. o. 

ROSENHAIN, Jaoob, eldest son of a banker, 
was bom at Mannheim, Dec. 2, 1813. His 
teachers were Jacob Schmitt, Kalliwoda, and 
Schnyder von Wartensee. His fii-st appearance 
as a pianoforte- player was in 1823 at Frankfort, 
where his success induced him to take up his 
i-esidence. A one-act piece of his, * Der Besuch 
im Irrenhause,' was produced at Frankfort, Dec. 
29, 1884, with great success ; his second, ' Lis- 
wenna,' three acts, was never performed in its 
original form. In 1837 he came to London, 
played at the Philharmonic, April 1 7, and was 
much heard in the concerts of the day. After 
this he took up his abode in Paris, where he 
became very prominent, giving chamber concerts 
in combination with Alard, Ernst, and other 
eminent players,- and carrying on a school of 
pianoforte-playing in conjunction with J. B. 
Cramer. His early opera, * Liswenna,' was pro- 
vided with a new libretto (by Bayard and Arago), 
and brought out at the Grand Opera as ^Le 
Demon de la Nuit,' March 17, 1851. It had, 
however, but a moderate success, and was with- 
drawn after four representations, though it was 
afterwards occasionally played in Germany. 
Another one-act piece, * Volage et Jaloux,' pro- 
duced at Baden-Baden, August 3, 1863, com- 
pletes the list of his works for the stage. In 
instrumental music he was much more prolific. 
He composed three symphonies — in G minor 
(op. 42), played at the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, 
linder Mendelssohn's direction, Jan. 31, 1846 ; 
in F minor (op. 43), played at Brussels, and at 
the Philharmonic, London, April 24, 1854 ; 
' Im Friihling,' in F major (op. 61), rehearsed 
at the Conservatoire, and played at a Concert 
Populaire. Four trios for PF. and strings ; one 
PF. concerto ; three string quartets ; two violon- 
cello sonatas ; twelve characteristic studies (op. 
17) and twenty- four Etudes m^lodiques (op. 
20), both for PF. solo ; a PF. concerto, op. 73 ; 
Sonata, op. 74 ; do. PF. and violoncello, op. 98 ; 
'Am Abend' for quartet, op. 99. Also various 
pieces for piano entitled, 'Poemes,' 'RSveries,' 
etc. ; a biblical cantata, and various songs, etc. 
[He died at Baden-Baden, March 21, 1894.] 
Schumann criticised several of his pieces with 
kindness and liberality. o. 

ROSENMttLLER, Johann, was bom of 
poor parents about 1619 at Pelsnitz in the 
Vogtland of Saxony. In spite of the poverty 
of his parents the arrangements of the time 
enabled him to obtain a good general education, 

and in 1640 his name appears inscribed in the 
Matriculation- book of the University of Leipzig. 
In 1642 he became Collaborator or Assistant- 
Master at the Thomasschule. In musical matters 
he would appear to have been mainly a pupil 
of Tobias Michael, wHo then held the important 
office of Cantor at the school. In 1645 Roeen- 
mUller published his first work, a work for 
instruments entitled, ' Paduanen, Alemanden, 
Couranten, Balletten, Sarabanden mit SStimmen 
und ihrem Basso pro Oigano.' A more im- 
portant work was his 'Kemspriiche,' published 
in two parts, 1648 and 1652-58, each part 
consisting of twenty Latin and German Motets 
on Scripture and other Church Texts for three 
to seven voices, mostly %vith accompaniment of 
two violins, and also occasionally trombones 
and other instruments with Basso Continuo. 
When Tobias Michael became too infirm to 
discharge adequately his duties as Cantor, 
Rosenmiiller acted as his deputy, and in this 
position gave such satisfaction to the city 
council as to obtain the promise of succession 
to the Cantorship. In 1651 he also held the 
post of organist at the Nikolaikirche. But in 
May 1655 his prospects of further promotion 
were blighted by an accusation made against 
him of some grave moral offence, for which he 
was temporarily imprisoned. He succeeded in 
effecting his escape, and betook himself for a 
time to Hamburg. From Hamburg he is said 
to have addressed a 'Supplication' to the 
Elector of Saxony, Johann Georg I., along with 
a setting of the Hymn of Albinus, * Straf mich 
nicht in deinem Zorn.' This would almost 
seem to be an admission of his guilt, although 
Wintcrfeld in his Evangeliacher KircJiengcsang 
endeavours to prove him innocent of the charge 
made against him. However the case may 
be, Rosenmiiller did not feel himself safe in 
Hamburg, but fled to Italy, and settled in 
Venice as a teacher of music for a considerable 
number of years. Of his stay in Venice little 
would have been known if Johann Philipp 
Krieger, who was aftenvards Capellmeister at 
Weissenfels, had not sought him out and become 
his pupil in composition. A large number of 
works existing only in MSS., consisting of Latin 
Motets, Vesper Psalms, Lamentations, and 
various parts of the Mass, must be referred to 
this Venetian stay. The only work published 
in Venice was one for instruments, entitled 
*Sonate da Camera cioe Sinfonie, Alemande, 
Correnti, Balletti, Sarabande da suonare con 
5 Strom, da arco et altri' . . . 1670. This 
work was dedicated to Duke Johann Friedrich 
of Bronswick, who became acquainted with the 
composer on the occasion of one of his visits to 
Venice. It has recently been republished as 
Bd, xviii. of the DenknuUer devtscher Tonkunst, 
EnU Fclgty where also in his introduction the 
editor Karl Nef traces the influence of tlie 
Venetian opera-symphonies upon Rosenmiillcr's 




style of instrumental composition. The ac- 
qnaintanoe with Dnke Johsnn Friedrich had 
important oonaeqnences for Bosenmiiller. It 
led to his recall to Germany. Dnke Johann 
Friedrich recommended him to his brother the 
reigning Dnke Anton Ulrich, who was an 
enlightened patron of literature and music, and 
himself a hymn -writer of some reputation. 
In 1674 Doke Anton XJlrich appointed Bosen- 
miiller CapellmeiBter at Wolfenbilttel, where 
he remained for the rest of his Ufe, dying there 
on 10th or 11th of September 1684. Only one 
other work was published in this later period 
uf his life, * Sonate a 2, 3, 4, e 5 Stromenti da 
Arcoetaltri . . . Nuremberg, 1682/ dedicated 
to his patron Duke Anton Ulrich. A large 
number of German Motets and Cantatas belong- 
ing to this time remained unpublished. None 
of Bosenmiiller's vocal works have yet been 
republished in modem editions, with the excep- 
tion of two Chorale-tunes and settings — ' Straf 
mich nicht in deinem Zom ' and ' Welt ade, ich 
bin dein miide.' Tlie former of these tunes 
indeed seems far less suitable to its original 
German words than to those of the Blaster 
hymns to which it has been so successfully 
adapted in our English hymn-books, 'Christ 
the Lord is risen again.' Of Bosenmiiller's 
5- voice setting of ' Welt ade ' it would appear 
that Sebastian Bach thought so highly that 
he took it over bodily from Vopelius' * Leipziger 
Gesangbuch,' 1682, to incorporate it into his 
own church-cantata of 1731, 'Werweiss, wie 
nahe mir mein Ende.' This led to both tune 
and setting being afterward^ ascribed to Bach in 
earlier editions of his 'Choral-gesiinge.' J. r. m. 
KOSENTHAL, Moriz, bom Dec. 18, 1862, 
at Lenibei^, where his father was a professor in 
the chief Academy. From him Rosenthal ob- 
tained the solid foundation of the philosophical 
turn of mind which early in his career became 
very fully developed. At eight years of age 
the boy began the study of the pianoforte under 
a certain Oaloth, whose method was curious in 
that he permitted his pupil absolute freedom 
in sight-reading, transposing, and modulating, 
without paying over- much attention to the 
systematic development of his technique. All 
who have heard the pianist in later life will 
agree that this system did no harm, for it is 
probable that there has never lived a player 
possessing a more perfect technique. Beethoven, 
Weber, and others were one and all boldly 
attacked by the youth, who as yet knew not 
a syllable of the conventional methods of 
fingering either chords or scales. In 1872 Carl 
Miknli, the editor of Chopin, who was then 
director of the Lemberg Conservatorium, took 
charge of Bosenthal's education, and within the 
game year played in public with him Chopin's 
Rondo in C for two piauoa All this time, 
however, nothing had been determined as to 
Rosenthal's ultimate career, and it was only on 

the urgent advice of Rafael Joeeffy that tlio 
parents consented to Rosenthal's adoption of a 
career as pianist. When, in 1875, tiie family 
moved to Vienna^ Rosenthal became a ])upil of 
Josetfy, who set to work systematically to ground 
the boy on Tausig's method. The results were 
astonishing enough, since in 1876 Rosenthal 
played at his first public recital Beethoven's 
thirty-two Variations, Chopin's F minorconcerto, 
and some Liszt and Mendelssohn. Promptly 
a tour followed through Roumania, where at 
Bucharest the king created the fourteen-year- 
old lad court-pianist In the next year Liszt 
came into Rosenthal's life, and henceforth played 
a great ])art therein, and in 1878 and subse- 
quently they were together in Weimar and 
Rome. As Liszt's pupil Rosenthal then ap- 
peared in Paris, St. Petersburg, and elsewhere. 

Meanwhile the philosophical studies were by 
no means neglected, for in 1880 Rosenthal 
qualified at the Staatsgymnasium in Vienna to 
take the philosophical course at the University, 
where he studied with Zimmermann, Brentano, 
and Hanslick (musical aesthetics). Six years 
elapsed before he resumed public piauoforte- 
playing. Then there followed in quick succes- 
sion, after a triumph in the liszt Verein at 
Leipzig, a long series of concert -tours, in 
America and elsewhere, which brought him 
ultimately to England in 1895 and to America 
again later, where in the spring of the present 
year (1907) he was making a remarkably suc- 
cessful tour. As a master of technique Rosen- 
thal is not surpassed by any pianist of his time, 
while as an interpreter, especially of music of 
the modern composers and of Schubert, he has 
earned a prodigious reputation. To his great 
technical accomplishment he adds a beautiful 
touch, and to those who know him personally 
he is a musician of unquestionable distinc- 
tion. R. H. L. 

ROSES, Jose, priest and musician, bom at 
Barcelona, Feb. 9, 1791, learned music from 
Sampere, chapelmaster at Barcelona ; was firat 
organist of the monastery of San Pablo and then 
succeeded his master at Santa Maria del Pino, 
a post which he held for thirty years. During 
this time he composed a large quantity of music 
— masses, requiems, motets, gmduals, etc., which 
are preserved in MS. in the church. Among 
his pupils may be mentioned Calvo, Puig, Rius, 
Casanovas, etc He died at his native city, 
Jan. 2, 1866. cj. 

ROSIN, RESIN (Fr. Colophane), a preiuira- 
tion applied to the hair of the violin bow to give 
it the necessary *bite* upon the strings. With- 
out some such agent, the hoi-sehair would slip 
noiselessly over the catgut. Rosin is the re- 
siduary gum of turpentine after distillation. 
The ordinary rosin of commerce is a coarse, hard 
substance, quite useless to the fiddler, for whom 
the rough material undergoes a process of refine- 
ment. The ancient English recipe was to boil 




rough rosin do^vn in vinegar, a process no longer 
in vogue, as excellent French rosin is now to 
be had at a very trifling cost. It is prepared 
by dissolving the rough article in a glazed 
earthen vessel over a slow charcoal fire. As it 
melts, it is strained through coarse canvas into 
a second vessel also kept at a moderate heat, 
from which it is poured into pasteboard or metal 
moulds. The process requires some delicacy of 
eye and hand, and the greatest care in handling 
so inflammable a material, and is usually en- 
trusted to women. Some players affect to prefer 
the rosin of 6and, others that of Yuillaume, but 
both are made of the same material and at the 
same factory. Rosin should be transparent, of 
a darkish yellow colour in the mass, and quite 
white when pulverised : it ought to fall from 
the bow, when first applied to the strings, in a 
very fine white dust : when crushed between the 
fingers it ought not to feel sticky. The best 
rosin is made from Venetian turpentine. The 
same sort of rosin serves for the violin, viola, 
and violoncello. The double-bass bow requires 
a stiffer preparation than pure rosin, and accord- 
ingly double-bass rosin is made of ordinary rosin 
and white pitch in equal proportions. Emery 
powder and other matters are sometimes added 
in the composition of rosin, but are quite 
unnecessary, and even ii^urious to the tone. 
A liquid rosin, applied to the bow with a camel's- 
hair brush, has its advocates. [See Colophane, 
vol. i. p. 565.] E. J. p. 

ROSINA. An English ballad opera, of the 
18th century, which attained an extraordinary 
degree of popularity, holding the boards, as 
a stock piece, for nearly half a century. The 
libretto, written by Mrs. Brooke, is founded on 
the Scriptural story of Ruth and Boaz ; or of 
Palemon and Lavinia, in Thomson's 'Seasons,' 
a subject which has inspired numbers of 
theatrical pieces. 

The opera was first produced at Co vent Garden 
in 1788, and its music was written, selected, 
and arranged by William Shield. Miss Harper 
took the title-rdle ; Mrs. Martyr, Phoebe, and 
Mrs. Kennedy the hero, William, while the 
rest of the male characters were taken by 
Messrs. Banister, Brett, and Davies. 

A passage in the overture has long been a 
bone of contention. It is arranged for the 
oboe, with a bass for ' bassoons, etc. to imitate 
the bagpipe.' This fragment of melody is ex- 
ceedingly like that of ' Auld Lang Syne,' and it 
has, therefore, been contended that Shield was 
the author of the air for the celebrated Scotch 
song. This is, however, scarcely proven, for 
there exist in prior publications other strath- 
speys, as 'The Miller's Daughter,' and 'The 
Miller's Wedding,' which also resemble the well- 
known air, and these, together with a song, 
are also prototypes of the Scotch national 
melody. f. k. 

ROSS, John, bom at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

Oct. 12, 1763, ^^as placed in his eleventh year 
under Hawdon, organist of St. Nicholas Church, 
a disciple of Charles Avison, with whom he 
studied for seven years. la 1783 he was 
appointed organist of St. Paul's Chapel, Aber- 
deen, where he remained until his death, July 
28, 1637. He composed ' An Ode to Charity,' 
pianoforte concertos and sonatas, songs, can- 
zonets, hymns, waltzes, etc. w. h. h. ; addi- 
tions from Brit, Mils, Biog. 

ROSSETER, Philip, a lutenist, bom about 
1575, in 1601 issued ' A Booke of Ayres, set 
foorth to be song to the Lute, Orpherian, and 
Base Violl,* containing forty-two songs, the 
poetry and music of the first twenty-one by 
Campion, and the rest by Rosseter himself. 
[A selection of eight of the forty-two songs 
was reprinted in 1907, as vol. iv. of the Oriana 
Madrigal Society's publication, 'Euterpe' (Breit- 
kopf & Hdrtel)]. In 1609 he published ' Lessons 
for Consort : Made by sundry excellent Authors, 
and set to sixe severall instruments ; Namelv, 
the Treble Lute, Treble Violl, Base Violl, 
Bandora, Citteme, and the Flute.' On Jan. 
4, 1610, a patent was granted to him and 
others appointing them Masters of the Children 
of the Queen's Revels, under which they carried 
on dramatic performances at the theatre in 
Whitefriars. In March 1612, Rosseter's com- 
pany was joined by 'The Lady Elizabeth's 
Servants,' but the union lasted for a year only. 
In May 1615 a privy seal for a |)atent for tlie 
erection of a theatre in Blackfriars was granted 
to Rosseter, Philip Kingman, Robert Jones, and 
Ralph Reeve, but th^ Lord Mayor and Aldemien 
compelled them to surrender it, when the 
building was nearly finished. [See Jok^, 
Robert, vol. ii. p. 544, where the date of the 
patent is to be corrected.] Rosseter died on 
May 6, 1623. (Corrections, etc. from IHd, of 
Nat. Biog,) w. h. h. 

ROSSI. Nofewerthantwenty-eightmusicians 
of this name are enumerated in the Quellen- 
LexHcoTij and as there are motets and other 
works in various libraries attributed to ' Rossi ' 
without further identification, there is still a 
large field open for careful research before the 
facts can be absolutely ascertained. Of these 
older bearers of the name there are seven who 
may be distinguished as important: (1) 
Salomone, a Jewish musician, ^'as at the 
court of Mantua from 1687 to 1628, when he 
appears to have died. He ei^'oyed such high 
favour with two successive dukes that he was 
privileged to dispense with the yellow badge 
that all Jews were ordered to wear. He issued 
madrigals and canzonets in 1589, 1600, 1602. 
1603, 1610, 1614, and 1628, but his most 
important works were instrumental, being con- 
tained in four books, called ' Sinfonie e Gagliarde ' 
and 'Senate' (1607, 1608, 1628, and 1636). 
He wrote twenty-eight compositions (a 4-8) to 
Hebrew psalms, published in two editions, in 




Hebrew and Italian, in 1623. The authority 
lor his life is BimbauTn's Jiidiscke Musiker am 
Hofe zu Manixuu A selection from his vocal 
music was published in 1877 by S. Naumburg 
aud Vincent d'Indy, and examples of his 
iD2»tramental music are included in Riemann's 
*Alte Kammermusik/ (2) Giovanni Battista, 
a monk, bom at Genoa, who published in 
1618 at Venice a book on mensural notation, 
Organo de eaTtlori per intendere da se stesao 
ogui passo diffidUy etc., containing cantilene a 
'1-b, and a book of four-part masses in the same 
year. M. 

(3) Michael Angelo, a Roman musician 
of the earlier part of the 17th century, was a 
|iupil of Fresoobaldi for organ-playing. He is 
known as the composer of an opera entitled 

* Erminia sul Giordano,' which in 1685 or 
1637 (F^tis aud Clement, Dietionjiaire Lyrique^ 
erroneously give the date 1625) was performed 
with all stage accessories in the Palace of Taddeo 
Barberinl, Prefect of Rome and Prince of Pales- 
trina. It was published in 1687, and dedicated 
to the Signora Anna Colonna Barberiua, the 
Princess of Palestrina. A fall account of the 
o]iera, the libretto of which is based on an 
episode in Tasso's Oerusalemme Liberataf is 
given in H. Goldschmidt's Studien zur Geschichte 
tier Italieniacken Oper, with some specimens of 
the music. Like most of the Roman Operas of 
the period, the music would appear to be 
utterly wanting in any dramatic power ; the 
form of the drama is merely an excuse for scenic 
decoiationa, and occasional graceful pastoral 
music Rossi is better known as a composer 
for davier. He published a collection of 
Toccaie e Correnti for organ or cembalo (second 
edition, Rome, 1657, first edition without date). 
These are now generally accessible in Torchi's 

* L'Arte Musicalo in Italia,' vol. iii. They are 
modelled on the style of the pieces of the same 
name by Frescobaldi, but show no advance either 
in technique or treatment, though the Correnti 
are melodious enough. Previous to this re- 
publication by Torchi, thei-e used to appear in 
various modem collections of older music, such 
as L. Kohler's 'Maitres du Clavecin,' Pauer's 
' Alte Meister,' and others, an Andantino and 
All^px> ascribed to Rossi, which have now been 
proved to be spurious, their whole style showing 
them to belong to the follo\%ing centuiy. Ernst 
von Werra was the first to prove by examination 
of the genuine works of Rossi previously un- 
known, the anachronism of this attribution 
(}f(/nai^icfte/ur Musikgeachichte, xxviii. pp. 123 
ff,). It would be interesting to know how 
these two pieces came to be ascribed to M. A. 
Rossi. J. K. M. 

(4) LuiGi, bom about the end of the 16th 
century in Naples, was about 1620 in the 
service of Cardinal Barberini in Rome as a 
singer. Through Mazarin's influence he was 
invited to Paris, where on March 2, 1647, his 

opera, ' Le Mariage d'Orph^ et Euridiee, ' was 
given, being the first Italian opera performed 
in Paris. Five years before he had composed 
a dramatic work, 'II palagio d'Atlante,' to 
words by G. Ruspiglosi (a copy in the Royal 
College (Jf Music has the title * II Pallazzo in- 
cantato *). Gevaert edited a selection of thirteen 
cantatas by him. (5) Francesco, an Abbate, 
a native of Apulia (Fetis gives Ban as his 
birthplace), who brought out several oi)eras in 
Venice between 1686 and 1689, viz. ' II Sejano 
moderno' (1686), *La Clorilda' and 'La pena 
degl' occhi' in 1688, and 'Mitrane' in 1689. 
The last work contains the beautiful air, ' Ah ! 
rendimi quel core,' by which alone Rossi's name 
is kno>vn in the pi-esent day. An oratorio, 
'La Caduta dei Giganti,' is in MS. (6) Giu- 
seppe, was successively maestro di cappella at 
the Castle of St. Angelo, Rome, Pistoia, and 
San Loreto, Rome. He died in Rome about 
1719. A mass in twelve parts, divided into 
three choirs, and two settings of Dixit Dominus 
for twelve and sixteen voices respectively, are 
preserved at Bologna, where the latter ai-e 
ascribed to the later Giuseppe Rossi. (7) 
Another Giuseppe was maestro in the cathedral 
of Tcmi, and was the composer of an opera, 
' La sposa in Livomo,' given in Rome in 1807. 
He published a treatise, AlH iniendenti di 
corUrappunto, in 1 809, and several of his motets 
are at Bologna. m. 

There are, furthermore, three modem opera- 
composers of the name : (8) Laueo, bora at 
Macerata, Feb. 19, 1810, was a pupil of 
Crescentini, Fumo, and Ziugarelli at Naples. 
He began to write at once, and at eighteen 
had his first two operas — 'Le Coutesse Yillane' 
and ' La Villana Contessa ' — |)erformed at the 
Fenice and Kuovo Theatres of Naples respec- 
tively. Other pieces followed : one of them, 
'Costanza ed Oringaldo,' being written expressly 
for the San Carlo at the request of Barbaja. On 
the recommendation of Donizetti, Rossi was 
engaged for the Teatro Valle at Rome, and there 
he remained for 1832 and 1833, and composed 
four operas and an oratorio. In 1884 he moved 
to Milan, and brought out 'La Casa disabitata' 
(or ' I falsi Monetari '), which, though but 
moderately successful at theScala, was afterwards 
considered his chef-d^muvre^ and spoken of as 
'Rossi's Barbiere di Siviglia.' It pleased 
Malibran so much that she induced Barbaja to 
bespeak another opera from Rossi for the San 
Carlo, in which she should appear. The opera 
was composed, and was named ' Amelia ' (pro- 
duced at Naples, Dec. 4, 1884) ; but owing to 
her caprice was a failure. She insisted on 
having a pas de deux inserted for her and 
Mathis. The theatre was crowded to the 
ceiling to see the great singer dance ; but her 
dancing did not please the public, and the ]nece 
was damned. This disappointment, though 
somewhat alleviated by the success of his 




* Leocadia ' (1834) seenis to have disgusted 
Rossi >vith Italy ; he accepted an engagement 
from Mexico, left Europe, Oct. 15, 1886, and 
aiTived at Vera Cruz the 6th of the following 
January. From Mexico he went to the 
Havannah, New Orleans, and Madras ; married 
in 1841, and returned to Europe, landing at 
Cadiz, Feb. 3, 1843. He began again at once 
to compose — 'Cellini a Parigi' (Turin, 1845), 
etc., but with very varying success. In 1846 
he reappeared at the Scala at Milan with ' Azema 
di Granata,' 'II Borgomastro di Schiedam,' and 
three or four other o^ieras in following years. 
His great success, however, appears to have been 
made with 'II Domino nero,' at the Teatro 
Canobbiana, Sept. 1849. In 1850 he was 
called to be director of the Conservatorio at 
Milan. For this institution he published a 
Guida di annania pratiea oroZ^ (Ricordi, 1868), 
and between 1850 and 1859 composed a great 
many operas, and detached pieces for voices and 
for instruments. After the death of Mercadante 
in 1870, Rossi succeeded him as head of the 
Conservatorio at Naples. This office he resigned 
in 1878, and he went to Cremona in 1880, dying 
there on May 6, 1886. Lists of his works are 
given by Florirao (Cenni Storici, pp. 948-962), 
Riemann (Ltxikan)^ and Pougin. They com- 
]>rise twenty-nine operas, a grand mass, and a 
dozen miscellaneous compositions, including six 
fugues for strings, two sets of vocal exercises, 
and the Guide to Hannony already mentioned. 
His best works are ' Cellini a Parigi,' ' I falsi 
Monctari,' 'La Contessa di Mons,' and 'II 
Domino nero.' One of his operas, ' La Figlia 
di Figaro,' is said to have been produced at the 
Kamthnerthor Theatre, Vienna, April 17, 1846 ; 
and another, ' Biorn,' was announced for per- 
formance at the Queen's Theatre, London, Jan. 
17, 1877— English libretto by Frank Marshall; 
but no notice of either performance can be 
found. [An oratorio, 'Saul,' elegies on Bellini 
and Mercadante, a mass, and other works, are 
mentioned by Riemann.] g. 

(9) Giovanni Gaktano, bom at Borgo San 
Donnino, Parma, August 6, 1828, studied at 
the Milan Conservatorio, was leader of the 
orchestra in the theatre at Parma, and organist 
of the court chapel there, from 1862 to 1873, 
and director of the Parma Conservatorio in 1 864- 
1873. In 1873 he became conductor at the 
Teatro Carlo Felice, Genoa, until 1879 ; he 
died at Parma, March 30, 1886. His operas 
were: 'Elena di Taranto* (Parma, 1862), 
' Giovanni Giscala' (Parma, 1866), * Nicol6 de' 
Lapi' (Ancona, 1865), 'Lacontessa d'Altemberg' 
(Borgo San Donnino, 1872), and 'Maria Sanz' 
(Bergamo, 1895). A symphony, 'Saul,' won a 
prize in Paris in 1878, and Rossi wrote besides 
three masses, an oratorio, and a requiem. 
(10) Oesarr, bom at Mantua in 1864, has 
won success as a composer in many branches of 
art, his opera 'Nadeja' having been received 

with much favour at Prague in 1903 (Rie- 
mann's Lexikmi, etc.) m. 

ROSSINI, GioACGHiNO Antonio, was bom 
Feb. 29, 1792, at Pesaro, and was the only 
chUd of Giuseppe Rossini of Lugo. The position 
of his parents was of the humblest ; his father 
was town-trumpeter (irombadcrt) and inspector 
of slaughter-houses, and his mother a baker's 
daughter, but their life was a happy one, and 
the irrepressible good -humour of the town- 
trampeter was celebrated among his friends. 
In the political straggles of 1796 the elder 
Rossini declared himself for the French, and 
for republican government, and was naturally 
sent to gaol. His wife, thus deprived of her 
means of subsistence, was driven to turn lier 
voioe to account She went with her little 
Gioacchino to Bologna, and there made her 
debut as ' prima donna buffa ' with such success 
as to procure her engagements in various theatres 
of the Romagna during the Carnival. Mean- 
time the trombadore had regained his liberty 
and was engaged as horn- player in the bands 
of the theatres in which his wife sang ; the 
child remaining at Bologna, in the charge of an 
honest pork butcher. In such surroundings 
it is not wonderful that Gioacchino's learning 
was confined to reading, writing, and arithmetic. 
Music he acquired from a certain Priuetti of 
Novara, who gave hiin harpsichord lessons for 
three years ; but the lessons must have been 
peculiar, for Prinetti was accustomed to play 
the scale with two fingers only, combined his 
music-teaching with the sale of liquors, and 
had the convenient habit of sleeping as he stood. 
Such a character was a ready butt for the son of 
a joker like Giuseppe Rossini ; and so incor- 
rigible was Gioacchino's love of mimicking his 
master that at length he was taken from Prinetti, 
and apprenticed to a smith. 

Ashamed of this result he resolved to amend 
and apply. In Angelo Tesei he fortimately 
found a clever master, able to make singing and 
practical harmony interesting to his pupil ; in a 
few months he learned to read, to accom[)any, and 
to sing well enough to take solos in church at 
the modest price of three \ta.nla per service. He 
was thus able, at the age of ten, to assist his 
parents, who, owing to a sudden change in his 
mother's voice, were again in misfortune. In 
his desire to help them he seized every oppor- 
tunity of singing in public, and eagerly accepted 
an offer to appear at the theatre of the Commune 
as Adolfo in Paer's 'Camilla.' This was his 
first and only step in the career of a dramatic 
singer, but it must have been often diflicult to 
resist taking it up again, when he saw singers 
receiving a thousand ducats for appearing in 
operas which he both composed and conducted 
for fifty. 

Thus at the age of thirteen Rossini was a 
sufficiently good singer to be well received at the 
theatre ; he also played the horn by his father's 




side, and had a fair reputation as accompanist 
At this time he acquired a valuable friend in 
the Chevalier Giusti, commanding engineer at 
Bologna, who took a great affection for the lad, 
read and explained the Italian poets to him, and 
opened his fresh and intelligent mind to the 
comprehension of the ideal ; and it was to the 
eflbrts of this distinguished man that he owed 
thestartof hjsgenius, andsuch general knowledge 
as he afterwards possessed. After three years 
with Tesei he put himself under a veteran tenor 
named Babbini to improve his singing. Shortly 
after this his voice broke, at the end of the 
aatomn of 1806, during a toum^e in which he 
accompanied his father as chorus-master and 
maetlro al cembalo, an engagement in which the 
daily income of the two amounted to 1 1 pauls, 
about equal to 4 shillings. The loss of his voice 
cost him his engagements in church ; but it 
gave him the opportunity of entering the Con- 
servatorio, or liceo communale, of Bologna. On 
March 20, 1 807, he was admitted to the counter- 
point class of Padre Mattei, and soon after to 
that of Oavedagni for the violoncello. He little 
anticipated when he took his first lesson that 
his name would one day be inscribed over the 
entrance to the liceo. 

His progress was rapid, and he was soon able 
to take his part in Haydn's quartets ; but his 
counterpoint lessons were a trouble to him from 
the first Before he entered Mattel's class he had 
composed a variety of things — little pieces for 
two horns, songs for Zambini, and even an opera, 
called ' Demetrio,' for his friends the Mombellis. 
Unfortunately Mattei was a pedant, who could 
see no reason for modifying his usual slow 
mechanical system to suit the convenience of a 
scholar, however able or advanced. His one 
answer to his pupil's inquiry as to the resson 
of a change or a progression was, ' It is the 
rule.' The result was that after a few months 
of discouraging labour Gioacchino began to look 
to instinct and practice for the philosophy, or 
at least the rhetoric of this art. The actual 
parting is the subject of an anecdote which is 
not improbably true. Mattei was explaining 
that the amount of counterpoint which his pupil 
had already acquired was sufficient for a com- 
poser in the * fi^ style ' ; but that for church- 
music much severer studies were required. 
♦What,' cried the boy, *do you mean that I 
know enough to write operas ? ' ' Certainly, ' was 
the reply. 'Then I want nothing more, for 
operas are all that I desire to write.' There 
was in this something of the practical wisdom 
which distinguished the Bossini of later life. 
Meantime it was necessary that he and his 
parents should live, and he therefore dropped 
counterpoint and returned to his old trade of 
accompanist, gave lessons, and conducted per- 
formances of chamber- music. He was even 
bold enough to lead an orchestra, and took the 
direction of the *Accademia del Concord! ' of 

Bologna. There is no reason to doubt that it 
was more by scoring the quartets and symphonies 
of Haydn and Mozart than by any lessons of 
Padre Mattel's that Bossini learned the secrets 
and the magic of the orchestra. His fame at 
the Liceo increased day by day, and at the end 
of his first year his cantata ' II Piauto d'armonia 
per la morte d'Orfeo* was not only rewarded 
with the prize, but was performed in public, 
August 8, 1808. He was then in his seventeenth 
year. The cantata was followed, not by a 
symphony, as is sometimes said, but by an 
overture in the fugued style, in imitation of that 
to ' Die Zauberflbte,' but so weak, that after 
hearing it played he lost no time in destroying 
it T£e same fate probably attended some 
pieces for double bass and strings, and a mass, 
both written at the instance of an amateur of 
the double bass. Rossini had hitherto been 
known at Bologna as 'il Tedeschino' — 'the 
little German ' — for his devotion to Mozart ; 
but such serious efforts as composing a mass, 
and conducting a work like Haydn's ' Seasons ' 
were probably intended as hints that he wished 
to be looked upon no longer as a scholar, but 
as a master waiting his opportunity for the 

It may be easier to enter on a career in Italy 
than elsewhere, but even there it is not without 
its difficulties. Rossini by his wit and gaiety 
had, in one of his tours, made a friend of the 
Marquis Cavalli, who had promised him his 
interest whenever it should be wanted. The 
time was now come to claim the fulfilment of the 
promise, and Rossini's delight may be imagined 
when he received an invitation to compose an 
opera, from the manager of the San Mos^ theatre 
at Venice. He hastened to prepare the piece, 
and ' La Cambiale di Matrimonio ' or the ' Matri- 
monial Market' was produced there in the 
autumn of 1810. The piece was an opera buffa 
in one act ; it was supported by Morandi, Ricci, 
De Grecis, and Raffanelli, and had a most en- 
couraging reception. After this feat he returned 
to Bologna, and there composed for Esther Mom- 
belli's benefit a cantata called ' Didone abban- 
donata.' In 1811 he wrote for the Teatro del 
Corso of Bologna an opera buffa in two acts, 
'L' Equivoco stravagante, ' which closed the season 
with success, and in which both he and Maroolini 
the contralto were highly applauded. 

' Demetrio e Polibio ' was brought out at the 
Teatro Valle, by his old friends the Mombellis, 
in 1 81 1. Early in 1 81 2 he produced, at the San 
Mos^ theatre, Venice, two bufFa operas — 
' L' Inganno felloe,' and ' L' Occasione fa il Ladro, 
ossia il Cambio della valigia. ' The first of these, 
a Farsa, a trifle in one act, was well sung and 
much applauded, especially an air of Galli's, 
* Una voce,' a duet for the two basses, and a 
trio full of force and original melody. After 
the Carnival he went to Ferrara, and there com- 
posed an oratorio, 'Ciro in Babilonia,' which 




was brought out during Lent, and proved a 
fiasco. [It was performed as * Cyrus in Babylon * 
at Drury Lane Theatre (Lent Oratorios), Jan. 
30, 1823, under Sir George Smart.] Another 
failure was * La Scala di Seta,' an opera buffa in 
one act, produced at Venice in the course of the 
spring. While the Mombellis were engaged on 
his serious opera; he flew off to Milan to fulfil 
an engagement which Marcolini had procured 
for him, by writing, for her, Galli, Bonoldi, and 
Parlamagni, a comic piece in two acts called 
'La Pietra del Paragone,' which was produced 
at the Scala during the autumn of 1812, with 
immense success. It was his first appearance 
at this renowned house, and the piece is under- 
lined in the list as * uiusica nuova di Gioacchino 
Kossini, di Femro,* The numbers most ap- 
plauded were a cavatina, 'Eoco pietosa,' a 
quartet in the second act, the. duel -trio, and a 
finale in which the word 'Sigillara' recurs 
continually with very comic effect. This finale 
is memorable as the first occasion of his employ- 
ing the crescendo^ which he was ultimately to 
use and abuse so copiously. Mosca has accused 
Rossini of having borrowed this famous effect 
from his ' Pretendenti delusi,' produced at the 
Scala the preceding autumn, forgetting that 
Mosca himself had learned it from Generali and 
other composers. Such accusations, however, 
were of little or no importance to Rossini, who 
had already made up his mind to adopt what- 
ever pleased him, wheresoever he might find it. 
In the meantime he took advantage of his 
success to pass a few days at Bologna with his 
parents, en route for Venice ; and thus ended 
the year 1812, in which he had produced no 
less than six pieces for the theatre. 

Nor was 1813 less prolific. It began with a 
terrible mystification. He had accepted a com- 
mission of 500 francs for a serious opera for the 
Grand Theatre at Venice, but the manager of 
San Mos^, furious at his desertion, in pursuance 
of some former agreement, forced on him a 
libretto for that theatre, * I due Bruschini, o il 
figlio per azzardo,' which, if treated as intended, 
would inevitably have been the deatli of the 
music. From this dilemma Rossini ingeniously 
extricated himself by reversing the situations, 
and introducing all kinds of tricks. The 
second violins mark each bar in the overture 
by a stroke of the bow on the lamp shade ; 
the bass sings at the top of his register and the 
soprano at the bottom of hers ; a flineral march 
intrudes itself into one of the most comical 
scenes ; and in the finale the words ' son pentito* 
are so arranged that nothing is heard but ' tito, 
tito, tito.' Those of the audience who had been 
taken into the secret were in roars of laughter, 
but the strangers who had paid for their places 
in good faith, were naturally annoyed, and 
hissed loudly. But no complaints were of any 
avail with Rossini, he only laughed at the 
success of his joke. *I due Bruschini' dis- 

appeared after the first night, and the remem- 
brance of it was very shortly wiped out by the 
appearance of * Tancredi * at the Fenice during 
the Carnival. The characters were taken by 
Manfredini, Malanotte, Todran, and Bianchi. 
A work so important and so full of spirit, 
effect, and melody, was naturally received ^nth 
enthusiasm, and nobody had time to notice 
various plagiarisms from Paisiello and Paer. It 
was in fact the first step in the revolution which 
Rossini was destined to effect in Italian opera. 
All Venice, and very soon all Italy, was singing 
or humming * Mi rivedrai, ti rivedr6.* Hardly 
any one now remembers that it is only to the 
happy accident that Malanotte was dissatisfied 
with her air, and insisted on its being rewritten, 
that we owe the * Di tanti palpiti,' which was 
nicknamed the *aria de' rizzi,' because it was 
said to have been dashed off while waiting for 
a dish of rice. One must read the accounts of 
the day to understand the madness — for it was 
nothing else — which * Tancredi ' excited among 
the Venetians. ' I fancied,' said Rossini, with 
his usiml gaiety, * that after hearing my opera 
they would put me into a mswl-house — on the 
contrary, they were madder than I.' 

Henceforward he was as much feted for his 
social qualities as for his music. But he did not 
give way to such dissipations for long. His 
next work was * L' Italiana in Algeri,' an o]x;ra 
buffa produced at the San Benedetto theatre, 
Venice, in the summer of 1813. Its greatest 
novelty was the famous trio 'Papataci,' a charm- 
ing union of melody and genuine comedy ; 
while the patriotic air, * Peusa alia Patria,* 
which closes the work, spoke not less powerfully 
to the hearts of his countrymen. 

' Aureliano in Palmira ', and ' II Turco in 
I talia ' were both brought out at the Scala, Milan, 
the first in Dec. 1813, the second in August 
1814, before an audience somewhat more critical 
than that at Venice. 'Aureliano,' tliough it 
contains some fine things, which were afterwanls 
utilised in ' filisabetta ' and the ' Barbiere,' was 
a fiasco. The ' Turco,* too, was not received with 
the applause which it afterwards commanded. 
Rossini, however, was greatly fSted during his 
stay in Milan, and among his ' amiable protec- 
tresses ' — to use the expression of Stendhal — 
was the Princess Belgiojoso, for whom he com- 
posed a cantata entitled ' Egle ed Irene.' His 
next opera, * Sigismondo,* written for the Fenice 
at Venice, in the Carnival of 1815, was unsuc- 
cessful, and the failure so far affected him as to 
make him give up work for a time, and retira 
to his home at Bologna. There he encountered 
Barbaja, who from being a waiter at a coffee- 
house had become the farmer of the public 
gaming-tables and impresario of the Naples 
theatre. Barbaja, though rich, was still bent 
on making money ; he had heard of the success 
of the young composer, and of his brilliant 
talents, and was resolved to get hold of him ; 




and Roaaini, with the support of his parents on 
his hands, was ready enough to listen to any 
good proposal He accordingly engaged with 
Barfaaja to take the musical direction of the 
San CWlo and Del Fondo theatres at Naples, 
and to compose annually an opera for each. 
For this he was to receive 200 ducats (ahout 
£35) per month, with a small share in the 
gaming-tables, amounting in addition to some 
1000 ducats per annum, for which, however, 
he obtained no compensation after the tables 
were abolished in 1820. 

Doring Murat's visit to Bologna in April 
1S15 Rossini composed a cantata in favour of 
Italian independence ; but politics were not his 
line, and he arrived in Naples fully conscious 
of this, and resolved that nothing should induce 
him to repeat the experimentw The arrival of 
a young composer with so great a reputation 
for originality was not altogether pleasing to 
Ziogarelli, the chief of the Conservatorio, or to 
the aged Faisiello. But no intrigues could 
]>revent the brilliant success of 'Elisabetta, 
reginad* Inghilterra,' which was produced before 
the Gonrt for the opening of the autumn season, 
1815, and in which Mile. Colbran, Dardanelli, 
Manuel Garcia, and Nozzari took the principal 
parts. The libretto of this opera was by a 
certain Schmidt, and it is a curious fact that 
some of its incidents anticipate those of * Kenil- 
worth,' which was not published till January 
1821. Two historical facts should be noted in 
regard to ' EUsabetta.' It is the first opera in 
wliich Rossini so (ar distrusted his singers as to 
write in the ornaments of the airs ; and it is 
also the first in which he replaced the reeUcUivo 
iecco by a recitative accompanied by the string 
quartet. The overture and the finale to the 
first act of * Elisabetta ' are taken from ' Aure- 

Shortly before Christmas Rossini left Naples 
for Rome to write and bring out two works for 
which he was under engagement. The first of 
these, 'Torvaldo e Dorliska,' produced at the 
TeatroValle, Dec. 26, 1815, was coldly received, 
but the second, * Almaviva, oesia 1' inutile pre- 
caaaone,' founded on Beaumarchais' ' Barbier 
de Seville,' by Sterbini, which made its first 
appearance at the Argentina, Feb. 5, 1816, was 
unmistakably damned. The cause of this was 
the predilection of the Romans for Paisiello, and 
their determination to make an example of an 
innovator who had dared to reset a libretto 
already treated by their old favourite. Rossini , 
with excellent taste and feeling, had inquired of 
Paisiello, before adopting the subject, whether 
doing so would annoy the veteran, whose * Bar- 
biere ' had been for a quarter of a century the 
favourite of Europe, and not unnaturally believed 
that after this step he was secure from the ill- 
will of Paisiello^s friends and admirers.^ But 

■ We ])•*• BoMlDl'a own avilKnity for this, and for the opent 
ha-vinc IweD vrltten In thirinen daya. In hla letter toM. Bcitlvaux. 
i<o- Mtuteal W«rld, Not. «. 1875, p. 761. 

the verdict of a theatre crammed with partisans 
is seldom just. It is also as changeable as the 
winds, or as Fortune hei*self. Though hissed 
on the first night, ' Almaviva ' was listened to 
with patience on the second, advanced in favour 
night by night, and ended by becoming, under 
the title of * II Barbiere di Siviglia,' one of the 
most popular comic operas ever composed, and 
actually eclipsing in spirit and wit the comedy 
on which it is founded. It was acted by Giorgi- 
Righetti (Rosina), Rossi (Berta), Zamboni 
(Figaro), Garcia (Almaviva), Botticelli (Bartolo) 
and Vitarelli (Basilio). The original overture 
was lost, and the present one belongs to ^Elisa- 
betta ' ; the opening of the cavatina * Ecco 
ridente ' is borrowed from the opening of the 
first chorus in * Aureliano.' The air of Berta, 

* II vecchietto cerca moglie,' was suggested by a 
Russian tune, and the eight opening bars of the 
trio * Zitti, zitti ' are notoriously taken note for 
note from Simon's air in Haydn's * Seasons.' 
Indeed it is astonishing that, with his extra- 
ordinary memory, his carelessness, and his 
habitual hurry, Rossini should not have boiTOwed 
oftener than he did. He received 400 scudi 
(£80) for the * Barbiere,' and it was composed 
and mounted in a month. When some one told 
Donizetti that it had been written in thirteen 
days, * Very possible,' was his answer, * lie is so 

Lazy as he was, Rossini was destined to wi-ite 
twenty operas in eight years, 1815-23. On 
his return to Naples after the Carnival of 1816, 
and the gradual success of the * Barbiere,' he 
found the San Carlo theatre in ashes. Barbaja 
undertook to rebuild it more magnificently than 
before in nine months. He kept his word, and 
thus acquired not only the protection but the 
favour of the king. Rossini obtained the same 
boon by composing a grand cantata entitled ' Teti 
e Peleo* for the marriage of the Duchesse de 
Berry. No sooner had he completed this than 
he dashed off a two-act comic opera entitled ' La 
Gazzetta * to a libretto by Tottola, which was 
produced at the Teatro dei Fiorentini, Naples, 
and which, although in the hands of a clever 
and charming actress like Chambrand, and of 
two such public favourites as Pellegrini and 
Casaccia, was but moderately successful. Rossini 
completed his reform of serious opera by his 

* Otello,' which was brought out at the Teatro 
del Fondo, Naples, Dec. 4, 1816, with Isabella 
Colbran, Nozzari, Davide, Cicimarra, and Bene- 
detti as its interpreters. Some of the most 
remarkable features of this work, such as the 
finale of the first act, the duet * Non m'inganno,' 
and the passionate trio of defiance, were not at 
first appreciated : the touchingair of Desdemona, 

* Se il padre,' and the romance of the Willow, 
with harp accompaniment, were better received ; 
but the tragic termination of the whole was 
very distasteful to the public, and when the 
opera was taken to Rome, it was found necessary 




to invent a happy conclusion, a fact which 
throws a curious light on the dramatic taste 
of the period. 

The machinery, and power of rapidly changing 
the scenes, were at that time so very imperfect 
in smaller Italian theatres, that Rossini would 
only accept the subject of Cinderella when 
proposed to him by the manager of the Teatro 
Valle at Rome, on condition that the super- 
natural element was entirely omitted. A new 
comic piece was therefore written by Ferretti 
under the title of * Oenerentola, ossia la bontk 
in trionfo ' ; Rossini undertook it, and it was 
produced at the Carnival of 1817. Its success 
was unmistakable, though the cast was by no 
means extraordinary — Giorgi, Catarina, Rossi, 
Guglielmi, De Beguis, Verni, and Vitarelli. 

In the profusion and charm of its ideas this 
delicious work is probably equal to the ' Bar- 
biere,' but it is inferior in unity of style. No 
doubt tliis is partly owing to the fact that 
many of the pieces were originally composed to 
other words than those to which they are now 
sung. The duet * Un soave non s6 che,* the 
drinking-chorns, and the mock proclamation of 
the Baron, are all borrowed from *La Pietra 
del Paragone ' ; the air ' Miei rampolli ' is from 
' La Oazzetta/ where it was inspired by the 
words • Una prima ballerina * ; the air of Ramiro 
recalls that to * Ah ! vieni * in the trio in 
* Otello ' ; the delightful stretto of the finale, 
the duct ' Zitto, zitto,' the sestet * Quest' h un 
nodo avvilupato,' and various other incidental 
passages originally belonged to the 'Turco in 
Italia' ; and the humorous duet ^Unsegreto' 
is evidently modelled on that in Cimarosa's 
' Matrimonio.' Such repetitions answered their 
purpose at the moment, but while thus ex- 
temporising his operas Rossini forgot that a 
day would arrive when they would all be pub- 
lished, and when such discoveries as those we 
have mentioned, and as the existence of the 
principal motif of the duet of the letter in 
' Otello ' in the agitato of an air from * Torvaldo 
e Dorliska,' would inevitably be made. As he 
himself confessed in a letter about this time, 
he thought he had a perfect right to rescue any 
of his earlier airs from operas which had either 
failed at the time or become forgotten since. 
Whatever force there may be in this defence, 
the fact remains that ' Cenerentola ' and the 
' Barbiere ' share between them the glory of 
being Rossini's chefs d'asuvre in comic opera. 

From Rome he wont to Milan, to enjoy the 
triumph of the *Gazza ladra* — libretto by 
Gherardini, — which was brought out on May 31 , 
1817, at the Scala. The Milanese found no 
difference between the really fine parts of the 
opera and those which are mere padding — of 
which the 'Gazza ladra' has several. Nor 
would any one have noticed, even had they 
had the necessary knowledge, that in the first 
duet and the finale — as was the case also in the 

finale to the * Oenerentola ' — Rossinihad borrowed 
an effect from the Poco cuUtffio of Mozart's Sym- 
phony in (Kochel, p. 425) by maintaining a- 
sustained accompaniment in the wind while the 
strings and the voices carry on the ideas and 
the ornaments. 

From Milan he returned to Naples, and pro- 
duced ' Armida ' during the autumn season, a 
grand opera in three acts, with ballet, which 
was mounted with great splendour, and enjoyed 
the advantage of very good singers. The duet 
* Amor, possente Nume 1 ' — which was soon to 
be sung through the length and breadth of Italy, 
the air *Non soffiro V oifensa,' the 4ncantation 
scene, the chorus of demons, and the airs do 
ballet, would alone have been snflScient to excite 
the Neapolitans ; but these were not the only 
pieces applauded, and the remarkable trio * In 
quale aspetto imbelle,' written for three tenors 
with extraordinary ease, a pretty chorus of 
women * Qui tutto ^ calma,' and a scena with 
chorus 'Germane a te richiede' — afterwards 
employed in the French version of * Moise ' — all 
deserve mention. 

This fine work had hardly made its appear- 
ance before Rossini had to dash off two more — 
'Adelaide di Borgogna,' sometimes known as 
*Ottone B.k d' Italia,' and an oratorio—* Mos^ 
In Egitto.' 'Adelaide' was produced at the 
Argentina at Rome, in the Carnival of 1818, 
was well sung and warmly received. * Mos^ ' 
was written for the San Carlo at Naples, and 
brought out there in Lent with an excellent 
cast — Isabella Colbran, Benedetti, Porto, and 
Nozzari. Here for the first time Rossini was 
so much pressed as to be compelled to call 
in assistance, and employed his old and 
tried friend Carafa in the recitatives and in 
Pharaoh's air 'Aspettar mi.'^ The scene of 
the darkness was another step onwards, and 
the whole work was much applauded, with the 
exception of the passage of the Red Sea, the 
representation of which was always laughed at, 
owing to the imperfection of the theatrical 
appliances already spoken of. At the re<nimp- 
tion of the piece, therefore, in the following 
Lent, Rossini added a chorus to divert attention 
from the wretched attempt to represent the 
dividing waves, and it is to the sins of the 
Neapolitan stage machinists that we owe the 
popular prayer ' Dal tuo stellate soglio.' 

As some relaxation after this serions effort 
he undertook, in the summer of 1818, a one- 
act piece ' Adina, o il Califfo di Bagdad,' for the 
San Carlos Theatre, Lisbon ; and immediately 
after, ' Ricciardo e Zoraide ' for San Carlo, 
Naples, which was sung to perfection at ths 
autumn season there by Isabella Colbran, 
Pisaroni (whose excessive plainness was no bat 
to her splendid singing), Nozzari, Davide, and 

' Ricciardo ' was extraordinarily fhll of orna- 

1 Omttifld In the ItMllan aoore pnbliahed fit Piurl*. 




ment, but 'Ermione,* which was produced at 
San Carlo in the Lent of 1819, went quite in 
the opposite direction, and affected an unusual 
plainness and severity. Though splendidly 
sang, ' Ermione ' did not please, and the single 
number applauded was the one air in which 
there was any ornamentation. So much for 
the taste of Naples in 1819 ! An equally x>oor 
reception was given to a cantata written for the 
re-establishment of the health of the King of 
Naples, and sung at the San Carlo, Feb. 20, 
1819. It consisted of a cavatina for Isabella 
Colbran, and an air with variations, which was 
afterwards utilised in the ballet of the * Viaggio 
a Reims. ' The piece was hastily thrown off, and 
was probably of no more value in the eyes of 
its aathor than was an opera called * Edoardo e 
Cristina' which was brought out at the San 
Benedetto, Venice, this same spring, and was 
in reality a mere pasticcio of pieces from 

* Ermione,' 'Riodardo,' and other operas, 
hitherto nnheard in Venice, attached to a 
libretto imitated from Scribe. Fortunately the 
oiiera pleased the audience, and sent Rossini 
back to Naples in good spirits, ready to com- 
|»09e a new cantata for the visit of the Emperor 
of Austria. The new work was performed on 
May 9, 1819, at the San Carlo, and was simg 
by Colbran, Davide, and Rubini, to the accom- 
paniment of a military band. This Rossini 

•probably accepted as a useful experience for his 
next new opeia, the 'Donna del Lago,' in the 
march of which we hear the results of his 
experiments in writing for a wind band. Even 
at the present day the first act of the opera ia 
well worthy of admiration, and yet the evening 
of Oct. 4, 1819, when it was first given, with 
the magnificent cast of Colbran, Pisaroni, 
Nozzari, Davide, and Benedetti, was simply one 
long torture of disappointment to the composer, 
who was possibly not aware that the storm of 
disapprobBition was directed not against him 
so much as against Barbuda the manager, and 
Colbran his favourite. 

On the following evening the hisses became 
braro^, but of this Rossini knew nothing, as by 
that time he was on his road to Milan. The 
Scala opened on Dec 26, 1819, for the Carnival 
aeaaon with 'Bianca e Faliero,' libretto by 
Romani, which was admirably sung by Cam- 
porese and others. No trace of it, however, 
now remains except a duet and quartet, which 
were afterwards introduced in the * Donna del 
Lago,' and became very popular at concerts. 

His engagement at Milan over, he hurried 
Ijack to Naples, to produce the opera of 

* Maometto secondo,' before the close of the 
Carnival. It had been composed in great haste, 
but was admirably interpreted by Colbran, 
Chanmel (afterwards Madame Rubini), Nozzari, 
Cicimarra, Benedetti, and F. Galli, whose 
Maometto was a splendid success. It was the 
l»t opera tliat Rossini was destined to give at 

I Naples before the revolt of July 20, 1820, of the 
I Carbonari, under Pepe, which obliged the King 
I to abandon his capital, mined Barbaja by 
depriving him at once of a powerful i>atron 
and of the monopoly of the gambling-houses, 
and drove Rossini to make important changes 
in his life. Having for the moment no engage- 
ment for the Scala, he undertook to write 
' Matilda di Ciabrano ' (< Mathilde di Shabran ') 
for Rome. Torlonia the banker had bought 
the Teatro Tordinone, and was converting it 
into the Apollo ; and it was for the inauguration 
of this splendid new house that Rossini's opera 
was intended. Tlie opening took place on the 
first night of the Carnival of 1821. The 
company, though laige, contained no first-rate 
artists, and Rossini was therefore especially 
careful of the enstmble pieces. The first night 
was stormy, but Rossini's friends were in the 
ascendancy, Paganiui conducted in splendid 
style, and the result was a distinct success. 

On his return to Naples, Rossini learned 
from Barbaja his intention of visiting Austria, 
and taking his company of singers to Vienna. 
Rossini's next opera, *Zelmira,' was tlierefoi-e 
to be submitted to a more critical audience than 
those of Italy, and with this in view he applied 
himself to make the recitatives interesting, tho 
harmonies full and varied, and the accompani- 
ments expressive and full of colour, and to 
throw as much variety as possible into the form 
of the movements. He produced the opera at 
the San Carlo before leaving, in the middle of 
December 1821. It was sung by Colbran, 
Cecconi, Davide, Nozzari, Ambrosi, and Bene- 
detti, and was enthusiastically received. On 
the 27th of the same month, he took his benefit,, 
for which he had composed a special cantata 
entitled ' La Riconoscenza - ; and the day after 
left for the North. He was accompanied by 
Isabella Colbran, with whom he had been in love 
for years, whose influence over him had been so 
great as to make him forsake comedy for tragedy, 
and to whom he was married on his arrival at 
Bologna. The wedding took place in the chapel 
of the Archbishop's palace, and was celebrated 
by Cardinal Opizzoni. Rossini has been accused 
of marrying for money, and it is certain that 
Colbran had a villa and j£500 a year of her 
own, that she was seven yeara older than her 
husband, and that her reputation as a singer 
was on the decline. 

After a month's holiday, the couple started 
for Vienna, where they arrived about the end 
of February 1822. He seems to have made 
his d^but before the Vienna public on March 30, 
as the conductor of his 'Cenerentola,' in the 
German version, as 'Aschenbrbdel,' and his 
tempi were found somewhat too fast for tlie 
* heavy German language. ' * Zelmira ' was given 
at the Kamthnerthor opera-house on April 1 .3, 
with a success equal to that which it obtainefi 
at Naples. Rossini was not without violent 




opponents in Vienna, but they gave him no 
anxiety, friends and enemies alike were received 
with a smile, and his only I'otort was a good- 
humoured joke. He is said to have visited 
Beethoven, and to have been much distressed 
by the condition in which he found the great 
master. The impression which he made on the 
Viennese may be gathered from a paragraph in 
the Leipzig AUgemeine musik. Zeitinig^ of the 
day, in which he is described as * highly accom- 
plished, of agreeable manners and pleasant 
appearance, full of wit and fun, cheerful, oblig- 
ing, courteous, and most accessible. He is 
much in society, and charms every one by his 
simple, unassuming style.' After the dose of 
the Vienna season, the Rossinis returned to 
Bologna, where his parents had resided since 
1798. There, at the end of September, he 
received a flattering invitation from Prince 
Mettemich, entreating him to come to Verona, 
and he accordingly arrived at the Congress in 
time for its opening, Oct. 20, 1822. Rossini's 
contribution to the Congress was a series of 
cantatas, which he poured forth without stint 
or difficulty. The best known of these is * II 
vero Omaggio * ; others are * L' Augurio felice,' 
' La sacra AUeanza,' and * II Bardo.' 

The Congress at an end, he began to work at 
'Semiramide,' which was brought out at the 
Fenice, Venice, Feb. 8, 1828, with Madame 
Rossini, the two Marianis, Galli, and Sinclair 
the English tenor, for whom there were two 
airs. The opera was probably wiitten with 
more care than any of those which had preceded 
it ; and possibly for this very reason was some- 
what coldly received. The subject no doubt 
.would seem sombre to the gay Venetians, and 
they even omitted to applaud the fine quartet 
(which Verdi must surely have had in his mind 
when writing the Miserere in the * Trovatore '), 
the finale, and the appearance of Ninus, the 
final trio, at once so short and so dramatic, the 
cavatina with chorus, and all the other new, 
bold, bright passages of that remarkable work. 
Rossini was not unnaturally much disappointed 
at the result of his labour and genius, and re- 
solved to write no more for the theatres of his 
native country. The resolution was hardly 
formed when he received a visit from the 
manager of the King's Theatre, London (Sigi*. 
Benelli), and a proposal to write an opera for 
that house, to be called ' La Figlia dell' aria,' 
for the sum of £240 — £40 more than he had 
received for ' Semiramide, ' a sum at the time 
considered enormous. The offer was promptly 
accepted, and the Rossinis started for England 
without delay, naturally taking Paris in their 
road, and reaching it Nov. 9, 1823. Paris, like 
Vienna, was then divided into two hostile camjis 
on the subject of the great composer. Berton 
always spoke of him as 'M. Crescendo,' and 
he was caricatured on the stage as * M. Vacar- 

I Mar 8. 1829. raporiinf ttic early p*rt of March. 

mini' ; but the author of the * Barbiere ' coald 
afibrd to laugh at such satire, and his respectful 
behaviour to Cherubini, Lesueur, and Reicha, 
as the heads of the Conservatoire, his graceful 
reception of the leaders of the French School, 
his imperturbable good temper and good spirits, 
soon conciliated every one. A serenade, a public 
banquet, triumphant receptions at the opera- 
house, a special vaudeville (' Rossini h Paris, ou 
le Grand Diner') — eveiything in short that 
could soothe the pride of a stranger was lavished 
upon him from the first He in his turn was 
always kind and amiable, consenting, for instance, 
at the request of Panseron — an old colleague at 
Rome — to act as accompanist at a concert witli 
the object of saving Panseron's brother from 
the conscription. Under the hands of Rossini 
the piano became as effective as an orchestra ; 
and it is on record that the first time that 
Auber heard him accompany himself in a song 
he walked up to the instrument and bent down 
over the keys to see if they were not smoking. 
Paris, however, was not at present his ultimate 
goal, and on Dec. 13, 1823, Rossini and his 
wife arrived in London. They were visited 
immediately by the Russian ambassador, M. de 
I Lieven, who gave the composer barely time to 
I recover from the fatigues of the journey before 
I he carried him off to Brighton and presented 
him to the King. George IV. believed himself 
to be fond of music, and received the author of' 
the * Barbiere * in the most flattering manner. 
'Zelmira' wsEs brought out at the Opera on 
Jan. 24, 1824 ; and the royal favour naturally 
brought with it that of the aristocracy, and a 
solid result in the shape of two grand concert-s 
at Almack's, at two guineas admission. The 
singers on these occasions were Mme. Rossini, 
Mme. Catalani, "Mme, Pasta, and other first-rate 
artists, but the novelty, the attraction, was to 
hear Rossini himself sing the solos ' in a cantata 
(or * ottavino ') which he had composed for the 
occasion, under the title of * II Pianto delle 
Muse in Morte di Lord Byron.' He also took 
part with Catalani in a duet from Cimarosa's 
' Matrimonio ' whidi was so successful as to be 
encored three times. He appeared at the so- 
called ' Cambridge Festival ' again with Catalani, 
in July 1824. The opera manager was unable 
to finish the season, and became bankrupt before 
discharging his engagements with Rossini. Nor 
was this all. Not only did he not produce the 
* Figlia deir aria,' but the music of the first act 
unaccountably vanished, and has never since 
been found. It was in vain for Rossini to sue 
the manager ; ho failed to obtain either his MS. 
or a single penny of the advantages guarantee*! 
to him by the contract * True, he enjoyed a 
considerable set-off to the loss just mentioned 
in the profits of the countless soirees at which 
he acted as accompanist at a fee of £50. At 

* Thla recall! the Tlrit of a great coinpoiMr In 1748, wh«n Gluck 
gave a ooDoert at the Klng'R Theatre, at which the great attraction 
wan his eolo od the miMinU glaiiMH ! [See vul. il. p. 1836.] 




the end of five months he found himself in 
possession of £7000 ; and just before his de- 
}>artare was honoured by receiving the marked 
c-omplimeuts of the king at a concert at the 
Duke of Wellington's, for which His Majesty 
had expressly come up from Brighton. [See 
MvHcnl Times, 1900, pp. 18 ff.] 

In leaving fhigland on July 26, after so hearty 
and proiitablea reception, Rossini was not taking 
a leap In the dark ; for through the Prince de 
PoUgnac, French ambassador in England, he 
had already concluded an agreement for the 
musical direction of the Th^&tre Italien, 
Paris, for eighteen months at a salary of 
£800 per annum. In order to be near his 
work he took a lodging at No. 28 Rue Tait- 
bout, and at once set about getting younger 
singers for his company. Knowing that Paer 
was his enemy, and would take any oppor- 
tanitj of ii^juring him, he was careful to retain 
him in his old post of maestro al cembalo ; but 
at the same time he engaged Harold (then a 
Toung man of twenty-five) as chorus-master, 
and as a check on the pretensions of Madame 
Pasta he brought to Paris Esther Mombelli, 
Schiassetti, DonzeUi, and Rubini, successively. 
To those who sneered at his music he replied 
by playing it as it was written, and by bringing 
out some of his operas which had not yet made 
their appearance in Paris, such as * La Donna 
del Lago ' (Sept. 7, 1824), *Semiramide' (Dec. 8, 
1825), and ' Zelmira ' (March 14, 1826). And 
he gave much eclat to his direction by introduc- 
ing Meyerbeer's *Crociato' — the first work of 
Meyerbeer's heard in Paris — and by composing 
a new opera, * II Viaggio a Reims, ossia V Albergo 
del giglio d' oro,' which he produced on June 19, 
1825. during the f^tes at the coronation of 
Charles X. The new work is in one act, and 
three parts ; it is written for fourteen voices, 
which are treated with marvellous art. It was 
sung by Mmes. Pasta, Schiassetti, Mombelli, 
Cinti, Amigo, Dotti, and Rossi ; and by MM. 
LerasBeur, Zucchelli, Pellegrini, Graziani, Aul- 
etta, Donzelli, Bordogni, and Scudo — a truly 
magnificent assembli^. In the ballet he 
introduced an air with variations for two 
clarinets, borrowed from his Naples cantata of 
1819, and played by Oambaro (a passionate 
admirer of his) and by F. Berr. In the hunt- 
ing scene he brought in a delicious fanfare 
of horns, and the piece winds up with *God 
save the King,' * Vive Henri Quatre,' and other 
national airs, all newly harmonised and accom- 
panied. After the Revolution of 1848 the 
words were suitably modified by H. Dupin, 
and the piece appeared in two acts at the 
Theatre Italien as ' Andremo noi a Parigi,' on 
Oct 26 of that year. » 

After the expiration of Rossini's agreement 

I TteKcmof 'AndrcmoiMlaPurlgi'toiatheLibnuTof th«Oon- 
•arvfttolrtt. bat the final* of the * Viaoio.' whldi we hare mentioned 
•• ooateloing oatiotwl ain. it not there, and all tnMse of this oortooe 
feat Mnu to 1»T« raalnlMd. 

as director of tlie Th^ti'e Italien, it was a 
happy idea of the Intendant of the Civil List to 
confer upon him the sinecure {)osts of ' Premier 
Compositeur du Roi ' and * Inspecteur G^n^ral 
du Chant en France,' with an annual income of 
20,000 francs, possibly in the hope that he 
might settle permanently at Paris, and in time 
write operas expressly for the French stage. 
This was also an act of justice, since in the 
then absence of any law of international ^ copy- 
right his pieces were public property, and at 
the disposal not only of a translator like Castil- 
Blaze, but of any manager or publisher in the 
length and breadth of France who chose to 
avail himself of them. Fortunately the step 
was justified by the event. The opera of 
'.Maometto' — originally written by the Duke 
of Ventagnano, and produced at Naples in 1820 
— had never been heard in France. Rossini 
employed MM. Soumet and Balocchi to give 
the libretto a French dress ; he revised the 
music, and considerably extended it ; and on 
Oct. 9, 1826, the opera was produced at the 
Academic as ' Le Siege de Corinthe,' with a cast 
which included Nourrit and Mile. Cinti, and 
with great success. For the new opera Rossini 
received 6000 francs from Troupenas. 

After this feat Rossini turned to another of 
his earlier works, as not only sure of success but 
eminently suited to the vast space and splendid 
miss en ac^ne of the Grand Op^ra. This was 

* Mos^. ' He put the revision of the libretto into 
the hands of Etienne Jouy and Balocchi, and 
arranged for Cinti, Nourrit, and Levasseur to^ 
be in the cast. * Moi'se ' was produced March 25, 
1 827, and created a profound impression. True, 
it had been heard in its original form at the 
Italiens five years before, but the recollection of 
this only served to bring out more strongly the 
many improvements and additions in the new 
version — such as the Introduction to the fii-st 
act ; the quartet and chorus ; the chorus ' La. 
douce Aurore ' ; the march and chorus, etc. 
The airs de ballet were largely borrowed from 

* Armida' (1817) and * Giro in Babilonia' (1812). 
This magnificent work gave Rossini a sort of 
imperial position in Paris. But it was necessary 
to justify this, and he therefore resolved to try 
a t^rork of a different character, and according 
to the axiom of Boileau, to pass 

From grave to gay, from lively to severe — 
not in the direction of comic but of lyric opera. 
With this view he employed Scribe and Poirson 
to develop a vaudeville which they had written 
in 1816 to the old legend of 'Le Comte Cry,' 
adapting to that lively piece some of his 
favourite music in the ' Viaggio a Reims,' — the 
introduction and finale of the first act, the duet 
of the Count and Countess, and the famous 
narrative of Raimbaut when he brings up the 

t The ooatom in Italy in thoee dajra was to aell an opera to a 
manager for tvo yearB. with exclxuivo right of repreeentation ; after 
that it hecaine imbllo property. The only pemon who derived no - 
profit from thia arraogenient was the unfortonate composer. 




-wine from the cellar, which it is difficult to 
believe was in its tirst form applied to the 
taking of the Trocadero I Adolphe Nourrit, 
who was not only a great artist, but a poet of 
very considerable dramatic power, was privately 
■of much assistance to Rossini in the adaptation 
of his old music to the new words, and in the 
.actual mounting of the piece in which he was 
.to take so important a share; * Le Comte Cry ' 
was produced at the Academic, August 20, 1828, 
and the principal characters were taken by Mme. 
Damoreau-Cinti, Miles. Jawurek and Mori, 
Adolphe Nourrit, Levasseur, and Dabadie. The 
Introduction is based on the old song which 
gives its name to the piece. The best thing in 
the second act is borrowed from the Allegretto 
scherzando of Beethoven's Eighth Symphony. 
Rossini was at that time actually engaged Avith 
Habeneck, the foimder of the Concerts of the 
Conservatoire, and his intimate friend, in study- 
ing the Symphonies of Beethoven ; and it is 
easy to understand how impossible it must 
have been to forget the fresh and graceful 
movement referi-ed to. 

The study of Beethoven was at any rate not 
a bad pre}>aration for the very serious piece of 
work which was next to engage him, and for a 
great jiortion of which he retired to the chateau 
of his friend Aguado the banker at Petit- Bourg. 
Schiller had recently been brought into notice 
in Fiunce by the translation of M. de Barante ; 
and Rossini, partly attracted by the grandeur 
of the subject, partly inspired by the liberal 
ideas at that moment floating through Europe, 
was induced to choose the Liberator of the Swiss 
Cantons as his next subject. He accepted a 
libretto offered him by Etienne Jouy, Spontini's 
old librettist, who in this case was associated 
with Hipjwlyte Bis. Their words, however, 
were so unmusical and unrhythmical, that 
Rossini had recourse to Amiand Marrast, at 
that time Aguado's secretary, and the whole 
scene of the meeting of the conspirators — one 
of the best in operatic literature, and the only 
thoroughly satisfactory part of the book of 
' Guillaume Tell * — was rewritten by him, a fact 
which we are glad to make public in these 

This grand opera, undoubtedly Rossini's 
masterpiece, was produced at the Academic on 
August 3, 1829, with the following cast: — 
Arnold, Nourrit ; Walter Fiirst, Levasseur ; 
Tell, Dabadie ; Ruodi, A. Dupont ; Rodolphe, 
Massol ; Gessler, Prevost ; Leutold, Prev6t ; 
Mathilde, Damoreau-Cinti ; Jemmy, Dabadie ; 
Hedwige, Mori. 

'Tell' has now become a study for tlie 
nmsician, from the first bar of the overture to 
the storm scene and the final hymn of freedom. 
The overture is no longer, like Rossini's former 
ones, a piece of work on a familiar, well-worn 
l)attem, but a true instrumental prelude, which 
would be simply perfect if the opening and the 

fiery peroration were only as appropriate to the 
subject as they are tempting to the executant. 
We find no absurdities like those in ' Moise ' — 
no song of thanksgiving accompanied by a bril- 
liant polonaise, no more cabalettas, no more 
commonplace phrases or worn-out modulations — 
in shoit, no more padding of any kind. Time, 
it would not be difficult to criticise the length 
of the duet in the second act, which recalU the 
duet in *Semiramide,' and breathes rather tlie 
concert-room than the stage — or the style of the 
finale of the third act, which is not appropriate 
to the situation. 

The spectacle of a great master at the zenith 
of his glory and in tihe very prime of life thus 
breaking with all the traditions of his genius 
and appearing as in a second avatar is indeed a 
rare and noble one. The sacrifice of all the 
means of effect by which his early popularity 
had been obtained is one which Rossini shares 
with Gluck and Weber, but for which our former 
experience of his character would hardly have 
prepared us. He seems at length to have dis- 
covered how antagonistic such effects were to 
the simplicity which was really at the base of 
the great musical revolution effected by him ; 
but to discover, and to act on a discovery, are 
two different things, and he ought to have full 
credit for the courage and sincerity with which, 
at his age, he forsook the flowery plains in which 
his genius had fonnerly revelled, for loftier and 
less accessible heights. 

But the career thus splendidly inaugurated 
was not destined to be pursued ; circumstances, 
political and domestic, stopped him on the 
threshold. He was anxious to visit once more 
the city in which his beloved mother died in 
1827, and where his father, who luid soon tired 
of Paris, was awaiting him. With this view 
he resigned his office as inspector of singing in 
France, and made an arrangement with the 
Government of Charles X., dating from the 
beginning of 1829, by which he bound himself 
for ten years to compose for no other stage but 
that of France, and to write and bring out an 
opera every two years, receiving for each such 
opera the sum of 15,000 francs. In the event 
of the Government failing to carry out the 
arrangement he was to receive a retiring pension 
of 6000 francs. * Guillaunie Tell ' was thus to 
be the first of a series of five operas. 

After a serenade from the opera orchestra, 
Rossini, therefore, left Paris for Bologna. Here 
he was engaged in considering the subject of 
* Faust,' with a view to his next work, when he 
received the sudden news of the abdication of 
Charles X., and the revolution of July 1830. 
The blow shattered his plans and dissipated his 
fondest hopes. He flattered himself that ho had 
regenerated the art of singing in France. What 
would become of it again under a king who could 
tolerate no operas but those of Gr^try ? Anxious 
to know if his friend Lubbert was still at the 




head of the Academle de Musique, and if the 
new Intendant of the Civil List would acknow- 
ledge the engagements of his pi-edecessor, he 
returned to Paris in Nov. 1830 ; and intending 
only to make a short stay, took up his quarters 
in the upper storey of the Th^tre des Italiens, 
of which his friend Severlni was then director. 
Here, however, he was destined to remain till 
Nov. 1836. The new Government repudiated 
the agreement of its predecessor, and Rossini 
had to carry his clahn into the law-courts. 
Had his law-suit alone occupied him, it would 
not have heen necessary to stay quite so long, 
for it was decided in his favour in Dea 1885. 
But tJiere was another reason for his remaining 
in Paris, and that was his desire to hear * The 
Huguenots ' and ascertain how far Meyerbeer's 
star was likely to eclipse his own. It is impos- 
sible to believe that a mere money question 
could have detained him so long at a time when 
almost every day must have brought fresh an- 
noyances. After reducing ' Quillaume Tell ' from 
five acts to three, they carried their love of 
compression so far as to give only one act at a 
time, as a lever de rideau, or accompaniment to 
the ballet. This was indeed adding insult to . 
ix^nry. ' I hoiie you won't be annoyed,' said 
the Director of the Opera to him one day on 
the boulevard, * but to-night we play the second 
act of "TelL" ' *The whole of it I' was the reply. 
How much bitter disappointment must have 
been hidden under that reply ! During the 
whole of this unhappy interval he only once 
resumed his pen, namely in 1832 for the * Stabat 
Mater,' at the request of his friend Aguado, who 
was anxious tb serve the Spanish minister Seftor 
Valera. He composed at that time only the 
tint six numbers, and the other four were sup] >lied 
by Tadolini. The work was dedicated to Valera, 
with an expi*ess stipulation that it should never 
leave his hands. In 1 834 he allowed Troupenas 
to pablish the * Soirees musicales,' twelve lovely 
vo^ ]>ieces of very original form and harmony, 
i^evend of which have still retained their charm. 
The rehearsals of ' The Huguenots ' lingered 
on, and it was not till Feb. 29, 1836, that 
Rossini could hear the work of his new rival. 
He returned to Bologna shortly after, taking 
Frankfort in his way, and meetingMendelssohn. * 
He had not been long in Bologna before he heard 
of the prodigious success of Duprez in the revival 
of • Gidllaume Tell * (April 1 7). Such a triumph 
might well have nerved him to fresh exertions. 
But it came a year too late ; he had already 
taken an unfortunate and irrevocable resolution 
never again to break silence. It would be very 
wrong to conclude from this that he had lost 
his interest in music. The care which he be- 
stowed on the Liceo of Bologna, of which he 
was honorary director, shows that the art still 
exercised all its claims on him. He was especi- 
Sally anxioos to improve the singing of the pupils, 

1 See Hfllcr'a JfmkUUmku, and M.'s own letter, July 14. 1836. 

and among those who are indebted to liis care, 
Marietta Alboni held the first rank. 

Rossini's father died Apnl 29, 1839, and he 
soon afterwards learned to his disgust that the 
MS. of the * Stabat ' had been sold by the heirs 
of Sefior Valera, and acquired by a Paris 
publisher for 2000 francs. He at once gave 
Troupenas full jwwer to stop both publication 
and performance, and at the same time com- 
pleted the work by composing the last four 
movements, which, as we have already said, 
were originally added by Tadolini The first 
six movements were produced at the Salle Herz, 
Paris, Oct 31, 1841, amidst very gi'eat applause. 
Troupenas* bought the entire score for 6000 
francs. He sold the right of performance in 
Paris during three months to the Escudiers for 
8000, which they again disposed of to the 
director of the Theatre Italien for 20,000. 
Thus three persons were enriched by this single 
work. It was performed complete for the first 
time at the Salle Ventadour, Jan. 7, 1842, by 
Giisi, Albertazzi, Mario, and Taniburini. 

Notwithstanding its brilliant success, some 
critics were found to accuse the com|)08er of 
importing the sti-ains of the theatre into the 
church ; but it must not be forgotten that 
religion in the South is a very different thing 
from what it is in the North. Mysticism could 
have no place in the mind of such a man as 
Rossini, who would naturally utter his prayers 
aloud, in the sunshine of noon, mther than 
breathe them to himself in the gloom and 
mystery of night. The prayer and the scene 
of the darkness in 'Moise,' as well as the first 
movement and the unaccompanied quartet in 
the * Stabat,' will always hold their place as 
religious music ; and are of themselves sufficient 
to show that Rossini, sceptic as he was, was 
not without religious feeling. 

But at the very moment that the * Stabat ' 
was making its triumphant progi-css round the 
world, Rossini began to suffer toi-tures from the 
stone, which increased to such an extent as to 
force him, in May 1843, to Paris, where he 
imderwent an operation which proved jierfectly 
satisfactory. We next find him writing a chonis 
to words byMarchetti for the anniversary festival 
of Tasso at Turin, on March 13, 1844. On the 
2nd of the following September * Othello ' was 
produced in French at the Academic with Duprez, 
Ban-oilhet, Levasseur, and Mme. Stoltz. Ros- 
sini, however, had nothing to do with this adap- 
tation, and the divertissement was arranged 
entirely by Benoist from airs in ' Mathilde de 
Sabran' and *Amiida.' While * Othello' was 
thus on the boards of the opera, Troupenas 
brought out * La Foi, I'Esperance et la Charity ' 
(Faith, Hope, and Charity), three choruses for 
women's voices, the firat two composed many 
years previously for an opera on the subject of 

•i We have ineiitinued that h« paid 6000 fnuico for the ' 8i^« de 
Coriiithe.' For ' MoTw ' he gnve only '2400 : but. on the othw hiuid, 
the ' Cointe Orj ' vnnt him 12.U00, and ' Guillaunii' Tell ' 24.000. 




(Edipus, These choruses are hardly worthy of 
Kossini. They justify Berlioz's sarcasm — * his 
Hope has deceived ours ; his Faith will never 
remove mountains ; his Charity will never ruin 
him. ' It is fair to say that Louis Engel, in his 
book From Mozart to Mario, states that Rossini 
repudiated them. Troupenas also brought out 
a few songs hitherto unpublished, and these 
reattracted the attention of the public in some 
degree to the great composer. His statue was 
executed in marble ^ by Etex, and was inaugurated 
at the Academic de Musique, June 9, 1 846. A 
few months later (Dec. 30), by his permission, 
a pasticcio adapted by Nieidermeyer to portions 
of the 'Donna del Lago, ' ' Zelmira, ' and ' Armida, ' 
and entitled 'Robert Bruce,' was put on the 
stage of the Op^ra, but it was not successful, 
and Mme. Stoltz was even hissed. From his 
seclusion at Bologna Rossini kept a watchful 
eye upon the movements of the musical world. 
It would be interesting to know if he regretted 
having authorised the manufacture of this 
pasticcio. If we may judge from the very great 
difficulty with which, some time later, M6ry ob- 
tained his permission to translate and produce 
' Semiramide, ' he did. It is certain that during 
his long residence at Bologna he only broke his 
vow of silence for the * Inno popolare a Ro IX.' 
The commencement of this was adapted to an 
air from ' La Donna del Lago,' and its perora- 
tion was borrowed from 'Robert Bruce,' which 
gives ground for supposing that he himself was 
concerned in the arrangement of that opera, 
and explains his annoyance at its failure. 

The political disturbances which agitated the 
Romagna at the end of 1847 compelled Rossini 
to leave Bologna. He quitted the town in much 
irritation. After the death of his wife (Oct. 7, 
1845), he married (in 1847) Oljrmpe Pelissier, 
with whom he had become connected in Paris at 
a time when she was greatly in public favour, 
and when she sat to Vemet for his picture of 
'Judith and Holofemes.' In fact at this time 
the great musician had to a great extent dis- 
appeared in the voluptuary. From Bologna he 
removed to Florence, and there it was that this 
writer visited him in 1852. He lived in the 
Via Larga, in a house which bore upon its front 
the words Ad votum. In the course of a long 
conversation he spoke of his works with no 
pretended indifference, but as being well aware 
of their worth, and knowing the force and scope 
of his genius better than any one else. He 
made no secret of his dislike to the violent 
antivocal element in modem' music, or of the 
pleasure he would feel when 'the Jews had 
finished their Sabbath.' It was also evident 
that he had no affection for the capital of 
Tuscany, the climate of which did not suit him. 

At length, in 1855, he crossed the Alps and 
returned to Paris, never again to leave it. His 

I It ntfireiieDted him Mated in an flMT attlfcnde. ItwMdMtroyed 
wlMn the opara-hooM was burnt down in 187S. 

reception there went far to calm the nervous 
irritability that had tormented him at Florence, 
and with the homage which he received from 
Auber and the rest of the French artists his 
health returned. His house. No. 2 in the Rue 
Chauss^ d'Antin, and, at a later date, his yilla 
at Passy, were crowded by the moat illustrioas 
representatives of literature and art, to such an 
extent that even during his lifetime he seemed 
to assist at his own apotheosis. Was it then mere 
idleness which made him thus bury himself in 
the Capua of his past successes ? No one who, 
like the present writer, observed him coolly, 
could be taken in by the comedy of indifference 
and modesty that it pleased him to keep up. 
We have already said that, after Meyerbeer's 
great success, Rossini had taken the resolution 
of >vriting no more for the Academic de Musique 
and keeping silence. 

The latter part of this resolution he did not, 
however, fully maintain. Thus he authorised 
the production of 'Bruschino' at the Bonffes 
Parisiens on Dec. 28, 1857, though he would not 
be present at the first representation. * I have 
given my permission,' said he, ' but do not ask 
me to be an accomplice.' The discovery of the 
piece — which is nothing else but his early farce 
of 'II figlio per azzardo' (Venice, 1818) — was 
due to Prince Poniatowski, and some clever 
librettist was found to adapt it to the French 
taste. A year or two later M^ry with difficulty- 
obtained his permission to transform 'Semi- 
ramide' into 'S^miramis,' and the opera in its 
new garb was produced at the Academic, July 9, 
1860, with Garlotta Marchisio as Semiramis, 
her sister Barbara as Arsace, and Obin as Assur. 
In this transformation Rossini took no ostensible 
part. Garafa at his request arranged the reci- 
tatives, and wrote the ballet music. These were 
mere revivals. Not so the sacred work which 
he brought out at tlio house of M. Pillet-Will 
the banker on March 14, 1864, and at the re- 
hearsals of which he presided in person. We 
allude to the 'Petite messe solennelle,' which 
though so called with a touch of Rossinian 
pleasantry is a mass of full dimensions, lasting 
nearly two hours in performance. Rossini had 
always been on good terms with the bankers of 
Paris, and after Rothschild and Aguado he be- 
came very intimate with the Count Pillet-Will 
(1781-1860), a rich amateur, passionately fond 
of music, who had learned the yioUn from 
Baillot, and amused himself with composing 
little pieces for that instrument. His son, more 
retiring but not less enthusiastic than his fiither, 
had always been one of Rossini's most devoted 
admirers, and on the occasion of the inauguration 
of his magnificent house in the Rue Monoey, 
it was a happy thought of the composer to allow 
his ' Petite messe solennelle ' to be heard there 
for the first time. This important oompoeition, 
comprising solos and choruses, was written with 
the aocompaniment of a harmonium and two 




pianos. On this occasion it was sung by the two 
MarchisioB, Oardoni, and Agnesi, and was much 
applauded. Rossini afterwards scored it with 
slight alterations for the full orchestra — perhaps 
a little heavily — and in this shape it was per- 
formed for the first time in public at the Theatre 
Italien, on the evening of Sunday Feb. 28, 1869, 
on the seventy-eighth anniversary of the com- 
poser's birth as nearly as that could be, seeing 
that he was bom in a leap year, on Feb. 29. 

In the last years of his life Rossini affected 
the piano, spoke of himself as a fourth-rate 
pianist, and composed little else but pianoforte 
pieces. Most of these were in some sense or 
other Jenx d*e9prit ; some were inscribed to his 
parrot, or had the most fanciful titles — ' Valse 
anti'dansante,' 'Fausse couche de Polka- ma- 
zurka,' '^tnde asthmatique,' '^hantillon de 
blague,' etc. The whole were arranged in cases 
with snch quaint names as ' Album oUa podrida, ' 
* Lea quatre mendiants,' * Quatre hors-d'oeuvre,* 
'Album de Ch&teau,' * Album de Chaumi^re,' 
etc. For the Exposition universelle of 1867, 
however, he wrote a Cantata, which was per- 
formed for the first time at the ceremony of 
awarding the prizes on July 1, and was also 
executed at the Opera at the free performances 
OD August 15, 1867 and 1868. It opens with a 
hymn in a broad style, in which the author of 
' Semiramis ' and * Moise ' is quite recognisable, 
but winds up with a vulgar quick -step on a 
vioi^ not unlike the country dance kno^vn as 
' L' Ostendaise.' The title, which we give from 
the autograph, seems to show that the son of the 
jolly ' trombadore ' of Pesaro was quite aware of 
the character of the finale of his last work. 

A NapoltoD III. 


i son TBillabt Peuple. 


aree aeeompagnement d'orchestre et muBique militaire 

poor baiyton (soloX nn Pontife, 

choenr de Grands Praties 

chcBor de YlTandi^ies, de Soidats, et de Peuple. 


Daiue, Clochw, Tambours et Canons. 

E du peu ! ! 

The final touch is quite enough to show that 
Rossiiii to the last had more gaiety than pro- 
priety, more wit than dignity, more love of 
independence than good taste. He preferred the 
society of artists to any other, and was never so 
happy as when giving free scope to his caustic 
wit or his Rabelaisian humour. His bona mots 
were abundant, and it is surprising that no one 
has yet attempted to collect them. One or two 
may find place here. One day, in a fit of the 
spleen, he cried out, * I am miserable ; my nerves 
are wrong, and every one offers me string in- 
stead. * D'Ortigue, the author of the Didionnaire 
liturgique, had been very severe on him in 
an article in the Corretpondant on 'Musical 

royalties,' and an enthusiastic admirer of the 
Italian School having replied somewhat angrily, 
Rossini wrote to him, ' I am much obliged to 
you for your vigorous treatment (lavemeTit) of 
the tonsure of my Mend the Cur^ d'Ortigue.' 
A number of friends were disputing as to which 
was his best opera, and appealed to him. ' You 
want to know which of my works I like best? 
" Don Giovanni " ! * He took extreme delight 
in his summer villa at Passy, which stood in the 
Avenue Ingres, and had a fine garden of about 
three acres attached to it. In that house he 
died on Friday Nov. 13, 1868, at 9 p.m., after 
a long day of agony. His funeral was magnifi- 
cent. As Foreign Associate of the Institute 
a 888) ; Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour 
(1864), and the orders of St. Maurice and St. 
Lazare ; commander of many foreign orders, 
and honorary member of a great number of 
Academies and musical institutions — Rossini 
had a right to every posthumous honour 
possible. The funeral took pUce at the church 
of the Trinite on Saturday Nov. 21, it was 
gorgeous, and was attended by several deputa- 
tions from Italy. Tamburini, Duprez, Gardoni, 
Bonnehte, Faure, Capoul, Belval, Obin, Delle 
Sedie, Jules Lefort, Agnesi, Alboni, Adelina 
Patti, Nilsson, Krauss, Carvalho, Bloch, and 
Grossi, with the pupils of the Conservatoire, 
sang the Prayer from 'Moise.' Nilsson gave 
a fine movement from the ' Stabat ' of Peigolesi, 
but the most impressive part of the ceremony 
was the singing of the * Quis est homo * from 
Rossini's own 'Stabat mater' by Patti and 
Alboni. To hear that beautiful music rendered 
by two such voices, and in the presence of such 
artists, over the grave of the composer, was to 
feel in the truest sense the genius of Rossini, 
and the part which he played in the music of 
the 19th century. 

At the opening of his career Rossini had two 
courses before him, either, like Simone Mayr 
and Paer, to follow the footsteps of the old 
Neapolitan masters, or to endeavour to revolu- 
tionise the Italian opera, as Gluck and Mozart 
had revolutionised those of France and Germany. 
He chose tlie latter. We have described the 
eagerness with which he threw himself into the 
path of innovation, and the audacity with which, 
while borrowing a trait of harmony or of piquant 
modulation from Mjyo (1740-71) or the 
skeleton of an effect from Generali (1783-1832), 
he extinguished those from whom he stole, 
according to the well-known maxim of Voltaire. 
We have already mentioned his innovations in 
the accompaniment of the recitatives, first, in 
' Elisabetta,' the fiiU quartet of strings, and 
next in * Otello ' the occasional addition of the 
wind instruments. This was a great relief to 
the monotony of the old secco recitative. But 
his innovations did not stop there ; he intro- 
duced into the orchestra generally a great deal 




more movement, variety, colour, combination, 
and (it must be allowed) noise, than any of his 
predecessors had done, though never so as to 
drown the voices. In Germany the orchestra 
was well understood before the end of the 18th 
century ; and we must not forget that — not 
to sj^eak of Mozart's operas of * Fidelio * or of 
Gherubini's masterpieces — before the production 
of the *Barbier©* (1816), eight of Beethoven's 
Symphonies were before the world. But in 
Italy instrumentation was half a century behind, 
and certainly none of Rossini's predecessors in that 
country ever attempted what he did in his best 
operas, as for instance in the finale to * Semira- 
mide' (1823), where the employment of the 
four horns and the clarinets, and the astonish- 
ingly clever way in which the orchestra is 
handled generally, are quite strokes of genius. 
The horns are always favourites of his, and are 
most happily used throughout * Guillaume Tell,' 
where we may point to the mixture of pizzicato 
and bowed notes in the Chorus of the first act, 
the harp and bell in the Chorus of the second 
act, and other traits in the Conspiracy scene as 
marks of real genius, for the happy and pictur- 
esque effects produced by very simple means. 
Rossini had further, like all the great masters, 
a strong feeling for rhythm, as the most power- 
ful of all aids to interest and success, and was 
fond of quick movements and of triple time.^ 
But an excessive love of jewels is apt to lead to 
the use of sham diamonds, and his incessant 
pursuit of effect led him to excessive ornamen- 
tation, to noise, and to a passion for attractive 
forms rather than for the feeling which should 
lie at the root of them. Much of this, however, 
was atoned for in his early operas by his 
masterly way of writing for the voices, by the 
strength of his melody, the copious flow of his 
ideas, and the irresistible contagion of his good 
spirits, especially in comic opera. Having thus 
secured his position in public favour, his next 
step — a very legitimate one — was to satisfy 
the demands of his own taste and conscience. 
During this second period the subjects of his 
operas increase in interest In ' Mos^ ' he deals 
with the religious sentiment In the ' Donna 
del Lago ' he rivals Walter Scott on his own 
field ; and in ' Semiramide ' he has recourse to 
oriental history in his endeavour to give an 
independent value to his drama. During this 
])eriod his melodies drop some of their former 
voluptuous character, but in return are more 
pathetic and more full of colour, though still 
wanting in tenderness and depth. 

Lastly, in his Paris operas, and especially in 
' Guillaume Tell,' the influence of French taste 
makes itself strongly felt, and we find a clear- 
ness, a charm, a delicacy in the small details, 
a sense of proportion and of unity, a breadth 
of style, an attention to the necessities of the 

1 The BiifUah rmder wlU find theae potnta bftppilj touched oo 
In Sutherland Bdwmrds'a OUUrpitfthe Opera, chap. xvl. 

stage, and a dignity, which raise this epoch of 
his career far higher than either of the others. 

Rossini's music, as we have already said, has 
been very differently estimated. Ingres, in 
whose view honesty in art held almost as high 
a place as genius or originality, has called it 
'the music of a dishonest (malhonnUe) man.' 
Berlioz would gladly have burnt it all, and 
Rossini's followers with it* On the other 
hand, Schubert, though fully alive to his 
weaknesses, as his caricatures of Rossini's over- 
tures show, and with every reason to dislike 
him from the fact that the Rossini /uron; kept 
Schubert's own works off tlie stage — oonti-asts 
his operas most favourably with die * rubbish ' 
which filled the Vienna theatres at that time, 
and calls him emphatically 'a rare genius.' 
'His instrumentation,' he continues, 'is often 
extremely original, and so is the voice-writing, 
nor can I find any fault with the music (of 
" Otello "), if I except the usual Italian gallo- 
pades and a few reminiscences of " Tancredi." ' ^ 
Mendelssohn, too, as is well known, would allow 
no one to depreciate RossinL Even Schumann, 
so intolerant of the Italian School, is enthusi- 
astic over one of his operas, and calls it ' real, 
exhilarating, clever music' Such exaggerations 
as those of Ingres and Berlioz are as bad as 
intentional injustice ; it is better to recollect the 
very difficult circumstances which surrounded 
an Italian composer eighty years ago, and to en- 
deavour to discover why music which was once 
so widely worshipped has now gone out of 
fashion. Is it the fault of his librettos ? No 
doubt he would have been wiser to stick to 
comic subjects, like that of the 'Barbiere,' and 
to have confined himself for his librettos to the 
poets of his own family. Is it the elaborate 
ornamentation of much of his music? No 
doubt ornamented music decays sooner than 
that of a plainer style, and it Lb always danger- 
ous, though tempting, to adopt the fashionable 
forms. But one main reason is to be found in 
the deterioration of the art of singing ; the 
Paris opera can now boast neither * t^nor de force ' 
nor ' t^nor de grace ' ; and the revival of the ' Comte 
Ory'(on Oct 29, 1880) showed conclusively 
the mediocrity of the singers at the Academie. 
In fiM^t Rossini is now expiating his fault in 
having demanded too much from his singers.^ 
Some feeling of remorse on this head seems to 
have prompted his efibrts to improve the art of 
singing both in Paris and Bologna. Indeed so 
keenly alive was he to the tendencies which 

> Berltei. J/nnoinm, chap, xlv, Th« aboaa of th« ' hnitala groaae 
ealsM de Bominl ' aounda oddly from Berlioa't pen. 
s Letter In Ktelaale'e I4/lt t^faekuUrt, tituiv- viL 
< It in amusing to find BoMfni aeeuwd In hla own titn«. ai «#re 

both Beethoven and Wagner, of being a deabnjrer of the roioe. 
The ooRMpondent of the Attg. JtuaUt. MtUmtf, writing from 
Venice In Apxll 1819, mention* a eertatn Connteaa INeterlehatein 
at Rome, who prononnoed that hla pniMgea were ao attaining and 
ruinous for both throat and duet that if he wrote opena for tra 
yean longer there would be no more alngera left In Italy. * Olorsi. ' 
oontinuea the ooireapondent, * for whom he wrote the " Ceneieiitola. * 
la already completely ruined.' [It la periiape only UXr to remfikd 
the reader that since the above article waa written there have liacn 
many aingers at the Pkris Op<ta and elaewheie fully oapable of 
performing Boealnl's operaa if the public wanted them.] 




have degraded the stage since 1830, and so 
anxious to further the love of fresh melody and 
the pTosecQtion of sound musical study, that 
he bequeathed to the Institute an annual sum 
of 6000 francs (£240) for a competition both 
in dramatic poe^ and composition, specifying 
particularly that the object of the prize should 
lie to encourage composers with a turn for 
melody. The greater part of his property 
Rossini devoted to the foundation and endow- 
ment of a Conaervatorio of Music at his native 
town Peearo, of which A. Bazzini and Mascagni 
were successively directors. 

In order to complete this sketch it is neces- 
sary to give as complete a list as possible of his 
works. N.B. — In the column after the names, 

(1) signifiee that the score has been engraved ; 

(2) that it is published for voices and piano ; 

(3) that it is still in manuscript 

I IsPull 

! Boore. 
I 9-PP. 

! .1=118. 

rep reaenUtkm. 

A4i» ilMtmi 

Ud'lUUa , 

AaedlediCortnto. L' 
AorcUaao tn Ftelmin 
BniKhlsi. I doe itmim) 

daOk viOIkU., - S. 3 

CuibiBle di ni 
DMfBio. L* (teni^ 

CubMo <- - 
VCoMraitola, La 

• C««it«0r7. l^ 

• [teamd«lUcD, Im, 
Kqidv<wo ■tnTacutte 

- 8. 3 Rome. Car. 1818 

- 2. 3 iLUbon. 1818 

- 3, 3 NaplM. Ant. 1817 

- 2, 3 MilMi, Dec 98. 18B. 

- S. 3 Milui. Dee. 98. 1813 

- 8, S BoBDA. Peb. 0. 1816 
1.9,- Plkrla. M»y 8. 1G34 

2, 3 MilMi. D«L 98. 1819 
Venloe. 1819 
Full. Dee. 98. 1887 
Venice, Ant. 1810 


Jnne 92.1898 
Jan. 27. 1818 

-2. S 

Venice. 1819 

— 2. 8 Rome. Car. 1817 

; 1. 9. - iParti. Anc 90, 1898 

, I. Plaria. Oct. 21, 189ft 

I — 2. S Rome. 1812 

- 1 8 Naplei. Oet. 4, 1819 

Jan. 8. 1890 
Pebk 98.1899 

FifUo per Anardo. IL 
• GanaMra. La 

OaartU.U i 

« OiiUlMmwTUl 

lacuiMfellee. L' (faraa) 

lAbeOe. adapied Innu 

9, 8 
- 2. 3 

Venice, Car. 1819 
NaplM. Ant. 1816 
Bokiipia. Ant 1811 

-2. 3 
-U. 3 
1. 9- 
-2. 3 

lUlJana in Alferl. L' - 2. 8 

Macvieeio Seeoodo — 2, 8 

MaUkUdiShahna -2.3 

Ibtklkledeaabian 1-2.- 

*'■*« . 1. 9. — 

llaa« la EcHto (2 or 4! — 2. 3 

TV), lad Italian Uteetto, 

Ocaatone fa 11 ladxu. 
L. « U camblo. etc, 
'<wat I 

• OtaDo I . 
Olello, on Ic Mere de> 

VealM ^Castll-Blaaef ' 
Otfceao(Ror«'aW»e«f i- 
Otto««B4d' Italia. Scf' 

AdciaJd* I 

^l^tn del Pw^DOc. L« - 
^♦<i»ni«.La 1 

'^i'caudo e Zotfrnide 
«o^ *t Hta. U ifana^ - 

• !Va.iruiid« 

« HUftdeCflrtntbe. Le 1 

Milan. May 81. 1817 
Naplea. 1816 
Plaria. An«. 3. 1890 
Venice, Car. 1812 

Venice, 1813 
Naidei. Car. 1820 
Rome. Car. 1891 
Ftftria. 1807 

Pluia. Mar. 20. 1»27 
Naplo^ Lent. 1818 

Venice. 1812 

2. 3 Ii•J>^m, D«c i. HUH MajrlS, 1822 

- 9. — Wl«. 8el>1. H, 1644 

Pint per- 
in London 

Peb. 18, 1823 
Apr. 20, 1818 

Mar. 10. 1821 

Jnly 1, 1819 

Jan. 27, 1819 
July 3. I88S 

Apr. 23. 1822 

TwviMo • Dorliaka 
Tano in Italtei. n 

-2, 3 

- 2. 3 

- 2. 3 

- 2. 3 
. 2.- 

- 2. 3 

- 2. 3 

I-^Hk 1IIS9 

^ .ki^lriv A qt- im » Jmi« 6. 1828 

I.uii., X*fc. XK IftM 

^ -T3lrt, Cat. I HI J 

\i^nl». fmh. .1. ]*^J:t Jlllyl6.1894 

ririti. juif B, ^snu 

'^ViiJ,,^. Car. ItMQ 

^ '^nkcB. Ft^ «. It^H Haj 4, 1820 
2. 3 K'itoi, Dec % 1^1^ 
2. 3 HLIaiw Aug. 14 UCJ4 )[ayl9. 1821 

F^da, JuM 1ft. 1I£& 
2. 3 N«^«», Dvi^, l^il T«D.94,1824 

II plmai\ 


ito d' armonia, Bologna. 

Dldone abbandonata. Bologna, 

Rfle ed Irene. 1814. 
TaU e P«leo. 1810. 

Igea. 1819. 


U Tero omacgio. Verona. 1823. 

L' Augnrio felice. Verona, 18». 

La sacra alleanai. Veronal 

n Bardo. Verona, 1888. 
II rltomo, 182lw 
II pianto delle Muae. London, 

I Paatorl. Naplee, 189B. 

II eerto rotlvo. Bologna. 1828. 

Oratorio. 'Ciro in BabUoula.' 
Penara. Lent, 1812. 

Stabat Mater. 1889-41. 1.2.3. 

lyUU Meeae SolenneUe. 1864. 

Tantum ergo, for 2 tenors and 
baae. with oreheetra. 1. 2. a 
Compoee d at Bologna, and per- 
fonned Not. 28. 1847. for the 


rfseetabltshment of the aervice 
In the church of S. Pranoeioo 
del Minori conventnalL 

Qnonlam, ban solo and oreheatm. 

O Salntaria, 4 aolo roioea. Pub. 
llahed at Paris in La MaUrim 
and reprodnoed in facsimile hy 
Aievedo in hia RouUni. 

Qor^ieni e SoUeggi. A eolko- Inno popnlars, cm the accession 

tion « exerdaes rar the voice. 
Nou poeso. o Dio, rselstere. 



» popnla . 
of Fins IX. Chorus. 
D^r Oriente 1' aatro del giomo, 

Cara Patria. Cantata. 

Chant dea Titans. Chorua. 

Se 11 mol hi Molinara.-Roasini's 

first composition. 
La Separacione. Dramatic 

Oh qnanto eon grate. 

Ridlamo. cantiamo, 4 4. 
Alle Tod della gloria. Scena 

Lea Soirtes mnsioales. 8 ariettas 

and 4 duets. 

Various other airs and pieces, thirty or forty 
in number, will be found in the catalogues of 
Ricordi, Lucca, Brandus (Troupenas), and 
Escudier, which it is hardly necessary to 
enumerate here. Probably no composer ever 
wrote so much in albums as did Rossini. The 
number of these pieces which he threw off while 
in London alone is prodigious. They are 
usually composed to some lines of Metastasio's, 
beginning 'Mi lagnerk tacendo della sorts 
amara^' which he is said to have set more than 
a hundred times. [The famous aria, *Pietk, 
Signore/ which credulous amateurs still regard 
as Stradella's, was, according to Signer Alfredo 
Piatti, WTitteu as a joke by Rossini.] 

We have stated that during the latter yeara 
of his life Rossini composed a great quantity of 
music for the PF. solo, both serious and comic. 
These pieces were sold by his widow en masse 
to Baron Grant for the sum of £4000. After 
a time the whole was put up to auction in 
London and purchased by Ricordi of Milan, 
^I. Paul Dalloz, proprietor of a {)eriodical 
entitled La MusiquCt at Paris, and other 


Lerendeivousdecbasse. A fan- Marrh (Pas redoubU) compotttKl 
fare for 4 trumpets, composed for H.I.M. the Sultau Abdul 
at Compligue in 1898 for M. Medjld. Arniuged for PP. solo 
Schikler, and dedicated to him. (Benedict) and 4 4 mains. 

3 Marches for the marriage of 5 String Quartets, arranged ms 
H.E.H. the Duke of Orleans. Sooatlnes for the PP. by Mock- 
Arranged for PP. 4 4 mains. wlU ( Breitkopf t HMrtel). 

To enumerate and elucidate all the biogi-aphi- 
cal and critical notices of Rossini would require 
a volume ; we shall therefore confine ourselves 
to mentioning these of importance either from 
their authority, their ability, or the special 
nature of their contents ; and for greater con- 
venience of reference we have arranged them 
according to country and date. 

I. Itauan 

G. Carpani. JjttUra all' arumimo autcre delV articolo 
sul • Tancredi' di RoisinU Milan, 1818, 8vo. 




G. Garpani. Le Rostiniaw, os$ia Lettere mtmco-teatraii, 
Padam, 1824, 180 pages, 8vo. Portrait. 

Nfc. Bettoni. Rossini e la rua mutiai, Milan, 1824, 

P. Brighenti. Delia vtttsica rouiniana e dd mo aiutart. 
Bologna, 1880, 8vo. 

Lib. Musumeei. Parattdo tra % maulri Rotti'ni e Bel- 
lini. Palermo, 1882, 8vo. 

Anon. OsservcuUmi tvi mtrito musUxde dei mae$tri 
Bellini « Rossini, in riposta ad un ParaUdo tra i meJe- 
simi. Bologna, 1884, 8va This pamphlet was trans- 
lated into French by M. de Ferrer, and published as 
Rossini et Bdllni. Paris, 1835, 8vo. 

Anon. Rossini « la sua, musUu ; una Passeggiata eon 
Rossini, Florence, 1841, 10mo. 

Anon. Ddlo Stabat Mater di Gioachino Rossini, Ut- 
ters Storioo-critidu di un Lonibardo. Bologna, 1842, 8vo. 

Oiov. Raflbelli. Rossini, canto. Modena, 1844, 8vo. 

Fr. Regli. Elogio di Gioacchtno Rossini. We have 
not been able to discover how far llM;li (1804-66) has 
used this work in his Dizionario biogr^fieo (I860). 

B. Montazia Gioacehino Rossini. Turin, 1862, 18mo. 

Qiul. Vanzolini. Ddla vera Patria di G. Rossini. 
Pesaro, 1873, 8vo. 

Ferrucci. Gludisio psr&ntorio svUa verity ddla Patria 
dl G. Rossini impugTuUadal Prqf. GiuL Vanzolini. Flo* 
rence, 1874 ; an 8vo pamphlet of 20 pages. 

Sett Silvestri. Ddla vita s ddle opere di G. Rossini. 
Milan, 1874, 8vo ; with portrait and facsimiles. 

Ant Zanolini. BlograJUi di Gioadtino Rossini. Bo- 
logiM, 1875, 8vo ; with portrait and fiicsimiles. 

[R. Gandolfl« Onoranaefiorsntine a Gioacehino Botaini. 

II. Frbkch 

Papillon. Lettre critique sur Rossini. Paris, 1828, 8vo. 

Stendhal. Fie de RossinL Paris, 1828, 8vo. Stend- 
hal, whose real name was Henri Beyle, compiled this 
work fh>m Garpani. In many passages in (kct it is 
nothing but a translation, and Beyle's own anecdotes 
are not always trustworthy. It was translated into 
Bngliah (London, 12mo, 1826) and German (Leipzig, 
1824), in the latter case by Wendt, who has added notes 
and corrections. 

Berton. De la mnsique mieaiUqve et de la musiquB 
philoBopkique. Paris, 1824, 8vo : 24 pages. 

Ditto, followed by an EpUre a v/n oddfre compositeur 
fran^is (Boieldieu). Paris, 1826, 8vo ; 48 pages. 

Imbert de Laphaltaue. De la Musique en Francs: 
Rossini, ' GuUlawiM 7eU.' (Revue de Paris, 1820.) 

J. d'Ortigue. De la guerre des dildtanti ou de la re- 
volution opirie par M. Rossini dans Vopira frangais, 
Paris. 1829, 8vo. 

N. BettonL Rossini et sa musigue. Paris, Bettoni, 
1836. 8vo. 

Anon. Vie de Rossini, etc. Antwerp, 1889, 12mo ; 
215 pages. (By M. Van Damme, who hi his turn has 
borrowed much fh>m StendhaL) 

L. de Lomdnie. M. Rossini, par un homme de rien. 
Paris, 1842, 8va 

Aulagnier. Qudques obgervations sur la pvJblieation 
dn ' Stabat maUr ' de Rossini. Paris, 1842, 4to. 

Anon. Obaervatioru d'un amateur non dUettante au 
sufd du ' Stabat ' de M. Rossin i. ParU, 1842, 8vo. 

B. Troupenas. Risumi des opinions de la Presss sur le 
• Stabat ' de RossinU Paris, 1842, 8vo ; 75 pages. 

Escudier fr^res. Rossini, sa vieetses oeuvres. Paris, 
1854, 12mo ; 888 pages. 

Bug. de Mirecourt. Rossini. Paris, 1865, S2mo. 

A. Azevedo. G. Rossini, savie et ses ceuvres. Paris, 
1865, large 8vo ; 810 pages, with portraits and (kcsirailes. 
This is the most complete and eulogistic work on 
Rnssini. It appeared originally in the MHestrd, but 
was discontinued there, the editor not approving of a 
violent attack on Meyerbeer, which Azevedo included 
in it. 

Virmaitre et Elie Fr^bault. Les maisons comiques de 
Paris, 1868, I2mo. One chapter is devoted to the house 
of Rossini. 

N. Roqueplan. Rossini. Paris, 1869, 12rao ; 16 pages. 

B. BeuM. Eloge de Rossini. Paris, 1869. 

A. Pougin. Rossini: Notts, impretsions, souvenirs, 
commentaires. Paris, 1870, 8vo ; 91 pages. The detailed 
and annotated chronological list mentioned on p. 8 has 
not yet been published. 

O. Moutoz. Rossini et son * GuiUawne TeU.' Bouiv, 
1872, 8vo. 

Vauder Straeten. La mdodie popuiaire dans Vopira 
* GuUlaume TeU ' de Rossini. Pans, 1879, 8vo. 
[J. Sittard. Aooini, 1882.] 

in. Okrbian 

Oetttnger. Rossini, Komischer Roman. Leipzig, 1847. 
A satirical work translated into Danish by Marlow 
fCk>penhagen, 1849,2 vols. 8vo.); into Swedish by Land- 
Der§ (Stockholm, 1850, 2 vols. 8vo); and Into French 
by Royer, Rossini, Vhomme et VartisU (Brussels, 186S, 
8 vols. 16mo). 

Otto Gumprecht MusikalisduCharakterlMder. Leip- 
zig, 1860, 8vo. 

Fd. HiUer. Plaudereien mU RosHni. Inserted (with 
date 1856) in Hiller's Aus dem Tonleben unserer Zeit 
(Leipzig, 1868) ; translated into French by Ch. Schwartz 
in La France musioale, 1855 ; and into Bn^ish by Miss 
M. B. von Glehn in Once a Week, 1870. 

A. Struth. Rossini, sein Leben, seine Wsrke und Chetrak' 
terzuge. Leipzig. 

La Mara. Musikxdisdtx Studienkopje, \o\. iu Leipzig, 
1874-1876, 2 vols. 12mo. 

IV. Bkgush 

Hogarth. Memoirs of the Musical Drama, London, 
1888, 2 vols. 8vo. 

H. S. Edwards. Rossini's Lijis. London, 1809, 8vo ; 
portrait— 1/Mory qf the Opera, lb. 1862, 2 vols. 8vo.^ 
Rossini and his Sdiool, 1881. 

Portraits of Rossini ore frequent at all periods- 
of his life. Marochetti's statue, in which he is. 
represented sitting, was erected in his native 
town in 1864. There is a good bust by Barto- 
lini of Florence. In the * foyer ' of the Opera 
in the Rue Le Peletier, Paris (now destroyed), 
there was a medallion of Rossini by Chevalier ; 
a duplicate of this is in the possession of the 
editor of the MAustrel. The front of the 
new opera-house has a bronze -gilt bust by 
M. Evrard. A good early engraving of him is 
that from an oil-painting by Mayer of Vienna 
(1820). Of later ones may be mentioned that 
by Tli^venin after Ary Scheffer (1843): still 
later, a full-length drawn and engraved by- 
Masson, and a photograph by Erwig, engraved 
as frontispiece to the PF. score of S^miramis 
(Heugel). Among the lithographs the best is 
that of Gr^vedon ; and of caricatures the only 
one deserving mention is that by Dantan. g.c. 

ROTA, or ROTTA (Fr. roU ; Ger. rolU, or 
roUa). (i.) A stringed instrument of the 
psaltery class, the three (or seven) strings of 
which were plucked either with the fingers or 
with a plectrum. It is mentioned as early as 
A.D. 868 by Otfried. It seems to be allied to 
the ancient lyre. The derivation of the word 
from the Irish croU or eruil, or the Welsh cruih 
(called chroUa by Yenantius Fortunatus), seems 
hardly likely without more definite evidence 
than is before us. The instruments of the crwth 
kind were generally played with a bow. 

(ii.) The name rota is applied to the famous 
round, * Sumer is icumen in * (see that article), 
and may have been a generic name for what we 
now call rounds, the derivation being in that 
case quite obvious. m. 

ROTA, Andrea, was bom in Bologna about 
1553, and in 1583 was appointed choir-master 
to the church of San Petronio in that city. 
He died in 1597. His publications consist of 




three books of madrigals, two a 5 (Venice, 1579- 
1589), one a 4 (1592) ; two books of motets a 
5-10 (1584, 1595) ; and one book of masses a 
4-6 (1595). A very pleasing madrigal a 5 is re- 
published in Torchi's * L' Arte Musicale in Italia,' 
ToL L, also an Agnus Dei a 7 with double 
canon, and a Dixit Dominus a 8. Padre 
Martini's Eseniplare contains a Da Pacem by 
Bota, and Paolucci's * L' Arte Prattica,' a motet 
a 10. J. R. H. 

ROUGET DE LISLE, Claude Joseph, 
author of the ' MarBeillaise,' bom at Montaign, 
Lons-le-Sanlnier, May 10, 1760. He entered 
the School of Royal Engineers (' ^kx)le royale du 
g<^nle') at Mezi^res in 1782, and left it two 
yean later with the rank of 'aspirant-lieutenant ' 
Early in 1789 he was made second lieutenant, 
and in 1 790 he rose to be first lieutenant, and was 
moved to Strasbuig, where he soon became very 
popular in the triple capacity of poet, violin- 
player, and singer. His hymn, * k la Liberte,' 
composed by Ignaoe Pleyel, was sung at Stras- 
bnrg, at the fete of Sept. 25, 1791. While 
there he wrote three pieces for the theatre, one 
of which, * Bayard en Bresse,' was produced at 
Paris, Feb. 21, 1791, but without success. In 
April 1792 he wrote the ' Marseillaise,' of which 
an account has been given elsewhere. [See vol. 
iiL p, 62 if.] As the son of royalist parents, 
and himself belonging to the constitutional 
]jarty, Ronget de iJsle refused to take the oath 
to the oonstitittion abolishing the crown ; he 
vas therefore stripped of his military rank, 
denounced, and imprisoned, only to escape after 
the fall of Robespierre in 1764, [an event he 
celebrated in a *Hymne dithyrambique,' etc. 
A * Chant des vengeances* (1798) and 'Chant 
da combat * (1800) are mentioned in Riemann's 
Ijtxi1conS\ He re-entered the army, and made 
the campaign of La Vend^ under General Hoche ; 
was wounded, and at length, under the Con- 
sulate, returned to private life at Montaign, 
where he remained in the depth of solitude and 
of poverty till the second Restoration. His 
brother then sold the little family property, and 
Kooget was driven to Paris ; and there would 
have starved but for a small pension granted by 
Louis XVI 1 1, and continued by Louis Philippe, 
and for the care of his friends Banger, David 
d'Angers, and especially M. and Mme. Yoiart, 
in whose house, at Choisy-lc-Roi, he died, June 
27, 1836. 

Besides the works already mentioned, he pub- 
lished in 1797 a volume of Essaia en vers et en 
fTfm (Pans, F. Didot, an Y de la R^publique), 
dedicated to M6hul, and now extremely rare ; so 
also is his 'Cinquante chants Fran^ais' (1825, 
4to), with PF. accompaniment €^e of these 
songi, 'Roland k Roncevaux,' was written in 
1792, and its refrain — 

Monrir pour la patrie, 
C«st le sort le pins beau, 1e plus dlgne d'envie— 

was borrowed by the authors of the ' Chant des 

Girondins,' which was set to music by Varney, 
and played a distinguished ])art in the Revolution 
of 1848. [He wrote another set of twenty-five 
romances with violin obbligato, and two opera- 
librettos, *Jacquot, on I'^le des meres' for 
DeUa Maria, and ' Macbeth ' for Chelard, pro- 
duced in 1827.] His 'Relation du d^sastre de 
Quiberon,* is in vol. ii. of the Mmimres de tons. 

There exists a fine medallion of Rouget by 
David d'Angers, which is engraved in a pamphlet 
by his nephew, entitled La viriU 9ur la pater- 
nity de la Marseillaise (Paris, 1865). See the 
volume of M. Le Roy de Ste. Croix (Strasburg, 
1880). o. c. 

ROUND. I. *A species of canon in the 
unison, so called because the performers begin 
the melody at regular rhythmical periods, and 
return from its conclusion to its commencement, 
so that it continually passes round and round 
from one to another of them.' ^ Rounds and 
Catches, the most characteristic forms of English 
music, differ from canons in only being sung at 
the unison or octave, and also in being rhyth- 
mical in form. Originating at a period of which 
we have but few musical records, these composi- 
tions have been written and sung in England 
with unvarying popularity until the present day. 
The earliest extant example of a round is the 
w^ell- known 'Sumer is icumen in,' as to the 
date of which there has been much discussion, 
although it is certainly not later than the middle 
of the 18th century. [See Sumer is icumen 
IN.] Amongst early writers on music, the terms 
' round ' and * catch ' were synonymous, but at 
the present day the latter is generally under- 
stood to be what Hawkins (vol. ii.) defines as 
that species of round ' wherein, to humour some 
conceit in the words, the melody is broken, 
and the sense interrupted in one part, and 
caught again or supplied by another,' a form 
of humour which easily adapted itself to the 
coarse tastes of the Restoration, at which period 
rounds and catches reached their highest popu- 
larity. That catches were immensely i)opular 
with the lower classes is proved by the numerous 
allusions to ' alehouse catches ' and the like in 
the dramas of the 16 th and 17th centuries. Ac- 
cording to Drayton {Legend ofThcmas Cromwell^ 
Stanza 29) they were introduced into Italy by 
the Earl of Essex in 1510. 

The first printed collection of rounds was that 
edited by Thomas Ravenscroft, and published in 
1609 under the title of 'Pammelia. Musickes 
Miscellanie : or Mixed Yarietie of pleasant 
Roundelayes and delightful 1 Catches of 3. 4. 5. 
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Parts in one.' This interesting 
collection contains many English, French, and 
Latin rounds, etc., some of which are still 

> * Thfl Rotmds, Catrhn. and Canons of BB(I»iid : a Oolleetlon of 
Sparlmana of th^ sixteenth, seventeenth, and eight««nth oentnrles 
adaatfd to Modrtn Use. TIm Worda reviaed. adapted, or r«- written 
by the Rev. J. Powell Metcalfe. The Music seleoted and reviaed, and 
An Introdnciory Ersay on the Riaa and Progrem of the Round, 
Cfttrh, and Canon ; alao Blognphical Notices of the Compoaerti. 
written by EdwaJd F. Rimbaalt, LL.D./ from which work much el 
the Information contained in the above article haa been derived. 




popular. Amongst them there is also a curious 
'Round of three Country Dances in one' for 
four voices, which is in reality a Quodlibet on 
the country-dance tunes 'Robin Hood/ 'Now 
foot it,* and *The Grampe is in my purse.' 
' Pammelia ' was followed by two other ooUeo- 
tions brought out by Ravenscroft, 'Deutero- 
melia' in 1609, and 'Melismata' in 1611, and 
the numerous publications of the Playfords, the 
most celebrated of which is ' Catch that catch 
can, or the Musical Companion' (1667), which 
passed through many editions. The most com- 
plete collection of rounds and catches is that 
published by Warren in thirty -two monthly 
and yearly numbers, from 1768 to 1794, which 
contains over 800 oompositionB, including many 
admirable specimens by P\ircell, Blow, and other 
masters of the English school. It is to be re- 
gretted that they are too often disfigured by an 
obscenity of so gross a nature as to make them 
now utterly unfit for performance. A good 
specimen of the round proper is Hayes's ' Wind, 
gentle evergreen.' The Round has never been 
much cultivated by foreign composers. One or 
two examples are, however, well known, amongst 
them may be mentioned Cherubini's 'Perfida 

II. Any dance in which the dancers stood in 
a circle was foimerly called a round or roundel. ^ 
The first edition of the ' Dancing Master ' (1651) 
has thirteen rounds, for six, eight, or ' as many 
as will.' Subsequent editions of the same book 
have also a dance called * Cheshire Rounds,' and 
Part II. of Walsh's * Compleat Country Dan- 
cing Master' (1719) has Irish and Shropshire 
rounds. These latter dances are, however, 
not danced in a ring, but ' longways,' i.e. like 
'Sir Roger de Coverley.' In Jeremiah Clarke's 
'Choice Lessons for the Harpsichord or Spinett ' 
(1711), and similar contemporary publications, 
the word rondo is curiously corrupted into 
'Round O.' w. B. 8. 

A society founded in London in 1843, by Enoch 
Hawkins, for the purpose of singing the new 
compositions of the professional members and 
others, written in the form of Round, Catch, and 
Canon ; hence the title of the Club. Among the 
original members were Messrs. Enoch Hawkins, 
Hobbs, Bradbury, Handel Gear, Henry Phillips, 
Addison, D'Ahnaine, and F. W. Collard. The 
meetings were originally held at the Crown and 
Anchor Tavern whence the Club removed to 
the Freemasons' Tavern, thence to the Thatched 
House, again to Freemasons' Tavern, and to St. 
James's Hall, where, until the demolition of 
the building, it assembled every fortnight from 
the first Saturday in November until the end 
of March, ten meetings being held in each 
season. [Its meetings are now held in the 
Criterion Kestaurant, and take place on Mon- 

■ * Com* now a n»uidel and a talry MHig .' 

Midtuntmer SighVt Dream, act IL k. 2. 

day evenings instead of Saturdays.] In the 
earlier years of its existence the number both of 
professional and non- professional members at 
each dinner rarely exceeded eighteen, but now 
from sixty to seventy dine together. The 
management of the Club is in the hands of the 
officers, who are the proprietors, and each of 
whom in turn takes the chair, and is alone 
responsible for the entertainment. The musical 
programmes now consist mainly of glees, al- 
though an occasional catch is introduced. [The 
professional members at present (1907) are 
Messrs. W. Coward, 6. May, £. Dalzell, F. 
Norcup, G. and H. Stubbs, assisted by a boy 
treble. The officers are Messrs. J. A. Brown, 
Fred. Walker, and Robt. Hilton.] For non- 
professional members there is an entrance fee of 
three guineas, and an annual subscription for the 
ten meetings and dinner of five guineas, c. m. 

ROUSSEAU, Jean Jacques, bom at Geneva, 
June 28, 1 712, died at Ermenonville, near Plarid, 
July 3, 1778, five weeks after Voltaire. The 
details of his life are given in his Confessums ; 
we shall here confine ourselves to his compo- 
sitions, and his writings on music. Although, 
like all who learn music late in life and in a 
desultory manner without a master, RouBsean 
remained to the end a poor reader and an 
indifferent harmonist, he exercised a great 
influence on French music. Immediately after 
his arrival in Paris he read a paper before the 
Academic des Sciences (August 22, 1742) on 
a new system of musical notation, which he 
aften\'ards extended and published under the 
title of Dissertation sur la musi^e modems 
(Paris, 1 743, 8vo). His method of representing 
the notes qf the scale by figures — 1, 2, 3, 4,5, 
6, 7 — had been already proposed hy Souhaitty, 
but Rousseau's combinations, and especially Ids 
signs of duration, are so totally different as 
entirely to redeem them from the charge of 
plagiarism. A detailed analysis and ref\itation 
of the system may be found in Raymond's Des 
principatix sysUmes de noUUiini mudcaU (Turin, 
1824, 8vo), to which the reader is referred ; but 
it is evident that, however convenient notation 
by means of figures may be for writing a simple 
melody, it becomes as complicated as the old 
system when modulation or polyphony are at- 
tempted. Its very uniformity also deprives the 
reader of all assistance from the eye ; die sounds 
must be spelt out one by one, and the difficulty 
of deciphering orchestral combinations or com- 
plicated harmonies becomes almost insuperable. 

Copying music had been Rousseau's means of 
livelihood, and this led him to believe that th6 
best way to learn an art is to practise it ; at any 
rate he composed an opera, ' Les Muses galantes * 
(1747), which was produced at the house of La. 
Popelini^re, when Rameau, who was present, 
declared that some pieces showed the hand of a 
master, and others the ignorance of a schoolboy. 
Not being able to obtain access to any of the 




theatres, Rousseau undertook to write the 
articles on moaic for the BncydopidiCj a task 
which he acoomplished in three months, and 
afterwards acknowledged to have heen done 
hastily and unsatisfactorily. We have mentioned 
in the article Ramkau (ante, p. 22) the expos^ 
by that great musician of the eiTors in the 
mosifial articles of the Eneyehp^dU ; Rousseau's 
reply was not published till after his death, but 
it is included in his complete works. 

Three months after the arrival in Paris of the 
Italian company who popularised the <3erva 
padrona'i in France, Rousseau produced *Le 
Devin du village * before the King at Fountaine- 
bleaii, on Oct. 18 and 24, 1752. The piece, 
of which both words and music were his own, 
pleased the court, and was quickly reproduced 
in Paris. The first representation at the 
Academic took place March 1, 1753, and the 
last in 1828, when some wag ^ threw an immense 
powdered perruque on the stage and gave it its 
deathblow. [Devix du Village, vol. i. p. 692a.] 
It is curious that the representations of this 
simple pastoral should have coincided so exactly 
with the vehement disciissions to which the per- 
formances of Italian opera gave rise. We cannot 
enter here upon the literary quarrel known as 
the * Guerre des Bouffons,' or enumerate the 
host of pamphlets to which it gave rise,' but 
it is a strange fact, only to be accounted for 
on the principle that man is a mass of contra- 
dictions, that Rousseau, the author of the 
* Devin du Village,' pronounced at once in 
favour of Italian music. 

His LeUre tur la musiqitc Fraiiqaise (1758) 
raised a storm of indignation, and not unnatu- 
rally, since it pronounces French music to have 
neither rhythm nor melody, the language not 
being susceptible of either ; French singing to be 
but a prolonged barking, absolutely insupport- 
able to an unprejudiced ear ; French harmony 
to be crude, devoid of expression, and full of 
mere padding ; French airs not airs, and French 
recitative not recitative. * From which I con- 
clude,* he continues, 'that the French have no 
music, and never will have any ; or that if they 
ever should, it will be so much the worse for 
them.' To this pamphlet the actors and musi- 
cians of the Opera replied by hanging and bui-n- 
ing its author in e^y. His revenge for this 
absurdity, and for many other attacks, was the 
witty Lettre (fvn symphoniste dc I AcacUmie 
rcynU de musique A 9e$ camarades de Vorchestre 
(1753), which may still be read mth pleasure. 
The iesthetic part of the JHcHonnnire de musique 
which he finished in 1764 at Metiers -Tra vers, 
is admirable both for matter and style. He 
obtained the privilege of printing it in Paris, 

I Tt h— bfo fpBomn!ttf ■ ap n u — J thrt th» * Senra padrotw ' wm not 
h«»nliBPteteb«Car»170a: thU. howwer, to » mtotaks : it bad been 
ptejed ao ftr bttdE ae Oei. 4, 17401 bat the Italian company who per- 
lomMd it warn net ■attafbrotory, and It paaMd alnoat unnoticed. 

* eiippeaed to haw bean Berlloc. bnt be exculpates htueelf in ble 
J Ti '^ww f r e, ehapL xr. 

•"^ S«« ChouiiiBet'e EUtotrt 4e la musique dramatitw. pp. 134 and 

April 15, 1765, but did not make use of the 
privilege till 1768 ; the Geneva edition, also in 
one vol. 4to, came out in 1 767. In spite of mis- 
takes in the didactic, and serious omissions in 
the technical portions, the work became very 
popular, and was translated into several lan- 
guages; the English edition (London, 1770, 
8vo) being by William Waring. 

Rousseau's other writings on music ^re : LeUre 
a if. Orimm, au sujet des remarques ajouUes d 
sa LeUre mr Omphale (1752), belonging to the 
early stage of the * Guerre des Bouffons * ; Essai 
8ur Vorigine des langueSf etc. (1758), containing 
chapters on harmony, on the supposed analog}' 
between sound and colour, and on the music of 
the Greeks ; LeUre a M, VAbh6 Eaynal au svjet 
d^un n&uveau mode de musique invent^ par M, 
Blainville, dated May 30, 1754, and first printed 
in the Mercure de France ; LeUre d M. Bumey 
sur la Musique^ avec des fragments cT Observations 
sur VAlceste italien de M, le chevalier Oluck^ an 
analysis of ' Alceste ' written at the request of 
Gluck himself; and Eodtrait dune r^ponse du 
Petit Faiseur A son Pr^te-Nom^ sur un morceau 
de VOrplUe de J/, le chevalier Gliick, dealing 
principally with a particular modulation in 
'Orph^e.' From the last two it is clear that 
Rousseau heartily admired Gluck, and that he 
had by this time abandoned the exaggerated 
opinions advanced in the Lettre sur la musique 
Frav^ise, The first of the above was issued 
in 1752, the rest not till after his death ; they 
are now only to be found in his complete 

On Oct. 30, 1775, Rousseau produced his 
* Pygmalion * at the Commie Fran9aise ; it is a 
lyric piece in one act, and caused some sensation 
owing to its novelty. Singing there was none, 
and the only music consisted of orchestral pieces 
in the intervals of the declamation. He also 
left fragments of an opera * Daphnis et Ghloe ' 
(published in score, Paris, 1780, folio), and a 
collection of about a hundred romances and 
detached pieces, to which he gave the title 
'Consolations des Miseres de ma vie' (Paris, 
1781, 8vo) ; in the latter collection are the 
graceful 'Rosier,* often reprinted, and a charm- 
ing setting of Rolli's ' Se tu m'ami.' Rousseau 
was accused of having stolen the 'Devin du 
Village' from a musician of Lyons named 
Granet, and the greater part of * Pygmalion ' 
from another Lyonnais named Coigniet. Among 
his most persistent detractors is Castil-Blaze 
(see Molihre musident ii. 409), but he says not 
a word of the * Consolations. ' Now any one 
honestly comparing these romances with the 
'Devin du Village,* will inevitably arrive at 
the conviction that aire at once so simple, 
natural, and full of expression, and so incorrect 
as regards harmony, not only may, but must 
have proceeded from tlie same author. There 
is no doubt, however, that the instrumentation 
of the 'Devin* was touched up, or perhaps 




wholly re -written, by Francceur, on whose 
advice, as well as on that of Jelyotte the tenor 
singer, Rousseau was much in the habit of re- 
lying. An air (' de trois notes ') and a duettino, 
melodious and pretty but of the simplest style, 
are given in the Musical Library , vol. iii. g. c. 
ROUSSEAU'S DREAM. A very favourite 
air in England in the early part of the 19th 
century. Its first appearance under that name 
is presumably as *an Air with Variations for 
the Pianoforte, oompoeed and dedicated to the 
Rt. Hon. the Countess of Delaware, by J. B. 
Cramer. London, Chappell' [1812]. 

TO fat5^fa^= 



But it is found (with very slight changes) a 
quarter of a century earlier, under the title of 
' Melissa. The words by Charles James, Esq., 
adapted to the Pianoforte, Harp, or Guitar. 
London, J. Dale, 1788.* The melody occurs 
in the ' Pantomime ' in Scene 8 of the ' Devin 
du Village,' where its form is as follows : — 

[The tune, no doubt, made its way in England 
through the adaptation of the opera by Dr. 
Bumey, as *The Cunning Man,' in 1766. It 
seems to have been first adapted to a hymn in 
Thomas Walker's * Companion to Dr. Rippon's 
Tunes' (1825), and after its api)earanoe in 
'Sacred Melodies' (1843), with the name 
'Rousseau' attached to it, became widely 
popular as a hymn -tune. w. h. g. f.] The 
origin of the title * Dream ' is not forthoommg. g. 
ROUSSEAU, Samuel Alexajydre, was born 
at Neuve-Maison (Aisne), June 11, 1853, and 
studied at the Paris Conservatoire, where he 
gained successively the first organ prize in 1877, 
in C<sar Franck's class, and the Grand Prix de 
Rome in 1Q78 with 'La Fille de Jepht^.' In 
the latter year the Prix Cressent was awarded 
to his op^ra-comique, 'Dinorah,' which was 
produced at the Op^ra-Comique in December 
1879. Works sent from Rome, and executed 
at the Conservatoire, were 'Labinies' (1880), 
• Raddir ' (1881), * La Florentina ' (1882). He 
was for many years mattre de chapelle in Sainte- 
Clotilde, and chorus-master of the Societe des 

Concerts du Conservatoire. He wrote a great 
quantity of admirable church music, two masses, 
motets, organ pieces, etc. ; secular dhoral works, 
pieces for piano, harmonium, violin, small 
orchesti'a, etc. and songs. He was president of 
the Society des Compositeurs, and vice-president 
of the Association de la critique musicale et 
dramatique. His most famous work was the 
opera, 'La Cloche du Rhin,' in three acts, 
brought out at the Paris Op^ra, June 8, 1898 ; 
another three-act opera, ' Merowig, ' gained the 
prize of the City of Paris, and produced at 
Nancy, Jan. 12, 1899. Rousseau died of a 
tumour on the brain, in Paris, Oct 1, 1904. o. F. 

ROVELLI. A family of eminent Italian 
musicians. Giovanni Battista was first violin 
in the orchestra of the church of S. Maria 
Maggiore of Bergamo, at the beginning of the 
19th century. Giuseppe, his son, was a violon- 
cellist, bom at Bei^amo in 1753, and died at 
Parma, Nov. 12, 1806. Of Alessandro we 
only know that he' was at one time director of 
the orchestra at Weimar, and that he was the 
father of Pietro, who was bom at Beigamo, 
Feb. 6, 1793, and received his first lessons, 
both in violin-playing and the general science 
of music, from his giundfather. By an influential 
patron he was sent to Paris to study under 
R. Kreutzer, and his playing attracted much 
attention there. On his father's appointment 
to Weimar he joined him for a time. At the 
end of 1814 we find him at Munich, playing 
with great applause^ He remained there for 
some years, and was made 'Royal Bavarian 
chamber-musician,' and 'first concerto-player.' 
In Feb. 1817 he was playing at Vienna ; Uiere 
he married Micheline, daughter of K A. Fbrster, 
and a fine PF. -player, and in 1819 went on to 
Bergamo, took the place once occupied by his 
grandfather, and seems to have remained there, 
sufiering much from bad health, till his death, 
Sept. 8, 1838. The writer in the AUg. mus. 
Zeitung for Dec. 26, 1838, from whom the 
above facts have been mainly taken, characterises 
his playing as 'simple, expressive, graceful, 
noble ; in a word, classical — a style which 
takes instant possession of the heart of the 
hearer. ' In other notices in the same periodical, 
he is said to have inherited the pure, singing, 
expressive style of Viotti, and practised it to 
perfection. Molique was his pupil at Munich, u. 

ROVESCIO, AL. A term used, in instm- 
mental music, to express two different things. 
(1) An imitation by contrary motion, in which 
every descending interval in the leading part is 
imitated by an ascending one, and vice versa ; 
see Moscheles's £tude ' La Forza,' op. 51. (2) 
A phrase or piece which may be played back- 
wards throughout It is then synonymous with 
Canceizans. An interesting example occurs 
in the minuet of a Sonata for PF. and violin by 
Haydn, in which, on the repetition after the 
Trio, the minuet is played backwards, so as to 



end on the first note, Haydn's indication being 
MenvuUc D. C, wird swruekgespielt. [See Recte 
rr Retro.] 

and'Griselda.' The fourth season lasted fix>m 
Nov. 7, 1722, to June 15, 1723, and was re- 
markable for the first apjxuirancp in England 

Jf(m«<tto oZ Bovesda. 

ROW OF KEYS. A single Clavier or 
Manual. The term is not applied, in the 
organ, to a pedal-clavier from the simple fact 
that one row of keys is all that is required by 
the feet ; two rows of pedal-keys have sometimes 
been oonstmcted, but they have proved always 
nnneceasary and generally unmanageable. Harp- 
sichords had often two rows of keys acting on 
different sets of jacks, and thus allowing of 
changes of force and quality of tone. J. s. 

1 728. From 1 7 1 7 to 1 720 there was no Italian 
Opera in London, but in the latter year a sum 
of £50,000 was raised by subscription, and &n 
establishment was founded for the performance 
of Italian operas. This was the first Royal 
Academy of Music It consisted of a Governor, 
a Deputy-Governor, and twenty Directors. Tlie 
first governor was the Duke of Newcastle, 
the deputy -governor was Lord Bingley, and 
the directors included the leaders of society 
at the Court of George I. Buonondni was 
invited to England from Rome, Ariosti from 
Berlin, and Handel left Cannons and went to 
Dresden to engage singers. Under these brilliant 
auspices the Academy opened at the King's 
Theatre in the Haymarket, on April 2, 1720, 
with Giovanni Porta's 'Numitor,' and the 
following strong cast: — Senesino, Durastanti, 
Boschi, and Berenstadt The season ended on 
Jane 25. It was remarkable for the production 
of Handel's 'Radamisto' and D. Scarlatti's 
'Karciso,' the latter conducted by Roseingrave, 
and including Mrs. Anastasia Robinson in the 
cast The second season lasted from Nov. 19, 
1720, to July 5, 1721. The new works per- 
formed were ' Astarto ' (BuononciniV ' Arsace ' 
(a pasticcio), * Mmdo Scaevola (Ariosti, 
Bnonondni, and Handel), and 'Ciro* (Ariosti). 
During the first year of the undertaking 
^15,000 of the subscription had been spent. 
The third season began Nov. 1, 1721, and 
ended June 16, 1722. The new operas were 
Handel's ' Floridante,' Bnononcini's 'Crispo' 

F. T. 

of Cuzzoni, who sang in Handel's * Ottone ' on 
Jan. 1 2. The other new works (besides * Ottone ') 
were Arioeti's *Coriolano,' Buonoucini's *Er- 
minia,' and Handel's 'Flavio.' In the fifth 
season (Nov. 27, 1723, to June 13, 1724) 
Bnononcini's 'Famace,' Ariosti's * Vespasiano,* 
and a pasticcio called * Aquilio,' were produced. 
At the end of the season Mrs. Robinson retired 
from the stage. The sixth season (Oct 81, 
1724, to May 19, 1725) opened with Handel's 
'Tamerlane' Ariosti's 'Artaserse' and *Dario' 
(partly by Vivaldi), Handel's * Rodeliuda,' Bno- 
noncini's *Calfurnia,' and Vinci's *Elpidia* 
were the other new works produced. The 
seventh season (November 1725 to June 1726) 
ended abmptly, owing to the illness of Senesino, 
but it was remarkable for the first appearance 
of the celebrated Faustina Hasse, who sang in 
Handel's 'Alessandro' on May 5. Handel's 
I 'Scipione' was also produced in March. Owing 
to Senesino's absence, the operas were suspended 
I till Christmas, and the next season ended on 
' June 6, 1727. Ariosti's *Lucio Vero,' Handel's 
I * Admeto, ' and Buonoucini's ' Astyanax ' (the last 
I of his operas performed at the Academy) were 
the chief works; but the season, although shoii;, 
was enlivened by the continual disturbances 
caused by the rivalry between Cuzzoni and 
Faustina. The ninth season lasted from Oct. 3, 
1727, to June 1, 1728. The operas were en- 
tirely under Handel's direction : his * Siroe,' 
*Tolomeo,' and 'Riccardo I' were produced, but 
the success of the ' Beggar's Opera ' at Lincoln's 
Inn Fields Theatre, as well as the continual 
disputes and dissensions amongst the singers, 
called the season to be more than usually 
disastrous. At the end of it, the whole sum 
subscribed, as well as the receipts, was found 
to have been entirely sjient. The comjyany 
was dispersed, and although a few meetings 
of the court were held during the year, the 
establishment was allowed to die gi*adually, 
and was never revived.* w. b. s. 

1 Fartiier infomuitloii as to the Royal Academy of UqbIc will be 



original plan for this institution was proposed 
by Lord Westmorland (then Lord Burghersh) 
at a meeting of noblemen and gentlemen held 
at the Thatched House Tavern, London, on 
July 5, 1822. The proposal meeting with 
approval, at a second meeting, July 12, rules 
and i*egulations were drawn up, and a oommittee 
was appointed to carry out the undertaking. 
According to the niles adopted, the constitution 
of the new Academy was to bo modelled upon 
the British Institution. The king was announced 
as the principal Patron, the government was to 
consist of a committee of twenty-five Directors 
and a sub-committee of nine subscribers, and 
the school was to be Supported by subscriptions 
and donations. There was also to be a Board, 
consisting of the Principal and four professors, 
and the number of pupils was not to exceed 
forty boys and forty girls, to bo admitted be- 
tween the ages of ten and fifteen, and all to be 
boarded in the establishment. A sub-committee, 
the members of which were Lord Burghersh, 
Sir Gore Ouseley, Count St. Antonio, Sir Andrew 
Barnard, Sir John Murray, and the Hon. A. 
Macdonald, was empowered to form the Insti- 
tution. Dr. Crotch was appointed the first 
Princi^ml, and by September 1, the sum of 
£4812 : 10s. had been collected, including an 
annual subscription of 100 guineas from George 
rV., which was continued by his successors, 
William IV. and Queen Victoria. In November 
the house. No. 4 Tenterden Street, Hanover 
Sc[uare, was taken for the new school, but the 
opening was deferred until March 1828, on the 
24th of which month the first lesson was given 
by Mr. Cipriani Potter to Mr. Kellow Pye. 

The Academy began its labours with the fol- 
lowing staff : Head Master — Rev. John Miles. 
Governess — Mrs. Wade. Principal — Dr. Crotch. 
Board of Professors — Messrs. Attwood, Greato- 
rex, Sliield, and Sir George Smart. Supple- 
mentary members of the Board — Messrs. Horsley 
and J. B. Cramer. Professors — Messrs. Anfossi, 
Andrew, Bishop, Bochsa, Crivelli, F. Cramer, 
dementi, Coccia, Cerruti, Dragonetti, Dizi, 
Griesbach, Hawes, Ireland, C. Kramer, Liverati, 
Lindley, Ixxler, Mori, Macintosh, Nicholson, 
Cipriani Potter, Puzzi, Ries, H. Smart, Spagno- 
letti. Watts, Willniann, and Caravita.^ 

The Foundation students who were first 
elected were the following : Girls — M. E. Lawson, 
C. Smith, M. Chancellor. S. Collier, E. Jenkyns, 
Mi A. Jay, C. Bromley, H. Little, J. Palmer, 
C. Porter. Boys— W. H. Holmes, H. A. M. 
Gooke,2 A. Greatorex, T. M. Mudie, H. G. 
Blagrove, Kellow J. Pye, W. H. Phippe, A. 

foar.d In Bumey's BUtwrg qf Jftule, reL Iv., from which the above 
t« compiled. 

> AlthoQKh the »boTe wm publUhed in the Homing Poat u the 
lUt of profeuon, instruction Menu only to have been given by the 
followlnir:— Dr. Crotch, Meura. Lord. Potter, Haydon, CrivelU, P. 
Cramer, Spacnoletti, Uiidley, Bochaa. Gooke, Oiinvita, Giechettl. 
Goodwin. J B. Cramer. Beale, and Pinart; and by Mroe*. BlagioU. 
Reguaadln , and M i as Adant. (See First Report of the Oommittee, 

2 Known an ' Grattan Cooke.* 

Devaux, C. Seymour, £. J. Neilson, and C. S. 
Packer. The pupils were divided into two 
classes, those on the foundation paying ten 
guineas per annum, while extra students paid 
twenty guineas, or if they lodged and boarded 
in the establishment, thirty -eight guineas. 
Although the first report of the Committee 
(June 2, 1823) was satisfactory, yet financial 
oifficulties soon made themselves felt In 
March 1824, the Committee reported a de- 
ficiency for the current year of £1600, if the 
institution were conducted on the same plan as 
before. To meet this, the difference between 
the students' payments was abolished, and the 
fees were fixed for all at £40, the professors at 
the same time giving their instruction gratis 
for three months. Lord Burghersh also applied 
to the Government for a grant, but without 
effect. In 1826 further alterations were made 
as to the admission of students, by which the 
numbers amounted in four months' time to & 
hundred, and Lord Burghersh made another 
appeal for a Government grant. In spite of 
this, the year's accounts still showed an un- 
satisfactory financial condition. During the 
latter part of the year Moscheles was included 
among the staff of professors. Elarly in 1826 
the increased number of students compelled the 
Academy to enlarge its premises, the lease ' of 
No. 5 Tenterden Street was bought, and the 
two houses were thrown into one. In Februarj' 
the Government were petitioned for a charter. 
In reply it was stated that though unwilling 
to give a gr&nt, they were ready to defray the 
cost of a charter. In 1827 the financial oon- 
dition of the Academy was so disastrous that 
it was* proposed to close the institution ; but 
a final appeal to the public procured a loan of 
£1469, beside further donations, enabling the 
Directors to carry on the undertaking on a 
reduced scale and ^vith increased fees. Hence- 
forward the state of things began to mend. 
The charter was granted on June 28, 1830. 
By this document the members of the Academy 
and their successors were incorporated and 
declared to be, and for ever hereafter to con- 
tinue to be by the name of the * Royal Academy 
of Music,' under the government of a Board of 
Directors, consisting of thirty members, with 
power to make rules and regulations ; a Com- 
mittee of Management, with full power over 
the fluids and both students and professors ; 
and a Treasurer. 

In 1832 Dr. Crofash resigned his poet of 
Principal, and was succeeded by Cipriani Potter, 
who retained office until his resignation in 1859. 
The financial position of the Academy, although 
not prosperous, remained on a tolerably secure 
footing. In 1834, William IV. directed that 
a quarter of the proceeds of the Musical Festi^'al 
held in Westminster Abbey should be handed 
over to the institution. This sum, amounting 

3 Relinquished in or before 1SV3. 



to £2250, was devoted by the Committee to 
the foundation of four King's ScholarBhi[i8, to 
be competed for by t^-o male and two female 
students. Instead, however, of being invested 
8e|»arately, the fnnd was merged in the general 
property of the Academy, a mistake which 
eventuidly led to the discontinuance of the 
scholanhips. For the next ten years the 
financial condition of the Academy continued 
to fluctuate. In July 1853 the Committee of 
Management (which was totally unprofessional 
in its constitution) summoned the professors, 
revealed to them the decline of the funded 
property, and asked their counsel as to the 
remedies to be adopted. The professors advised 
that the management should be made entirely 
professional. This course was so far adopted 
that a Board of Professors was appointed to 
adviae the Committee. 

The first act of this Board (Sept. 1853) was 
to recommend the discontinuance of the practice 
of students lodgingand boarding on the premises. 
This recommendation was adopted, and since 
that time the Academy only receives day 
students. The Board formed in 1853 was 
disbanded by Lord Westmorland in 1856, but 
after his death in 1859, a new Board was 
formed ; this, however, found itself obliged to 
resign in 1864. Before ito resignation it drew 
up a memorial to Government, praying for an 
annual grant. After a conference with a depu- 
tation of Professors, Mr. Gladstone, then Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer, inserted in the estimates 
for the year a sum of £500 * to defray the charge 
which will oome in course of payment during 
the year ending March 81, 1865, for enabling 
the Directors of the Royal Academy of Music 
to provide accommodation for the Institution.' 
In 1866, upon the change of Administration, 
su^estions were made to tlie Committee on the 
part of the Government, and were renewed 
personally in 1867 by the then Chancellor of 
the Exchequer, in consequence of which the 
Committee was induced to expend the whole of 
its funds, in order to accommodate the institution 
to the designs in which it was invited to 
participate. In 1867, Lord Beaconsfield (then 
Mr. Disraeli), in reply to a question as to the 
grant, announced in the House of Commons 
that ' the Government were of opinion that they 
would not be authorised in recommending any 
enlargement of the grant, the results of the 
institution not being in fact of a satisfactory 
character.' This was followed by the total 
withdrawal of the grant, in order (to quote from 
an official letter addressed to Sir W. Sterndale 
Bennett) * simply to give effect to the opinion 
that it was not so expedient to subsidise a 
central and quasi -independent association, as 
to establish a system of musical instruction 
under the direct control of some Department of 
Government.' In this emergency the Committee 
decided to close the establishment. The funds 

(including the sum devoted to the King's Scholar- 
ships) wei-e totally exhausted. The Professors 
met in 1868 to consider what could be done, 
and generously offered to accept a payment pro 
ratd. It was then, however, announced that the 
Committee had resigned the Charter into the 
hands of the Queen. Upon this the Professors 
obtained a legal ojunion, to the effect that the 
Charter could not be resigned without the 
consent of every member of the Academy. As 
many of the members protested at the time 
against the resignation of the Charter, it was 
returned, and by great exertions on the part of 
the Professors, a new Board of Directors was 
formed under the Presidency of tlie Earl of 
Dudley, who appointed a new Committee of 
Management, in which the professional element 
formed an important ingredient. From the 
time of this change the institution has continued 
to prosper. In 1868, on the return to office of 
the Liberal Ministrj-, Mr. Gladstone restoi-ed 
the annual grant of £600. In 1876 the number 
of pupils had so increased that the lease of the 
house adjoining tlie premises in Tenterden Street 
had to be repurchased out of the savings of the 
institution. This house was joined on to the 
original premises, and a concert-room was formed 
out of part of the two houses, which though 
small has proved a great boon not only to the 
students for their regular concerts, but to many 
concert -givers for whose purposes the more 
extensive rooms of St. James's Hall, Exetei' 
Hall, etc., were too large. [For some time the 
room was not licensed as a public concert room, 
and at the present time it is not available for 
outside performances.] In July 1 880 Mr. William 
Shakespeare was apj)ointed conductor of the 
Students* Concerts, vice Mr. "Walter Macfairen. 
He was succeeded in 1886 by Sir Joseph Harnby, 
but since the election of Sir A. C. Mackenzie the 
Principal has conducted the students* concerts. 
[It la since that appointment of Sir Alexander 
Campbell Mackenzie as Principal in Feb. 1888 
that the real tide of prosperity for the institution 
set in, since which date it has never slackened. 
Tlie neighbouring houses, 11 and 12 Dering 
Street, 6 Tenterden Street, and the upper part of 
3 Tenterden Street have been successively added 
to the premises, and still the accommodation is 
insufficient. The number of students, which 
was 300 in 1876, rose to 500 in 1896, and remains 
at that number, the full cajiacity of the school. 

Tlie following have been the Principals of the. 
Academy from its foundation to the present 
time : ■ Dr. Crotch (1823-32), Cipriani Potter 
(1832-59), Charles Lucas (1859-66), William 
Sterndale Bennett (1866-75), George Alexander 
Macfarren (1875-87), Alexander Campbell 
Mackenzie (1888). 

The Academy is supported by the Government 
grant, subscriptions, donations, and fees from